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The use of zirconium as an inert fixative for borates in preservation
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30256
Stand-alone borates have been used in internal protected situations as wood preservatives for about 60 years. They have not been deemed acceptable for external situations because of their leaching characteristics. Work carried out to reduce the leachability of borates has been reviewed briefly here, and a specific fixation agent based on zirconium has been tested in standard leaching and decay tests. It was found that the performance of zirconium could be optimized for fixation at specific drying temperatures and at higher formulation pH. Using sufficient quantities of ammoniacal zirconium carbonate and potassium zirconium carbonate such formulations are then able to pass both Standard European and American Wood-Preservers' Association methods designed for testing exterior wood preservatives. Formulations based on borate with a zirconium additive are probably suitable for use in exterior above ground and possibly ground contact situations. As only initial indicative tests have been carried out so far, further testing with a range of wood destroying organisms and field tests should be carried out to evaluate this system further.
J D Lloyd, J L Fogel, A Vizel

Chapter 6 - Preservatives of bamboo
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10635-06
Almost all currently available oil-borne, water-borne and compound types of preservatives suitable for the preservation of bamboo or wood have been described along with their classifications, applications, formulations, merits and demerits, history of invention or discovery and development. The preservatives suitable for wood are also considered suitable for bamboo.
A K Lahiry

Effects of new fixative additives on leachability of boron wood preservatives
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30507
Borates are well known with their protective capacity against both fungi and insects with low mammalian toxicity and environmental acceptable. However, boron itself does not ensure the appropriate protection for wood in the exterior applications because of their easily depletion from the treated wood under wet conditions. In this study, the potential use of monoglyceride and polyvinyl alcohol products as boron fixative agents was investigated. Two levels of these selected compounds (10%, 15% for the monoglyceride and 2.5%, 4% for the polyvinyl alcohol) were evaluated separately with three boric acid equivalent concentrations (1%, 2% and 4% BAE) in double vacuum impregnation processes using Scots pine sapwood and European beech specimens. Leaching was performed according to a laboratory leaching procedure (ENV 1250-2). Results of boron analysis using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) for the wood specimens and the leachates showed a significant reduction in boron leachability for the samples treated with both tested fixation additives when compared to the stand-alone boron-treated specimens. For boron protective additive treatments, the percentages of residual boron ranged from 20% – 37% of the initial boron retention. In all cases for these treatments, the detected boron retentions were above the toxic limit (1 kg BAE/m3) set for wood protection against basidiomycete fungi. Polyvinyl alcohol additive was the most promising product with approximately the same boron fixation effect but at lower levels when compared to the high levels of the tested monoglyceride compound.
A Mohareb, J Henry, E Wozniak, P Gérardin