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Environmental behaviour of treated wood in (semi-)permanent contact with fresh or seawater
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-20
This study presents a strategy for the environmental toxicity evaluation of treated wood towards the aquatic compartment, using non target water organisms toxicity tests. A lixiviation process is applied on wood (Pinus sylvestris) treated with several wood preservatives formulations. The lixiviation process is carried out in the laboratory with ultrapure water or synthetic seawater. After chemical analysis for the pesticides migration, the leachates are evaluated for their ecotoxicity. For freshwater, the standard ecotoxicological tests on the luminescence bacteria Vibrio fisheri, the microcrustacean Daphnia magna and the green unicellular algae Raphidocelis subcapitata are used. For seawater, marine tests using organisms such as the microcrustacean Artemia salina and the marine alga Phaeodactylum tricornutum are performed. Then, complementary methods for the detection of mutagenic components (genotoxicity) are applied on wood leachates in order to complete the evaluation. The same chemical treatment is therefore evaluated on fresh and seawater through this laboratory methodology applied to treated wood.
P Marchal, C Martin

Assessment of treated wood leachates genotoxicity with a bacterial test
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50089
Genotoxicity is known as the damage caused by environmental stressors (biological, chemical and physical) on the genetic material of an organism. This toxicological effect can be assessed by a lot of biological assays and especially by bacterial tests. These tests are frequently performed on environmental samples or on pures substances and are in that case, strongly correlated to the carcinogenic effect obtained on mammals. A leachate procedure (EN 1250-2) was applied to treated wood (Pinus sylvestris, EN 113 type) in order to simulate and predict the loss of active ingredients through percolation or lixiviation processes. The genotoxicity of the leachates was evaluated with a bacterial mutagenecity test performed on Vibrio fisheri dark mutant and consisted in measuring the light emission of the revertant organisms. Three types of formulations were used for the wood impregnation: a Copper Chromium Arsenic (CCA) water based formulation, an organic and a creosote type formulation. Genotoxicity of the leachates is presented and a correlation between the presence of direct or indirect mutagenic compounds in water and the biological response is then approached.
P Marchal, C Martin