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Resistance of Alstonia scholaris vestures to degradation by tunnelling bacteria
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1547
Electron microscopic examination of vessels and fibre-tracheids in the wood of Alstonia scholaris exposed to tunnelling bacteria (TB) in a liquid culture showed degradation of all areas of the secondary wall. The highly lignified middle lamella was also degraded in advanced stages of TB attack. However, vestured pit membranes and vestures appeared to be resistant to degradation by TB even when oth...
A P Singh, T Nilsson, G F Daniel


Comparative studies on the distribution of lignin and CCA elements in birch using electron microscopic X-ray microanalysis
1987 - IRG/WP 1328
The microdistribution of metal preservatives in treated wood has received considerable research over the last two decades. Despite this, little effort seems to have been made to try and correlate the distribution of CCA elements with respect to naturally occurring wood cell wall components in wood. In the present preliminary study an attempt is made to relate the distribution of lignin in-situ wit...
G F Daniel, T Nilsson


Ultrastructural and TEM-EDAX studies on the degradation of CCA treated radiata pine by tunnelling bacteria
1985 - IRG/WP 1260
An ultrastructural study was carried out on bacterial attacked Pinus radiata stakes treated with a high level (24.7 kg/m³) of Tanalith NCA preservative. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether the organism possessed intracellular and/or extracellular detoxification mechanisms in order to overcome the high levels of copper, chrome and arsenic present within the wood fibre walls. ...
G F Daniel, T Nilsson


Ultrastructural observations on wood-degrading erosion bacteria
1986 - IRG/WP 1283
G F Daniel, T Nilsson


Micromorphology of the decay caused by Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers.:Fr.) Pouzar and Flammulina velutipes (Curt.:Fr.) Singer
1988 - IRG/WP 1358
Two basidiomycetes, Chondrostereum purpureum and Flammulina velutipes, form typical soft rot cavities in hardwoods and softwoods. Cavity formation is prececed by T-branching or bending of hyphae penetrating the wood cell walls. The two fungi also cause erosion of the wood cell walls....
T Nilsson, G F Daniel


Influence of variable lignin content on brown rot decay of wood
1987 - IRG/WP 1320
Compilation of published data and new experiments with brown-rotting fungi on different timber species suggest that their decay activity, in contrast to soft rot and white rot fungi, is not greatly influenced by the type or amount of lignin present....
T Nilsson, G F Daniel


Ultrastructure of the attack of a naturally durable timber by tunnelling bacteria
1990 - IRG/WP 1462
The attack of the wood of Eusideroxylon zwageri, a naturally durable species, by tunnelling bacteria (TB) was examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Observations were made primarily on fibres. Parenchyma were included in some cases. Both fibres and parenchyma are rich in extractives. In fibres, extractives are primarily present in the lumen. The amber colouration of fib...
A P Singh, T Nilsson, G F Daniel


On the use of % weight loss as a measure for expressing results of laboratory decay experiments
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2394
It is suggested that careful consideration should be given for the presentation of data from laboratory decay experiments, especially when comparisons are being made from experiments involving wood blocks of varying densities. Percent weight loss can be used for comparisons of durability even if wood blocks vary in density. It is suggested that the absolute weight loss for a given volume (g/cm³) ...
T Nilsson, G F Daniel


Water sprinkled pine wood: A microscope study on boards showing streaking
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10033
Boards sawn from the outer sapwood of pine lumber previously water sprinkled for periods of 10-18 weeks and kiln dried, showed streaking after staining. Two types of enhanced stain uptake were noted: 1) a more concentrated and localized form after 10 weeks and 2) a more diffuse type which developed in later stages of water sprinkling. Areas showing enhanced stain uptake were examined using light a...
G F Daniel, T Elowson, T Nilsson, A P Singh, K Liukko


Occurrence of manganese deposits in test stakes exposed in groung contact situations
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10182
Dark spots and flecks were frequently recognized on the surface and within non-preservative treated hard- and softwood test stakes placed in soil contact. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis in conjunction with electron microscopy showed the flecks to be composed primarily of manganese dioxide. Detailed transmission electron microscopy observations indicated intrusion of manganese into the wood ...
G F Daniel, T Nilsson, J Volc


The attack of naturally durable and creosote treated timbers by Limnoria tripunctata Menzies
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10132
Limnoria tripunctata was found tunnelling in creosote treated Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) pilings and naturally durable greenheart (Ocotea rodiaei) gate seals at two sites on the south coast of the United Kingdom. Examination of thc creosote-treated wood showed that Limnoria tunnels were concentrated at a depth of 2-3 cm from the timber surface, where creosote loading was lower. Fewer tunn...
A J Pitman, G S Sawyer, G F Daniel


Decay types observed in small stakes of pine and Alstonia scholaris inserted in different types of unsterile soil
1990 - IRG/WP 1443
The attack of various wood-degrading microorganisms occurring in mini-stakes of pine and Alstonia scholaris buried in various types of unsterile soil was studied. Attacks by white rot, brown rot, soft rot, erosion bacteria, tunnelling bacteria and actinomycetes were found. Soft rot occurred in all soils, whereas attack by white rot and especially brown rot and erosion bacteria was rare. The type o...
T Nilsson, G F Daniel


Degradation of the gelatinous-layer in aspen and rubber wood by the blue stain fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10168
Studies on the degradative ability of the blue stain fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae Pat. have shown several strains to cause significant weight losses (i.e. ca 20%) in the temperate and tropical wood species, aspen (Populus tremula) and rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis). In addition to the consumption of soluble carbohydrates and extractives, major changes in the ultrastructure of fibre cell walls...
O Encinas, G F Daniel


The possible significance of the lignin content and lignin type on the performance of CCA-treated timber in ground contact
1988 - IRG/WP 1357
The lignin in wood samples of Alstonia scholaris, Octomeles sumatrana and a Simaruba species have been analysed. These timbers are characterised by a high lignin content and low syringyl:guaiacyl ratios. Decay tests with two soft rot fungi showed that the timbers were less susceptible than timbers with a low lignin content and higher syringyl:guaiacyl ratios. Numerous data for field performance of...
T Nilsson, J R Obst, G F Daniel


Chelura terebrans (Crustacea: Amphipoda) is capable of degrading wood independently of its associate, Limnoria
1992 - IRG/WP 92-4180
Chelura terebans has been reported to be dependent on the tunnelling activities of Limmmoria. However, this study has shown that Chelura is capable of excavating its own grooves in the surface of blocks of the low density hardwood, balsa (Ochroma lagopus). When reared on blocks of balsa, Chelura ingests small wood particles. These particles often show evidence of degradation due to tunnelling bact...
S M Cragg, G F Daniel


Evidence for wood cell wall degradation by the blue stain fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10077
Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., a world wide ubiquitous polyfagus sapstain fungus, was found able to destroy the cell walls of birch fibres (Betula verrucosa Ehrh.) but not Caribbean (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis Barr. and Golf.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tracheids. The fungus caused characteristic erosion of fibre cell walls similar to soft rot type 2; destruction of the S1 - S2 int...
O Encinas, G F Daniel


Formation of soft rot cavities in relation to concentric layers in wood fibre walls
1983 - IRG/WP 1185
A large number of timber species attacked by soft rot have been examined using light microscopy. The S2 layers in a large number of the timbers exhibited special structural features in the form of thin concentric layers. Several observations indicate that these layers may be characterised as "weak" zones by being more easily degradable than the surrounding wall layers. The chemical structure of th...
T Nilsson, G F Daniel


Microbial decay of an archaeological wood
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10053
A light and transmission electron microscopic investigation of an archaeological wood was undertaken to determine the cause of its deterioration. The wood came from a bulwark constructed in early 1100 in the lake Tingstäde Träsk on the island Gotland in Sweden. The samples of the wood, which was identified as Pinus sylvestris, were taken from a depth of 0.85 m below the bottom level. The wood wa...
A P Singh, T Nilsson, G F Daniel


Micromorphology of Schizophyllum commune attack in pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood
1983 - IRG/WP 1184
The decay pattern caused by Schizophyllum commune in pine latewood tracheids was studied using both light and transmission electron microscopy. The attack began as isolated concentric slits within the S2 layer with extensive lamellation and separation of individual wall layers observed in subsequent stages of decay. The slits resulting from attack appeared to be formed in thin, regular concentric ...
T Nilsson, G F Daniel


Attempts to isolate tunnelling bacteria through physical separation from other bacteria by the use of cellophane
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1535
During attempts to isolate tunnelling bacteria in pure culture, physical separation from other bacteria was successfully achieved by the use of cellophane. Cellophane was used in liquid cultures as a substrate for tunnelling bacteria that were present in a mixture with other bacteria. By tunnelling into cellophane, TB were physically removed from contaminating bacteria which could then be removed ...
T Nilsson, G F Daniel


Cell wall microdistribution of chloropicrin and methylisothiocyanate in treated spruce
1989 - IRG/WP 3548
Chloropicrin and methylisothiocyanate (MIT) residues were observed using SEM/EDXA and TEM/EDXA in treated spruce wafers that had been exposed to the vapors of the two fumigant preservatives. Chlorinated residues from chloropicrin were found throughout the wood cell wall, even in acetone extracted material. The residues were most heavily concentrated in extractive materials in the rays, but unlike ...
G F Daniel, B Goodell


Tunnelling bacteria
1983 - IRG/WP 1186
The micromorphology of decay in wood caused by a certain group of single-cell bacteria, called tunnelling bacteria (TB), is described. TB are characterised by their tunnelling ability within the secondary cell walls of wood fibres. Pure cultures of TB have not yet been obtained although the typical decay patterns can be reproduced using mixed bacterial cultures. Some indications of lignin degradin...
T Nilsson, G F Daniel


Ultrastructure of Prumnopitys ferruginea wood from a buried forest in New Zealand
1991 - IRG/WP 1489
The buried wood of Prumnopitys ferruginea, a New Zealand native tree, was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy to investigate the extent to which the wood had deteriorated and the cause of its deterioration. Examinations showed that some deterioration of wood had occurred. Microscopy revealed a decay pattern similar to that produced by cavitation bacteria. Lenticular cavities ...
A P Singh, T Nilsson, G F Daniel


Cytoplasmic and extracellular localization of manganese II dependent peroxidase(s) in white rot fungi during degradation of woody materials
1989 - IRG/WP 1416
The manner by which lignin is degraded in-situ in natural substrates by white rot fungi still remains a controversial issue particularly the distribution and role(s) played by lignin degrading enzymes (i.e. manganese II peroxidase and lignin peroxidase). In the present study, use was made of anti-manganese II peroxidase and immunolabelling techniques in conjunction with transmission electron micro...
G F Daniel, B Pettersson, T Nilsson, J Volc


Evidence for actinomycete degradation of wood cell walls
1990 - IRG/WP 1444
Several unique patterns of degradation occurring in wood cell walls have been observed in wooden stakes inserted in unsterile soil in the laboratory. Some of the patterns have also been observed in coniferous wood taken from forest floors. All the observed attack types occur within wood cell walls, mainly within the S2 layer. Attack is characterised by channels of varying diameter or small fusifor...
T Nilsson, G F Daniel, S L Bardage


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