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Report on biological control of decay in poles
1977 - IRG/WP 149
The following its a brief report on a preliminary experiment carried out for the United Kingdoms Midland Electricity Board during 1974-1975 to establish, under laboratory conditions, the potential controlling value of some non-decay fungi against Lentinus lepideus. Lentinus lepideus has been confirmed to be the commonest Basidiomycete causing decay in poles in the Boards area.
T A Oxley


Susceptibility of Lentinus lepideus (Fr.:Fr.) Fr. to volatiles produced by Trichoderma spp
1987 - IRG/WP 1316
A range of Trichoderma species and strains were tested for their ability to produce fungistatic volatiles. Volatiles from all isolates produced fungistatic effects on Lentinus lepideus however wide interspecies and interstrain variability in the level of response was evident. Cross plating studies between the Trichoderma isolates and Lentinus lepideus showed that Lentinus lepideus was overgrown and lysed by its Trichoderma competitor in all cases. The results indicate that the rate of overgrowth of Lentinus lepideus was directly related to the levels of volatiles produced by each of the Trichoderma isolates. The implications of the results on the use of Trichoderma species as biological control agents is briefly discussed.
A Bruce, C Johnstone, J A P McVey


Evaluación de oxinato cúprico como alternativa al tribromofenato de sodio, para uso como funguicida antimancha. Ensayo final y conclusiones
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30481
This study evaluated the efficacy of oxine-copper (Cas Nº 10380-28-6. Synonyms: copper oxyquinolate, cupric-8-hydroxyquinolate, copper-8-quinolinolate) for the control of stain fungi in lumber. Three field tests were established and sodium tribromophenate was used as a reference preservative. Boards of Pinus elliotis and P. taeda were treated by dipping for 15, 30 or 60 seconds in two different formulations both containing 5% of active ingredient. The first field test was set up in “El Dorado” (Province of Misiones, northeast Argentina). This is an important commercial forest area in which climate conditions are very favorable for stain fungi development. Both formulations provided protection but one was more effective. However, after dipping the test site experienced unusually heavy rainfall which could have influenced the results. Consequently, two additional field tests were undertaken based on the results of the first trial. The new trials were located in “Santa Rosa de Calamuchita” (Province of Cordoba) and in “Panambí” (Province of Misiones). Oxine-copper provided protection under the conditions of the three locations tested. Este documento muestra resultados de tres ensayos de campo realizados para evaluar la eficacia, como funguicida antimancha para maderas aserradas, del principio activo oxinato cúprico ( Cas Nº 10380-28-6 , acepciones: oxiquinolato de cobre, cobre 8 hidroxiquinolato, quinolinolato de cobre 8 ). Oxinato cúprico El estudio se realizó tomando tribromofenato de sodio como patrón y evaluando los resultados en condiciones identicas de ensayo . Tribromofenato de sodio El 1º test se realizó en la localidad de “Eldorado”, provincia de Misiones, en el extremo noreste de nuestro país. Esta zona es de extraordinaria importancia forestral en Argentina, y además presenta las condiciones climáticas más favorables para el desarollo de hongos de coloración. El 2º y el 3º test se realizaron basados en las conclusiones del 1º, en las localidades de “Santa Rosa de Calamuchita” (provincia de Cordoba) y en la localidad de “Panambí” (provincia de Misiones). El oxinato cúprico se utiliza en distintos tipos de formulaciones en Australia, Nueva Zelanda, USA, España, Brasil, Chile, etc, y teniendo en cuenta estos antecedentes se decidió evaluarlo como alternativa en nuestro país. El 1º ensayo mostró resultados alentadores para decidir su empleo, sin perjuicio de continuar las evaluaciones. Las pruebas concluyeron con el 2º y 3º ensayo, los cuales mostraron la efectividad del principio activo estudiado.
M Alba Valle


Wood protectors sensitivity of Fusarium circinatum, a quarantine organism in Europe
2011 - IRG/WP 11-10755
In the last decade, two new organisms with a high potential damage in Conifer forests have been detected in Europe. They are the nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and the fungus Gibberella circinata (anamorf: Fusarium circinatum), and have driven the European Union to protect the stands from propagation and dispersion of these new pathogens. The nematode was detected first in Setubal (Portugal) in 1999 and eradication measures were taken there. However, they were unsuccessful decreasing the infection level, so new regulations were announced (2006/133/CE, Comission on 13 february 2006). Even then, dispersion was not prevented, and Bursaphelenchus xylophilus has been detected with wood material through commercial trade. B. xylophilus is a quarantine organism and so it is Fusarium circinatum. This fungus was found in Spain in 2004 and it is a potential destructive pathogen, especially in nurseries and plantations. By other hand, timber is a material with a free market in Europe, and although it is treated with specific products against wood decay organisms, the industrial sector is worried about if the adopting measures treating the wood by thermal treatment following NIMF 15, is enough and if the wood preservatives are effective against these organisms. That’s why in Spain several organizations are developing projects to evaluate the effectiveness of the fungicide and insecticide wood preservatives used actually for the temporary and permanently protection of timber, in order to see if this kind of products has a biocide effect against these quarantine organisms. Particularly, the objective of this work has been to assess the efficacy of the wood preservatives against Fusarium circinatum, whereas is being studying the same against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, whose results will be present in the next future.
Y Serrano, S Cobacho, A Navas, M Conde, R Raposo, M T Troya


Wood decay enzymatic ability of Fusarium circinatum
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10777
There exists pathogens that attack standing trees of forests, and do not usually thrive once the tree is felled. However, occasionally they can be present in a latent state in the wood and can spread and affect new areas with economic, ecological and social consequences. Fusarium circinatum is a fungus that causes “pitch canker” in pine species, and is considered a quarantine organism within the European Union. Some studies have reported that this fungus can survive in wood wastes, however no studies to show what kind of substrates, and if the affected wood losses its physico-mechanical properties. In this paper has been studied the possible degradative capacity of Fusarium circinatum on Pinus radiata. Two tests were carried out, one to determine weight loss of wood with varying degrees of nutritional richness, and another to determine the lignocellulolytic activities of two isolates of Fusarium circinatum. The results showed that both presented hemicellulolytic and cellulolytic activities, but not ligninolytic. This degradative ability could affect the quality of felled wood and consequently adversely affect the industrial sector.
M T Troya, F Llinares, Y Serrano, M Conde


Product efficacy against Fusarium circinatum, a quarantine organism in Europe
2013 - IRG/WP 13-10807
Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg et O'Donnell (telemorph: Gibberella circinata Nirenberg et O'Donnell) is a quarantine organism in Europe producing the disease known as pitch canker of pines. For a decade, the European Union has taken steps to locate and eradicate the pathogen with the aim of eliminating the risk of spread. So far, research has focused on forest stands, however, the movement of felled timber may pose a threat from its cutting at sawmills until its transformation at its final destination. This paper presents the current research progress in this line, evaluating the efficacy against Spanish isolates of F. circinatum of the most frequently anti blue-stain fungi products in green wood of four of pine species (Pinus sylvestris, P. pinaster, P. radiata and P. nigra). The results show that the only product which contains a high percentage of propiconazole, together with tebuconazole and 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate (IPBC) is effective. This fact should be taken into account in the wood protection industry, as it would be the best preventive measure to ensure the control of this organism, preventing the implementation of ISPM 15 which is currently applied but does not guarantee its elimination.
M T Troya, R Raposo, F Llinares, M Conde


Study of the effectiveness of wood products for permanent protection against Fusarium circinatum
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30655
In Europe there exist a number of quarantine organisms that affect conifer forests, including Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg et O'Donnell (telemorph: Gibberella circinata Nirenberg et O'Donnell), a quarantine organism in Europe producing the disease known as pitch canker of pines. For a decade, the European Union has taken steps to locate and eradicate the pathogen with the aim of eliminating the risk of spread. So far research has focused on forest stands, however, the movement of felled timber may pose a threat from its cutting at sawmills until its transformation at its final destination. Much research is being carried out on the efficacy of fungicidal wood preservatives against this organism. This paper presents the current research progress in this line, evaluating the efficacy of the most frequently used commercial products against wood decay fungi, in dry wood of four of pine species (Pinus sylvestris, P. pinaster, P. radiata and P. nigra). The results show that products 1, 2, 7, 9 and 11 are effective in protecting dry wood from F. circinatum in the four pine species tested. This fact should be taken into account in the wood protection industry, as it would be the best preventive measure to ensure the control of this organism.
M T Troya, M Conde, R Raposo, F Llinares, M Elvira-Recuenco