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Corrosion of fasteners in treated wood
1971 - IRG/WP 303
Surveying tests for determining the corrosion rates of some metals and alloys in wood untreated as well as treated have been made. It is shown that ordinary steel corrodes faster than other common fastener metals such as copper, brass, aluminium and stainless steel do. Zinc coatings, however, will prevent the steel corrosion effectively provided that the coatings are thick sufficiently. Catalytic decomposition of cellulose by rusting iron is briefly discussed since the expectation of life for a fastener joint is not only depending on after the corrosion remaining cross-section of the fastener but also from the wood deterioration.
T Wallin


Comparative evaluation of the barrier effect against Hylotrupes bajulus L. of different types of wood preservative
1986 - IRG/WP 1307
This paper settles the difference of contact action against females of Hylotrupes bajulus the likelihood of egg-laying, the ovicide effect and the hazards of development of newly hatched larvae between some preservatives belonging to three differents types: mineral waterborne products, organic products and emulsions. The results show that against females, the action is fast with organic products, slower with emulsions and non existent with mineral products. They point out the relation between the longivity of females and the eventuality of egg-laying. With ageing, this latter become possible for almost every preservative. In the most of cases, the larvae hatch from eggs and can bore into wood until they accumulate the lethal dosis and that occurs more or less fastly. A few differences are observed for preservatives of the same category.
M-M Serment


Antifungal mechanism of dichloro-N-octylisothiazolone
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30183
4,5-dichloro-N-octylisothiazolin-3-one (DCOI) is a member of the isothiazolone class of preservatives, whose antimicrobial mechanism of action has been intensively studied over the last decade. DCOI has also been intensively studied for use in wood preservation. The isothiazolones are electrophilic molecules that rapidly react with thiol groups to form covalently bonded isothiazolone-thiol adducts. This ability to bond with thiol groups is crucial to their ability to act as preservatives. Thiol groups are present in proteins as part of the amino acid cysteine, where they play an important role in maintaining protein structure and function. A number of enzymes have thiol groups at the site where the enzyme function is performed, and these thiol groups may participate in the enzyme reaction. If the isothiazolone reacts with this thiol group, the activity of the enzyme is inhibited. Our studies have shown that there are several enzymes in the Krebs cycle that are inhibited by isothiazolones and these enzymes are required to generate energy and perform many biosynthetic functions. Reflective of this, DCOI has been shown to be a rapid inhibitor of cellular respiration, causing the cell to cease consuming oxygen almost immediately upon contact with DCOI. The multiplicity of targets and their central importance to the metabolism of the cell, as well as the fact that all microbes use at least parts of the Krebs cycle, can be related to the low use levels and broad spectrum of activity of DCOI. The antimicrobial mechanism of DCOI results in a potent rapid-acting preservative with a broad spectrum of antifungal and antibacterial activity that is effective at low levels.
J S Chapman, M A Diehl, K B Fearnside, L E Leightley


Effect of methylene bisthiocyanate on morphology and ultra-structure of a sapstain fungus, Ophiostoma floccosum
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10471
In vitro effects of methylene bisthiocyanate (MBT) on hyphal morphology and ultrastructure of Ophiostoma floccosum were examined using differential interference contrast, epifluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Differential interference contrast microscopy suggested that MBT caused rapid changes to the morphology of O. floccosum resulting in excessive formation of vacuoles and granules within the cytoplasm. Epifluorescence microscopy indicated that damage to the plasma membrane occurred in the MBT treated, but not the control, hyphae. TEM showed that in MBT treated hyphae, the plasma membrane had retracted from the cell wall. Cytoplasmic aggregation and increased vacuolation were also observed. Furthermore, complete disintegration of the cytoplasmic organelles was seen in more advanced stages of MBT induced damage. In contrast, plasma membrane of untreated hyphae closely adhered to the cell wall showing cytoplasma with typical cell organelles. Based on the results from this study we suggest that the primary site of mode of action of MBT occurred at the plasma membrane, which then triggered subsequent changes within the cytoplasm of the test fungus.
T Singh, B Kreber, R N Wakeling, A Stewart


Preventive action against fungal decay: A comparative experiment on the effects of natural and artificial infection of wood by Basidiomycetes
1981 - IRG/WP 2160
M Fougerousse


Bacteria and wood. A review of the literature relating to the presence, action and interaction of bacteria in wood
1971 - IRG/WP 101
S E Rossell, E G M Abbot, J F Levy


Report on the questionnaire sent out to IRG Members for the creation of a new Sub-group 4 "evaluation of superficial treatments for preventive action against basidiomycetes"
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2417
On Thuesday May 12th, 1992 a subgroup meeting was held between 16.00-17.00 h. About 50 people attended this meeting. The results of the questionnaire sent out last year to the IRG members, was discussed. The analysis as well as the practical conclussions of the discussions are retained in this document.
A R Valcke


The development of a screening method for the activity of pyrethroids against wood boring marine crustaceans, Limnoria spp
1978 - IRG/WP 443
The present work is concerned with the develepment of a suitable bio-assay technique to determine the biological activity (contact action) of pyrethroids against Limnoria spp. Estimates of the toxicity of three pyrethroids, permethrin, cypermethrin and decamethrin (the structures of which are shown in Fig. 1.) to the marine borer have been obtained.
D Rutherford, R C Reay, M G Ford


Sustainability Through New Technologies for Enhanced Wood Durability. COST Action E37 – A New Action in the Forestry Domain
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40293
The main overall objective of the action is to concentrate on the contribution of wood durability on the sustainability through the development of systems for quality assurance and perfoamance of modified wood and wood products as alternatives to wood treated with traditional preservatives. By this means it seeks to improve and consequently increase the cost-effective use of sustainably produced European timber, wood-based fibre, and recycled raw materials. The action will seek to optimize methods for testing and characterizing durability performance against physical as well as biological factors. This will exploit relevant selected results from specific aspects of the preceding COST Action E22 on “Environmental optimization of wood protection” and in the EU thematic network for wood modification. It will also exploit specific achievements from COST Action E18 “High performance in wood coating”.
R-D Peek


The effect of wick action on the moisture distribution in heartwood and sapwood stakes of Pinus radiata D. Don.
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40139
The pattern of moisture distribution in stakes of Pinus radiata D. Don. subjected to "wick action" is investigated. There was incomplete saturation of the stakes even after 93 days of continual soaking. Maximum moisture absorption occurred at the base of the stake and at the air/water interface of the stake. Incomplete saturation of the stake was thought to be due to air embolism within the wood. The higher moisture contents observed at the air/water interface were thought to be due to moisture evaporation from the top of the stakes, overcoming the influence of air embolism.
J Hann, P Vinden


Building With Wood an strategic action in Spain
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40530
This paper explains the objectives and results of the “Building with Wood” project, mainly at Spanish level. As far as the wood preservation field is concerned, the present abstract also informs about the main goals of the project in this matter.
M Conde García, J I Fernández-Golfín Seco, J Galván Rodríguez


An attempt to develop a direct and reliable method for testing the preventive action of preservation treatments of wood against fungal decay
1980 - IRG/WP 2139
In wood preservation there are two classical ways for assessing the reliability of preventive treatments against wood decay: the laboratory tests in which the various parameters are evaluated independently and the field tests or service tests in which those parameters are acting together in the natural environment. One has always tried to build bridges between the two types of experiments and to establish correlations between their results, but a rather large gap is still persisting. The aim of the research which is reported was to develop a method for testing directly the preventive action against basidiomycetes decay when the treatments do not lead to a full impregnation of the wood, but only raise a barrier of limited depth. A method has been developed, testing the wood specimens (of various sizes and shapes for representing various types of end-uses) out of test vessels, i.e. in non sterile conditions, but with well checked pure cultures. The various steps of the research are exposed and the results so far obtained allow to expect some interesting possibilities of testing directly, rapidly and accurately the resistance of any wood product, in its ready to use form, to decay by basidiomycetes.
M Fougerousse


The probable mechanism of action of boric acid and borates as wood preservatives
1990 - IRG/WP 1450
The tetrahydroxyborate ion [B(OH)4-] acts by complexation with poly-ols and probably attacks decay fungi through extracellular substrate sequestration; intracellular substrate sequestration; enzyme inhibition; and change in membrane function. Work was carried out to investigate this further and to try to explain certain phenomena observed in the area of boron preservation. The effect of Na borate in the presence of different concentrations or various carbohydrates upon the radial growth rate of certain fungi was investigated; along with parallel experiments on the activity of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase as an example of a borate inhibited enzyme system. It was found that upon the addition of certain poly-ols, the inhibitory effect of borate on both fungal growth and enzyme activity could be reduced. These results have been used in the development of our understanding of the mechanism of action of borates as wood preservatives. The commonly held belief that certain mould species are resistant to borates may also need re-evaluation.
J D Lloyd, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy


Studies on the resistance of DMDHEU treated wood against white-rot and brown-rot fungi
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10566
Beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) modified with the textile finishing agent 1,3 dimethylol-4,5-dihydroxyethylen urea (DMDHEU) has shown to improve durability against the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. In a mini-block test, the weight loss over eight weeks of incubation decreased with increasing weight percent gain (WPG) of DMDHEU. At 25% WPG, no significant weight loss was observed, while untreated beech wood lost 37% of its initial weight under the same conditions. This increase in resistance was shown not to be caused by a biocidal effect of monomeric DMDHEU: the growth of T. versicolor and Coniophora puteana was not significantly reduced, when DMDHEU was added to sterile malt agar plates in concentrations of up to 10%. Poria placenta was not negatively affected up to a DMDHEU concentration of 5%. A solid state fermentation experiment was performed with T. versicolor on milled untreated and DMDHEU modified wood in order to determine the production of extra-cellular protein and the activity of wood-decaying enzymes. T. versicolor was not able to grow on wood treated to the highest WPG (14.9%). The activity of ligninolytic enzymes (laccase, manganese peroxidase) was highest at 7.9% WPG compared to the untreated control and 2.8% WPG. The overall production of hydrolytic enzymes was low in all cases and a clear distinction between untreated and modified wood was not possible.
P Verma, C Mai, A Krause, H Militz


The degradation of wood by metal fastenings and fittings
1972 - IRG/WP 302
As well as the hazards of biological decay, timber used in boat building is subject to the effects of chemical decay associated with the corrosion of metallic fastenings. The title has been deliberately chosen to emphasize that in wooden construction the troubles are not just those of corrosion of the fastenings, but also the destructive secondary effects on the wood caused by the products of the corrosion processes (Plate I). For centuries the world has lived with these troubles commonly referred to as "nail sickness". In contrast to biological decay the chemical decay associated with corrosion is confined to the wood adjacent to corroded fastenings and it is regrettable that in repair work so much wood has to be replaced because of a small percentage degrade in vital spots. Before methods can be devised to overcome these troubles, it is necessary that a better understanding is reached of the mechanisms operating in the degradation process, and recent work at FPRL has thrown some light in this area. The general problem will now be considered in some detail followed by suggestions on possible preventative and remedial measures. Corrosion is the result of an electrochemical process in which the corrosive effect is proportional to the current which flows between areas of potential difference. There are a number of causes of this electrochemical effect such as dissimilar metals in contact, differences in concentration of some chemical factor such as the electrolyte or oxygen availability, stress etc. In all cases areas of different polarity are produced and corrosion only proceeds when the electrical circuit is completed by an electrolyte bridge eg sea water, and a conductor between the anodic and cathodic areas. Figure 1 shows a simple diagram of electrochemical corrosion.
L C Pinion


Advances in understanding the mode of action of methylene bisthiocyanate against Sphaeropsis sapinea
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30284
The importance of arresting sapstain pre-infection in radiata pine in New Zealand, to prevent downstream sapstain in both logs and sawn timbers has been clearly demonstrated. Efforts are being made to improve the efficacy of diffusible antisapstain agents through improved understanding wood/fungicide/fungus interactions. The mechanism of action of methylene bisthiocyanate (MBT) was investigated using Sphaeropsis sapinea ((Fr.:Fr.) Dyko and Sutton) and radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don). A laboratory method using an assembly of wood wafers was designed to allow determination of the importance of MBT diffusion through the liquid and vapour phases on fungitoxicity. For comparison, fungitoxicity of the essentially non-diffusible fungicide oxine copper was also determined. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the morphology of fungal mycelium and propagules after exposure to MBT. Results indicated that established hyphae of S. sapinea were more tolerant of MBT than propagules (hyphal fragments). For example, hyphal fragments colonised wood treated with 0.04% weight/volume (w/v) of MBT whereas established hyphae of S. sapinea on a wood wafer colonised an adjacent wafer treated with 0.16% w/v MBT. Diffusion through both the liquid and vapour phases contributed to the fungitoxicity of MBT. The vapour action was shown to act in the absence of liquid diffusible MBT (no direct contact with MBT treated wafer) but the combined effect of liquid and vapour phases was greater. Microscopy identified changes in the morphology of S. sapinea treated with MBT. At a concentration of 0.02% w/v of MBT, many hyphae were collapsed and plasmolysed, although some healthy hyphae were present.
T Singh, R N Wakeling, B Kreber, A Stewart


The effect of chemical treatment on the moisture distribution of Pinus radiata D.Don subjected to wick action
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40135
Radiata pine sapwood stakes were treated with a range of chemicals, including an ammoniacal copper quaternary ammonium compound (ACQ), a copper-chrome and arsenic (CCA) solution and a CCA-oil treatment, potassium linoleate copper linoleate, a paraffin wax and a proprietary alkyd resin. The effect of these treatments on the extent of water absorption and moisture movement through the stakes was investigated. Results indicate that pre-treatments could affect uptake and flow of water through the wood, which in time could be attributed to the properties of the solutions and whether they had surface active, bulking or water repellent attributes.
J Hann, P Vinden


Characterisations of the mode of action(s) of Methylene bisthiocyanate (MBT) in Ophiostoma floccosum
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10554
Potassium (K+) leakage, oxygen consumption, glucose depletion and level of ATP formation were determined to elucidate the potential target site(s) of MBT on the sapstain fungus O. floccosum. Treatment of O. floccosum with MBT caused an efflux of intracellular K+ ions from the cells, and the rate of leakage increased with increasing MBT concentrations up to a certain value. This observation suggests that a primary site of action of MBT occurs at the plasma membrane level. The study also showed that there was no inhibition of respiratory activity at lower concentrations of MBT (0.01mM and 0.1mM), but at these lower concentrations, glucose consumption and ATP formation were affected. The inability of O. floccosum to actively metabolise sugar and produce energy indicated that MBT is acting as an energy uncoupler.
T Singh, B Kreber, A Stewart, M Jaspers


Chitosan for wood protection - state of the art
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30378
The aim of this paper was to give a state of the art description of chitosan as a wood protecting agent. Chitosan is a metal free natural compound derived from crustacean shells and is under evaluation as an environmentally benign wood protecting agent. Information from journals states that chitosan may act both fungistatically and at higher concentrations, as fungitoxic, but the mode of action is not yet fully understood. The hypothesis with most support in the literature is that chitosan interacts with the cell membrane and causes alterations in permeability. It is not proven that chitosan is more effective against a particular class of fungi, but morphological changes and reduction in growth rate is reported from a range of fungi. Results from agar plate growth rate tests are not conclusive with respect to whether high or low molecular weights are most effective against micro-organisms. Other factors than the molecular weights may influence microbial activity of the species studied, i.e. FA, pH, and internal distribution of the monomers, concentration and additives. In results available in the literature it is obvious that there is a dose-response relationship between chitosan and antimicrobial activity. In agar plates a lethal/totally inhibiting concentration is usually between 0.1 and 1 %. Chitosans in solution are more effective against antimicrobial growth than chitosans in suspension (i.e. solid chitosan particles). This is further reflected in that higher concentrations of chitosan are needed in wood than in agar amended plates. If the treated wood is subjected to leaching, around 5 % (w/v) chitosan solutions seems to be needed for good efficacy against fungal decay. Some tests where chitosan fails in decay tests are probably because of the use of to low concentrations, or to low penetration of chitosan solution due to high molecular weight.
M Eikenes, G Alfredsen, E Larnøy, H Militz, B Kreber, C Chittenden


Breakdown of cellulose derivatives by cellulolytic enzymes. I. Action of fungal ß-glucosidases toward substituted PNP ß-D-glucopyranosides
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10281
The action of fungal ß-glucosidases on the methyl derivatives of p-nitrophenyl (PNP) ß-D-glucopyranoside, which were regioselectively substituted at 0-2, 0-3, 0-4 and 0-6 positions was studied. Several ß-glucosidases from brown-rot, white-rot, and soft-rot fungi and almond were used for the study. These ß-glucosidases did not act on the 2, 3, and 4-0-methyl derivatives, while the 6-0-methyl one was hydrolyzed by all the enzymes to some extent. The results indicate that the methyl group at 0-2, 0-3, 0-4 of the glucopyranoside strongly inhibits the recognition by the ß-glucosidases, while the enzymes do not discriminate the structure difference between PNP ß-glucopyranoside and its methyl derivative at 0-6.
T Nishimura, I Momohara, M Ishihara


The loss of insecticidal action from synthetic pyrethroid-treated wood samples: The effect of high temperatures and relative humidities
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1569
This paper describes the results from bioassays using Hylotrupes bajulus, and chemical analyses, of pyrethroid-treated wood samples following storage for up to 3 years. A range of four storage environments was used consisting of combinations of two temperatures (20°C and 40°C) and two relative humidities (60% and 90%). It is concluded from the chemical analyses that, although losses at room temperature were small, at the higher temperature used in this study loss of insecticide was accelerated. Exposure of treated wood to high relative humidity did not appear to result in increased loss of insecticide. The bioassay results confirmed these conclusions. The significance of the bioassay results in relation to the long term efficay in service of preventive treatments is discussed and a logic proposed for deriving a service life on the basis of which an estimate of up to 58 years protection from current commercial formulations is derived.
R W Berry, S J Read


Evaluation of tropolone as a wood preservative : activity and mode of action
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30282
The fungicidal activity of 2-hydroxy cyclohepta-2,4,6-trienone (tropolone) analogue of b-thujaplicin a natural product responsible for the durability of heart wood of several cupressaceous trees was investigated in vitro on growth of white and brown rot fungi. Results obtained show that tropolone, easily prepared from commercially available products, possesses strong fungicidal activity similar to that of fungicides currently used for wood preservation. In addition, laboratory malt-agar block tests indicate that tropolone, like b-thujaplicin, is able to protect wood blocks against brown rot fungi like Poria placenta but not against white rot fungi like Coriolus versicolor. These differences were investigated on the basis of the mechanism of action of tropolone. Fungal growth inhibition on malt-agar could be prevented by adding iron salts in the medium, which indicates that chelating properties of tropolone are important on its mode of action. Determination of the stoechiometry of the reaction between tropolone and ferric ion shows the formation of a strongly insoluble precipitate involving 3 equivalents of tropolone for 1 equivalent of Fe3+ with a solubility product (Ks) of approximately 10-28 which creates metal limitation conditions inhibiting fungal growth. Moreover, tropolone possesses weak antioxidative properties and is able to inhibit ferric iron reduction by catecholates lowering the redox potential of the iron couple. All these data are consistent with the hypothesis that tropolone inhibits wood degradation by Poria placenta by chelating iron present in wood thus avoiding initiation of Fenton reaction, while Coriolus versicolor which produces several lignolitic enzymes like laccases and peroxidases able to degrade rapidely tropolone is unaffected by tropolone.
P Gérardin, M Baya, N Delbarre, P N Diouf, D Perrin, P Soulounganga, E Gelhaye, J P Jacquot, C Rapin


Insect growth regulators: modes of action and mode of action-dependent peculiarities in the evaluation of the efficacy for their use in wood preservation
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30155
Up to now, the insecticides used in wood preservation are either of more or less non-specific mode of action - like boron - or of neurotoxic mode of action - like chlorinated hydrocarbons, carbamates and pyrethroids. The active ingredients actually used are primarily mirroring the progress in active ingredient research in plant protection. The methods of testing of the insecticidal efficacy of wood preservatives are developed in the seventies when oil-borne preservatives with chlorinated hydrocarbon-insecticides of high penetration capabilities are dominating. So, the complete testing inventory was neurotoxintailored during this time and consequently topranking unconsciously this group of insecticides in the past. This type of topranking was decisive for the selection of the pyrethroids as replacement for the chlorinated hydrocarbon-insecticides and the rejection of the competing JHA's (WÄLCHLI & TSCHOLL 1975, TSCHOLL 1977) and molt inhibitors (DOPPELREITER 1980, CYMOREK & POSPISCHIL 1982) in the early eighties. The testing problems arising from the introduction of the molt inhibitors in wood preservation were not severe (PALLASKE et al. 1993, VALCKE & PALLASKE 1995), but it could be pointed out, that not the full bandwith of insecticidal properties is taken into account (GRAF 1995, PALLASKE 1995). This gap in test methodology gains more importance in the evaluation of the efficacy of hormon-analoga for their use in wood preservation and requires the modification of some standard test methods (GRAF 1996). A brief review of the modes of action of the "modern" insecticides like chitin synthesis inhibitors, juvenil hormone analoga and ecdysone mimics is given for highlighting the modifications required in testing repertoire and for pointing out the changes in valuation criteria requested for a correct and reliable valuation of preservatives with ovicidal mode of action.
M Pallaske


The action of siderophores isolated from Gloeophyllum trabeum on the structure and crystallinity of cellulose compounds
1991 - IRG/WP 1479
Low molecular weight, high affinity iron-binding compounds (siderophores) were isolated from the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. The compounds were shown to be inducible by iron starvation and could be purified by ultra-filtration, ethyl acetate extraction, column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The isolated compounds were shown by analytical and immunological techniques to be produced in both culture and in degraded wood. GC-mass spectroscopy and NMR allowed characterization showing their phenolate nature and molecular mass. The chelators are capable of cleaving selected cellulose model compounds and preliminary results suggest siderophores may be able to effect the percent crystallinity of milled poplar wood. Siderophores, together with other non-enzymatic factors, may function as readily diffusible agents catalyzing the initial degradation of wood cell walls.
J Jellison, V Chandhoke, B Goodell, F Fekete, N Hayashi, M Ishihara, K Yamamoto


COST Action E31: Management of Recovered Wood
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-26
The COST (European Co-operation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research) Action E31 (2002 to 2006) is a multi-disciplinary forum for the exchange of information on “Management of Recovered Wood” with the main objective to improve the European management of recovered wood towards a higher common technical, economic and environmental standard. Researchers of 20 European countries – Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom - are involved in the Action, which is subdivided in 2 Working Groups: 1) European management of recovered wood: analyse the current systems of wood recovery in Europe, i.e. technical and legal aspects, environmental impacts, recovered wood potential 2) Treatment options for recovered wood: Analysis of different current and future treatment options for recovered wood based on technical, economic and environmental criteria The Purpose of COST Action E31 “Management of Recovered Wood” is: - analysis of management approaches for recovered wood in European countries - examine potentials of recovered wood as secondary raw materials and energy sources - improvement of databases on technical, economical and ecological information - identify promising approaches for implementation of advanced management systems The scientific innovation and relevance is: - development of new guidelines for the management of recovered wood - improvement to evaluate existing and possible new treatment options for wood recovery - improvement of the methods to assess the use of recovered wood in new products - investigation to further increase the use of wood recovered as a secondary material - development of methods to improve the data collection. Results and conclusions are: - bring together a multi-disciplinary and multi-cultural ‘team’ - establish a European forum for the management of recovered wood - give a comprehensive overview of the different management options for recovered wood - advance the methodology for environmental, technical and economical evaluation - develop tools for the comparison of different management options for recovered wood Next events are: • Joint workshop “Greenhouse Gas Aspects of Biomass Cascading - Reuse, Recycling and Energy Generation” with IEA Task 38 “Greenhouse Gas Balances of Biomass and Bioenergy Systems” 25 April in Dublin • 2nd COST Action E31 Conference “Management of Recovered Wood –Strategies Towards a Higher Technical, Economic and Environmental Standard in Europe” in Bordeaux 30 September to 1 October 2005 Further information is available on http://www.ctib-tchn.be/coste31
G Jungmeier, B Hillring, A Frühwald, M Humar


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