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Improved techniques designed for evaluation of fungicides in soil for control of dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans
1985 - IRG/WP 2238
Improved techniques provide a laboratory method for the evaluation of chemicals in soil for control of dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. Results with their application to three chemicals were reported. These techniques are useful to eliminate chemicals lacking the necessary toxicity and weatherbility for dry rot control when the chemicals have been applied to the soil.
M Takahashi, K Nishimoto


Fungicidal combination products
1987 - IRG/WP 3426
Due to the increased pressure on some of the established fungicides used in wood preservation, possible alternative products become more interesting. The requirements for new chemicals are mainly lower toxicity and greater environmental acceptability. However the efficacy to target organisms should be as good as that of the currently used ones, preferably better. A possibility for progress in this direction could be fungicidal combination products showing broader spectrum of efficacy and synergistic effects. Mixtures of tributyltin compounds with Furmecyclox and K-HDO respectively are tested for this purpose. Toxic values with and without artificial ageing (wind-tunnel exposure and leaching) were determined. Investigations have been made with coating-formulations in order to test penetration, evaporation and the influence of UV-radiation. Aqueous formulations were tested for special purposes such as the treatment of freshly cut timber and the protection of brickwork. The results obtained are very promising, especially regarding long term durability. Further investigations mainly with the aqueous formulations including other test fungi and field trials are necessary to confirm the suggested application as wood preservatives.
H A B Landsiedel


Proposed standard laboratory method for testing fungicides for controlling sapstain and mould on unseasoned lumber
1977 - IRG/WP 292
This laboratory method is for determining the effective concentration, or concentration for zero growth (CGo), for fungicides or preparations of fungicides which are potentially useful in protecting packaged or unseasoned lumber in storage and shipment from biodeterioration by sapstain fungi and moulds. The test is rapid and may be completed in three weeks and gives a good indication of the toxicity of a chemical against sapstain fungi and moulds.
A J Cserjesi


A laboratory method for assessing the effectiveness of fungicides in preventing the spread of decay fungi within packages of unseasoned lumber
1983 - IRG/WP 2202
To study the deterioration caused by decay fungi in the laboratory, a method for testing fungicides for their effectiveness in preventing spread of decay was devised. Some experiments using this method are reported here.
A J Cserjesi, E L Johnson, A Byrne


Moulds and indoor climate in Denmark
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10488
Just like in many other countries after the oil crisis in 1972 Danish houses were tightened with the result that the relative air humidity rose considerably. The Ministry of Energy also demanded a lowering of the indoor temperature from 25°C to 20°C with the result that the relative air humidity rose even more. According to the latest survey 10% of Danish buildings are infected with moulds. Moulds occur in the indoor environment e.g. when humid air condensates on cold outer walls or in connection with water damage which is insufficiently dried out. In our analyses we always try to determine moulds both to genus and species. During our surveys in August 2001 and February 2002 we found 50 different species of moulds in Danish houses. The species Penicillium chrysogenum was dominating in both spring and autumn. Aspergillus versicolor was also present in spring and autumn but in smaller numbers. Cladosporium herbarum was most common during autumn. Stachybotrys chartarum was rather rare, maybe because it is closely connected to gypsum boards. It is very important to identify the moulds to species which is shown by the following case study. In a house where the sewer had been punctured in connection with establishment of district heating, 150 cubic metres of water had poured into the crawl space. We were called in by the occupant because she felt ill and there was a strong mouldy smell. We immediately asked her to move, with the result that her health improved almost instantly. She was so sensible that even the delivery of mail in her mailbox made her ill. A blood-test showed that she was sensitised to Trichoderma viride and Penicillium chrysogenum. The latter was found in large amounts in her house. We know that it is now possible to repair the house so that non-sensitised persons will be able to live there, but not the former occupant who will react to even small traces of allergen which are still there. After the repair we have different methods of quality control. It is now evident that some remedies and methods will kill the spores others the mycelium and yet others both. Some methods have a lasting effect, others do not. Our methods of quality control are either contact-samples with Petri dishes where mould colonies are counted and identified to species or a test for ATP or the Mycometer-test where the enzyme β-N-acetylhexosaminidase specific to fungi is measured. The Petri dish method measures the number of living spores, while the two other methods measure the amount of mycelium. However it seems that ATP in the mycelium is broken down faster than the enzyme measured by the Mycometer-test. Therefore it becomes difficult to decide whether the mycelium is living, partly dead or completely dead, when the repair work is going to be approved.
J Bech-Andersen, S A Elborne


Blue stain in timber in service. Results of co-operative tests to compare different artificial weathering systems 1981-82
1983 - IRG/WP 2193
The paper describes results of the third phase of co-operative laboratory experiments comparing the effects of different artificial weathering systems on chemicals to control blue-stain in service. Atlas, Xenotest and Marr equipments are shown to give essentially the same results for 5 of the 6 chemicals tested.
A F Bravery, D J Dickinson


Analysis of organotin fungicides in wood preservative solutions and double-vacuum treated wood
1983 - IRG/WP 3250
A new analytical method using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), for the assay of organotin compounds in preservative-treated wood, is presented. The organotin compounds are extracted from the ground wood sample with a mixture of hydrochloric acid and ethanol. After HPTLC-separation, exposure of the thin-layer plate to ultraviolet light, and dipping of the plate into a 0.1% pyrocatechol-violet solution, the different organotin compounds are quantitated using a scanning densitometer.
W Hintze, S V Ohlsson


Metal carboxylates for wood pest control
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30109
Metal carboxylates have been used as wood preservatives for more than fifty years. Predominantly salts of naphtenic acids have been commercially applied so far. They have water repellent as well as fungicidal and insecticidal properties. In the last years, metal carboxylates of saturated fatty acids were introduced. Fatty acids with 7-10 carbon atoms already have fungicidal activity by themselves. However, their efficacy is markedly increased in a complex with metal ion such as copper and zinc. This carboxylates are environment friendly and low toxic for humans. We studied fungicidal, insecticidal and termiticidal effectiveness of copper and zinc carboxylates by European standard methods. The strongest fungicidal and insecticidal activity showed copper and zinc naphtenates and copper octanoate. The metal octanoates are soluble in white spirit and, moreover in aqueous ammonia solutions. One day after treatment, the leaching of some carboxylates from wood was very low. These carboxylates did not increase the flammability of treated wood.
F Pohleven, M Petric


Resistance of painted pine sapwood to mould fungi. Part 1. The effect of waterborne paints and fungicides on mould growth
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10233
The efficacy of different fungicides in acrylate and alkyd paints to protect pine sapwood against mould fungi was studied. The acrylate and alkyd paint systems with and without a preservative dipping treatment prior to painting were also used. Differences in the efficacy of the fungicides to protect the paint film were found. The paint films with isothiazolon and IBPC were resistant against mould fungi but the paint films with propiconazole were susceptible to mould. The mixture of propiconazole and IPBC or propiconazole and isothiazolon performed well even at a low concentration. The dipping treatment alone and some fungicides in the paint films supported even higher mould growth than was observed on untreated wood. The most effective combinations were free from mould growth after 26 weeks at RH 100%. In future, the effect of 26 weeks' natural weathering on mould growth will be assessed and the results of the mould test and natural weathering will be compared. The study is a part of a project CT94-2463 in the AIR programme of DG XII.
H Viitanen, P Ahola


A bibliography of organic solvent-based wood preservatives
1973 - IRG/WP 322
H Alliot


Physiologic response of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to exposure to triazole fungicides
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10066
Triazoles are increasingly important fungicides which are employed for a variety of applications included wood protection. Several recent studies suggest that white rot fungi are more tolerant of triazole compounds than other wood degrading fungi. Cultural studies using a white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and 0.2 or 0.8 ppm of tebuconazole or propiconazole suggested that mycelial dry weight was most affected by the presence of triazoles. Extracellular carboxymethylcellulase, cellobiosidase and phenol oxidase activities were depressed but not inhibited by triazoles, while ß-glucosidase activity appeared to be slimulated by the presence of these biocides. The results suggest that white rot fungi may be less sensitive to triazoles and this diminished sensitivity may permit these fungi to become more important on wood treated with this biocide.
J J Morrell, R K Velicheti


A bibliography of organic solvent-based wood preservatives
1973 - IRG/WP 313 E
H Alliot


Tolylfluanid - fungicide against blue stain in service
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3736
Physical and chemical properties and efficacy of Tolylfluanid are compared with the properties of Dichlofluanid. Whereas the difference in the molecular structure influences the physical properties significantly, the efficacy of both fungicides is comparable. The toxicological and ecotoxicological profile of Tolylfluanid is summarised.
H-U Buschhaus


Encapsulated Active Ingredients for Wood Preservation
2017 - IRG/WP 17-30717
Encapsulated organic fungicides and termiticides have been examined for use as wood preservatives in vacuum pressure treatment of wood. Encapsulation of active ingredients was found to improve wood penetration behaviour and reduces leaching as well as biodegradation of the active ingredients compared to industrial standard formulations.
E Oenem-Siakou, R Möller, R Craciun, J Wittenzellner, J Habicht


Decrease of the antidecay resistance of beech wood treated with organotin fungicides after its natural ageing
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30185
The antidecay resistance of beech-wood samples (120 x 8.5 x 8.5 (MM)) treated with tributyltin fungicides gradually decreased due to prolongation of their natural ageing: tributyltin fungicides (TBTO, TBTS, TBTCA, TBT-DEDTK were applied by pressure impregnation technique in ethanole solutions (c = 0. 1%, 0.33% or 1%); treated beech-wood samples were naturally aged without their contact with ground (from 0 to 4 months); the antidecay resistance of treated and aged beech samples was tested against the brown-rot fungus Serpula lacrymans and white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor, and then evaluated on the basis of their weight losses (DmF) and their relative impact bending strength decreases (DAF(rel)). The statistical evaluations indicated that: toxic values [kg/m3] of tributyltin fungicides have been significantly increased due to natural ageing processes; tributyltin fungicides were more effective against the brown-rot fungus Serpula lacrymans; both criteria DmF and DAF(rel) have been, on the whole, comparable when assessing the early stages of rot in the unsatisfactorily treated beech samples, although decreases of DAF(rel) were several-times higher than of DmF; however, for the higher stages of decay (DmF > 8%) just the AmF criterion could more sensitively express the further increasing differences in rot.
L Reinprecht


Some data on the activity of alternative fungicides for wood preservation
1985 - IRG/WP 3333
Data from laboratory tests against basidiomycete fungi are presented for 9 alternative fungicides in organic solvent formulations and also in water for one product. Results are compared with data for reference preservatives, tributyltin oxide, copper and zinc naphthenates and pentachlorophenol. Of special interest is the apparently better than additive effect of mixing tributyltin naphthenate and Xyligen B, and the promising performance of Armoblen 480, a novel organic solvent formulation of n-alkyl coco-derived quaternary ammonium compounds.
A F Bravery, J K Carey


Further thoughts on standard principles of testing termiticides and/or wood preservatives
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1530
At the last annual meeting in Kyoto, Japan, there was a special session devoted to the standard principles of testing termiticides. There was definitely a perceived need by researchers and industry for some guidelines that spell out basic procedures required for any methodology in testing termiticidal formulations anywhere in the world. In the testing of new potential active ingredients, consideration for the field of application (or end-use) must be uppermost. However, in the testing of these potential termiticides, laboratory and field bioassays may also indicate their potential as wood preservatives. This paper describes the protocols carried out in our Division to evaluate the potential of both termiticides and/or wood preservatives. It is hoped that this will stimulate more discussion within the group and that we may be able to refine standard principles of testing that have merit when making global comparisons in the near future.
J R J French


Effect of mobile fungicides on fungal pre-infection in radiata pine billets.
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30191
In New Zealand, fungal infection of logs begins directly after felling and whilst severe degrade can be prevented if antisapstain-treated within 24 hours, such short turn-around times of logs are not always practicable. However, conventional antisapstain formulations in use only provide an envelope of protection on the log surface but are unable to control pre-infections below the surface. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of mobile fungicides to arrest pre-infections by sapstain fungi. Radiata pine billets (~ 200x50 mm) were inoculated with isolates of Ophiostoma piliferum and Sphaeropsis sapinea and incubated for 0, 3, 7, and 10 days respectively before antisapstain treatment with mobile fungicides. Two trials were under taken: the first testing three experimental formulations with i) methylene bis thiocyanate (MBT) ii) alkanolamine borate and iii) sodium fluoride and for the second trial, a commercial product, called Sentry™ . At each treatment time, depth of pre-infection was assessed by plating out 5 mm increment cores removed from billets. After 40 days incubation, increment cores were again taken from billets to determine whether the fungicides tested had arrested sapstain pre-infection. The first trial showed the MBT formulation to have superior potential in arresting growth of O. piliferum and S. sapinea with very little growth even after 10 days pre-infection. In the second trial, Sentry™ controlled pre-infections of both sapstain fungi up to 25mm depth.
D R Eden, T Singh, B Kreber


The compatability of tributyltin fungicides and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides as wood preservatives
1987 - IRG/WP 3414
The stability of three synthetic pyrethroids, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin, to selected tributyltin compounds, Bu3SnX {where X = OSnBu3, Cl, 02CC6H5, O2C (Naphthenyl), OSO2Et}, (Bu3SnO)3PO and {NBu4} {Bu3SnCl2}, in toluene solution was investigated by infra-red spectroscopy over a six month period. It was found that only (Bu3Sn)2O reacted with the pyrethroids and that their order of reactivity was cypermethrin > deltamethrin > permethrin. An attempt was made to elucidate the reaction mechanism(s) occurring between (Bu3Sn)2O and the pyrethroids by studying mixtures of this tributyltin fungicide with simple model compounds, R1CO2R2 where R1 = CH3; R2 = CH2C6H5 and R1 = cyclo - C3H5 and R2 = CH2C6H5.
S J Blunden, R Hill


Resistance of painted wood to mould fungi. Part 3. The effect of weathering, wood substrate and fungicides on mould growth
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10284
The effect of 6 month outdoor weathering on the resistance of acrylate paint systems on different types of pine and spruce sapwood to mould fungi was studied. Dipping into the preservative prior to painting, a primer with and without a fungicide (propiconazole + IPBC 0.50 + 0.2%) and a topcoat with and without a fungicide (propiconazole + IPBC 0.25 + 0.12%) were combinations of the treatments studied. Weathering decreased ability of the fungicides to protect the paint films. The kiln-dried yellow nutrient rich surfaces of the pine and spruce sapwood were more susceptible to growth of bluestain and mould fungi than the spruce surface sawn 10 mm below the original kiln-dried surface. The most effective treatment combinations on the resawn spruce material were able to give a sufficient protection against bluestain and mould after outdoor weathering and subsequent 23 weeks incubation at RH 100%. However, the effect was markedly lower on the kiln-dried surfaces of pine and spruce sapwood. On the samples without the fungicide, decay was also found. The study is a part of a project CT94-2463 in the AIR programme of DG XII.
H Viitanen, P Ahola


The residual effects of remedial timber treatments on bats
1986 - IRG/WP 1281
By means of controlled laboratory experiments it was established that timber treatment fluids containing g-HCH and pentachlorophenol (PCP) and used according to manufacturers recommendations rapidly cause the death of pipistrelle bats roosting in contact with timber treated between six weeks and 14 months previously. The chemicals responsible are presumably ingested when the bats groom their fur after they have been in contact with the treated timber. Bats prevented from establishing such bodily contact took longer to die indicating that absorption of the vapour phase of the tested chemicals also takes place across the skin or respiratory epithelium. Acrylic resin reduces the lethal effect when used as a sealant over wood treated with g-HCH and PCP, but polyurethane varnish does not. It has also been established that no obvious harm is caused to bats roosting for 16 to 22 weeks in contact with timber treated with the synthetic pyrethroids permethrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin at concentrations which have previously proved effective for the control of woodboring beetles. Similarly, no obvious harm is caused to bats roosting for 14 weeks in contact with timber treated with the fungicides borester-7 and zinc octoate. However, greater mortality was recorded in bats housed in cages treated with the fungicide tributyltin oxide than in control groups. It is clear from these results that synthetic pyrethroids should replace g-HCH for the treatment of wood-boring beetles in bat roosts. A high priority should be accorded to replacing PCP with a fungicide which is not toxic to bats.
P A Racey, S M Swift


Screening results of fungicides for sapstain control on Pinus radiata
1983 - IRG/WP 3236
Thirty-two compounds were tested to determine their ability to contain the growth of stain, mould and rot organisms on fresh Pinus radiata D Don. A screening technique was employed using 35 to 50 mm diameter biscuits of Pinus radiata stemwood 10 mm thick. No compound was found to be cost effective when compared against the standard treatments of NaPCP (0.5% a.i.) plus borax (1.5%) and Captafol (0.2% a.i.). The best compound identified was a guanadine compound Guazatine which at 0.2% a.i. was slightly better than the standard treatments employed in New Zealand. From these results and previous published work it would appear that mixtures offer more hope of a low hazard, cost effective treatment to replace the presently used industrial standard.
P J Hayward, J Duff, W Rae


Evaluation of chlorpyrifos and fungicides alone and in combination for control of insects and fungi in wood and wood composites
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30187
Wood composites are rapidly being adapted for use in exterior applications. The incorporation of a preservative system to prevent fungus and insect attack is necessary with most exterior composites. Research studies were reviewed pertaining to organic preservative systems based on Lentrek* insecticide wood treatment which contains the active ingredient chlorpyrifos alone and in combination with tebuconazole and propiconazole (fungicides) for use as a combination treatment preservative system for solid wood and wood composites. Effective retentions for chlorpyrifos for protection of wood from termite and beetle attack was determined to be 0.2 kg/m3 set by the high retentions needed for field control of Coptotermes formosanus. In addition, this retention also provides effective control of the termites; Coptotermes lacteus, Reticulitermes flavipes, and Nasutitermes exitiosus, and the Lyctiid powderpost beetle, Lyctus brunneus. Retentions needed for control of Gloeophyllum trabeum (brown rot) and Trametes versicolor (white rot) were determined to be 0.11 kg/m3 and 0.06 kg/m3 for tebuconazole and propiconazole, respectively. Discussions with the manufacturers of tebuconazole and propiconazole indicated that the two fungicides work best together when in a 1:1 ratio. Given the need for the 1:1 ratio then, retentions needed for the tebuconazole and the propiconazole for treatment of wood composites are therefore 0.1 and 0.1 kg/m3, respectively, using tebuconazole as the benchmark. Tebuconazole and propiconazole retentions of 0.08 and 0.08 kg/m3, respectively, afforded moderate stain and mold protection of treated wood with a 64% reduction in stain and mold coverage by 3 weeks; thereafter, protection diminishes with time to a 40% reduction in coverage by 8 weeks. Overall, the retentions needed for a mixture of tebuconazole/propiconazole/chlorpyrifos (T/P/C) for use in wood composites are 0.1/0.1/0.2 kg/m3, respectively, to protect the wood from attack by insects and decay fungi while at the same time providing some moderate reduction of stain/mold coverage. Also, in order to compensate for the anticipated long term degradation of the two fungicides under field conditions, the fungicide retentions were increased by 50% thereby resulting in final recommended retentions for use of T/P/C in wood composites as 0.15/0.15/0.2 kg/m3, respectively.
M P Tolley, P E Laks, R Fears


Suitability of cyfluthrin in wood protection
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3735
Cyfluthrin, a well-known and in agriculture and household widely used insecticide based on synthetic pyrethroides, is evaluated now concerning its suitability as insecticide in wood protection. An overview about the physical and chemical properties is given. Test results in accordance with European standards show the high efficacy and broad-spectrum activity of Cyfluthrin against wood rotting insects and termites. Important toxicological and ecotoxicological properties are summarised and a list of compatible, typical fungicides is given.
H-U Buschhaus


Mixtures of fungicides screened for the control of sapstain on Pinus radiata
1984 - IRG/WP 3307
Fourty nine mixtures of fungicides were evaluated in a rapid laboratory screen for the control of stain, mould and decay fungi on Pinus radiata (D.Don). The most effective mixture was thiophanate methyl plus chlorothalonil closely followed by the mixtures of thiophanate methyl plus benzisothiazolone and thiophanate methyl plus dithio-bis (benzmethylamide). Benzalkonium chloride, thiram and ziram, when mixed with other fungicides were not effective in controlling stain, mould and decay fungi.
P J Hayward, W Rae, J Duff


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