Your search resulted in 47 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
The effects of preservative treatment and exposure to wood degrading fungi on fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) materials used for structural wood reinforcement
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40204
Glass fiber reinforced phenolic (GFRP) composite materials are becoming increasingly accepted for use in the construction industry because they combine advantages of both wood and advanced polymeric materials. Addition of only 1-3% FRP in the tension zone, for example, can typically improve the strength of the hybrid system by 200%. As more applications are found for wood/FRP hybrids, (e.g. lamina...
C Tascioglu, B Goodell
The effect of oil-borne preservative treatments on the shear strength of FRP/wood composite adhesive bonds
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40265
Reinforcement of structural wood components with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) will enhance the beam’s strength, but actual data on long-term durability is sparse, not well documented or not readily accessible. In this study, bond properties of FRP-wood composite materials were investigated following treatment with creosote or copper naphthenate preservatives. The properties investigated inclu...
B Herzog, B Goodell, R Lopez-Anido
Effectiveness and synergistic effects between copper and polymer betaine
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30097
Different formulations of "Copper Amine" and Polymer Betaine were studied. During laboratory tests a synergism between both active ingredients against soft rot and dry rot has been found. The efficacy against soft rot according to the "BAM method" and the European Standard ENV 807 depends only on the amount of copper. Long term tests in a fungus cellar for determining the relative protective effec...
H Härtner, V Barth
Life cycle analysis of utility poles. A Swiss case study
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-05
Use of preservative-treated wood products faces increasing public and political pressure because of environmental concerns regarding the chemicals used to protect the wood. However, critics usually focus only on one single aspect of the whole life cycle of treated wood products, disregarding other environmental effects of timber utilization. To evaluate the ecological consequences of wooden utilit...
T Künniger, K Richter
The Relationship of Fiber Cell Wall Ultrastructure to Soft Rot Decay in Kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) Heartwoo
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10541
The ultrastructure of fiber walls in kempas (koompassia malaccensis) heartwood was examined in relation to soft rot cavity formation. The fibers consisted of middle lamella and thick secondary wall. The secondary wall was differentiated in to a S1 layer, and a unique multi-lamellar S2 layer. Two distinct forms of lamellae were recognisable, one type being considerably thicker than the other. They ...
A P Singh, A H H Wong, Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi
1987 - IRG/WP 3431
Decay problems of spruce joinery in the Netherlands in the 1960's and 1970's led to the introduction of preservative treatment. Because of the known penetration difficulties with Spruce, the results of the treatments were not always successful. The fact that the decay was found only in the joints led to development of the philosophy of "local preservation" of the joints in remedi...
J W P T Van der Drift, K J M Bonsen
End grain sealants for wood preservation studies
1985 - IRG/WP 3341
The results of tests with possible end grain sealants for wood preservation studies are reported. The epoxy resins used gave satisfactory performance on wet or dry Sitka spruce and have been used with success for diffusion treatment studies....
R J Murphy, N A Summers
Termite Response to Agricultural Fiber Composites: Hemp
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10548
Industrial hemp, Cannabis sativa, is a fiber usable in manufacture of nutritional products, rope, textiles, paper and building products. Due to the illicit recreational uses of Cannabis sativa varieties with high tetrahydrocannabinol content (marijuana), hemp is not grown commercially in the United States. However, it is grown in many other nations, and has been proposed as a replacement for sugar...
J K Grace
Biosynthesis of ß-Glucan microfibrils by cellular fractions from brown-rot fungus Postia placenta (MAD-698 and ME-20) and white-rot fungus Schizophyllum commune (MAD-619)
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10025
In this study, we compared the brown rot fungus Postia placenta (MAD-698 and ME-20) with the white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune (MAD-619) to determine the location and distribution of glucan synthetase. We also measured the soluble protein content in subcellular fractions obtained by differential centrifugation MAD-698 is a degradative isolate, but ME-20 and MAD-619 do not produce significant ...
S C Croan, T L Highley
Termite response to Agricultural Fiber Composites: Bagasse
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10549
Bagasse, or sugarcane rind, is a fibrous by-product of sugar extraction from sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum L. Bagasse fiber performs similarly to hardwood fiber in composite board products. In laboratory studies, Formosan subterranean termites survived as well on a diet of Bagasse as on Douglas-fir wood. Field tests with a compressed Bagasse panel (produced by heat extrusion) indicated that ter...
J K Grace
Low polymer levels containing bioactive monomer polymerized in situ provide resistance to Gloeophyllum trabeum
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30066
Wood preservation based on in situ polymerization of potentially bioactive monomers has been studied. Tributyltin oxide acrylate (TBTOA) and pentachlorophenol acrylate (PCPA) were synthesized. Wood samples were treated at 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight solutions with varying amounts of crosslinker (trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, TMPTM) and polymerized in situ in wood samples (2.54 x 2.54 x 0....
R E Ibach, R M Rowell
Physical and mechanical properties of wood-polymer composites prepared from alder wood (Alnus glutinosa (l.) gaertn. subsp. barbata (c.a.mey.) yalt)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40201
In this study, the physical mechanical properties of wood-polymer composites prepared from alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. subsp. barbata (C.A.Mey.) Yalt) wood were investigated. Three different monomers styrene, methyl methacrylate and styrene/methyl methacrylate (70/30) mixtures and two loading levels were used in preparation of wood-polymer composites. Of physical properties, the oven-dry s...
A Temiz, Ü C Yildiz, E D Gezer
On the resistance of consolidated ancient wood against Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen: Fr.) Schroeter
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10348
Structural timbers and other wood objects of cultural value in historical buildings and museums are often attacked by wood-destroying fungi. The aim of conservators is to preserve such damaged timbers and prevent further biodeterioration by impregnation with consolidants. There is little knowledge of the resistance of consolidated timber and art objects to a new attack by wood-destroying fungi. Br...
W Unger, A Unger, U Schiessl
The Effect on Biological and Moisture Resistance of Epichlorohydrin Chemically Modified Wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40224
Southern pine solid wood and fiber were chemically modified with epichlorohydrin to help in understanding the role of moisture in the mechanism of biological effectiveness of chemically modified wood. The solid wood had weight gains from 11% to 34%, while the fiber had weight gains from 9% to 75%. After modification, part of the specimens were water leached for 2 weeks or extracted for 2 hours ...
R E Ibach, B-G Lee
The efficacy of polymer/preservative treatments in soil-bed exposure
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3729
Southern pine was treated with CCA, CCB, sodium borax/boric acid, or disodiumoctaborate, alone or in combination with an acrylic polymer system containing a water repellent. Treated samples were subjected to an unsterile soil burial test. The addition of polymer reduced the weight loss in borontreated samples at the lower retentions but not at the higher retention. Results with borates indicate th...
R J Murphy, H M Barnes, S M Gray
New principles for the protection of wood: Impregnation with waterborne resins
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40047
The environmental impact of classical wood preservatives as well as the use of tropical wood species with high natural durability is regarded increasingly critically in the public. Therefore other partially new principles for the protection of wood, like chemical modification, or treatment with resins were examined especially in USA, Japan and in Europe with promising results predominantly in the ...
A O Rapp, R-D Peek
Effect of aqueous polymer treatments on wood properties. Part 2: Mechanical properties
1990 - IRG/WP 3611
Partially air-dried sapwood of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and southern pine (Pinus spp.) was treated with either aqueous polyacrylate or aqueous dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU) solutions. Tests for static bending, toughness, and hardness were conducted on matched treated and untreated pieces according to ASTM Standards. Properties of pine were not affected by treatment with the po...
Z Ashaari, H M Barnes, D E Lyon, R C Vasishth, D D Nicholas
The durability of wood polymer composites against fungi and insects
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40161
New materials such as wood polymer composites are used more in France. These materials are obtained by mixing wood and thermoplastics in different ratios. These kind of material must be considered as new materials and some characteristics such as durability must be evaluated for outdoor applications. On the other hand, some recycled fibers from wood waste could be used as raw materials. Some woodp...
G Labat, I Le Bayon, J Gerard, F Amin
End grain sealing by polymer impregnation
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3708
The solution and dispersion characteristics of several hydrophobic derivatives of cellulose have been studied and the abilities of these polymers to afford effective end grain sealing of Corsican pine have been examined. Both solution and dispersion treatments with ethyl cellulose imparted good water repellency and end grain sealing to wood samples, however, the disperse systems possessed lower vi...
J M Lawther, W B Banks, D G Anderson, J A Cornfield
Three-year field trials of polymeric formulations which provide a new basis for the invention and design of non-toxic wide-spectrum wood preservatives
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40029
Three types of non-toxic polymeric formulations invented using a new approach to wood preservation were challenged with termites and fungi in three-year ground-contact field trials in the sub-tropical climate of Natal. These formulations were copper soaps of carboxylic acid groups of unsaturated fatty acids of waxes and edible vegetable oils; of resin acids of rosin, and, of synthetic unsaturated ...
A A W Baecker, A Pizzi
Effect of aqueous polymer treatments on wood properties. Part 1: Treatability and dimensional stability
1990 - IRG/WP 3610
Partially air-dried sapwood of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and southern pine (Pinus spp.) was treated with either aqueous polyacrylate or aqueous dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU) solutions. Tests for dimensional stability were conducted on matched treated and untreated pieces. Measurement of the antishrink efficiency indicated that DMDHEU was a better stabilizer than the polyacrylat...
Z Ashaari, H M Barnes, R C Vasishth, D D Nicholas, D E Lyon
A new process for in situ polymerization of vinyl monomers in wood to delay boron leaching
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40110
Efforts were accelerated on effective use of boron compounds in wood preservation owing to their environmentally safe characteristics and relatively low costs in addition to their well-known high bioactivity and fire resistant properties. Although having these unique favorable properties, they are readily leachable from treated wood at humid conditions. Therefore, they had limited market for exter...
M K Yalinkilic, W Dwianto, Y Imamura, M Takahashi
The role of oxalic acid in short fiber formation by the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10028
The mechanism by which brown-rot fungi depolymerize wood and cellulose remains a perplexing problem. Current evidence favors oxidation by low-molecular weight, non-enzymatic fungal metabolites. During attack of cotton cellulose by Postia placenta MAD-698, the degree of polymerization (DP) decreases to limit of degree of polymerization (LODP) over a period of 5-6 weeks with relatively low weight lo...
F Green III, J M Hackney, C A Clausen, M J Larsen, T L Highley
Micromorphological Characteristics of Degradation in Bamboo Attacked by White Rot Fungus Lentinus edodes
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10575
In comparison with micromorphological works for wood decay, little known is about the decay pattern of bamboos by wood decay fungi. The present work was undertaken to understand the general degradation pattern of bamboo and the influence of polylaminate layers in bamboo fiber walls on the restriction of fungal decay. The weight loss of bamboo species Phyllostachys puberscens against the white rot ...
Chang Hyun Cho, Kwang Ho Lee, Yoon Soo Kim
Micromorphology of Bamboo Fibers Degraded by Brown-Rot Fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10576
The decay pattern of bamboo by brown-rot fungus was examined. In addition, the influence of polylaminate structures in bamboo fibers on the restriction of fungal decay was also investigated. The weight loss of bamboo Phyllostachys puberscens by the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum after 16 week incubation was about 25%. Parenchyma cells were severely degraded. Microscopical studies showed tha...
Kwang Ho Lee, Chang Hyun Cho, Yoon Soo Kim