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Commercial potential of the four-cycle method for the impregnation of green beech sleepers in Yugoslavia
1975 - IRG/WP 347
This paper was presented to the Conference on Wood Protection held in Sarajevo (Yugoslavia) in 1973. The paper was based partially on the report prepared by J. Struhar and G. F. Franciosi, who were appointed in 1972 as FAO consultants to demonstrate the new impregnation process for green beech sleepers in Yugoslavia. The so-called 4-cycle method was developed at the State Forest Research Institute...
N Vidovic


Extraction and analysis of DNA from green and seasoned timber as basic methods for determination of wood species and origin
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20523
Against the background of the European timber trade regulation EUTR, commenced to law by March 2013, the determination of wood species and tracing of its origin is getting a great importance. A promising approach for establishing fast and reliable tracking systems for wood products is DNA analysis. A critical point is the extraction of analysable DNA from the wood and its lignified cell walls. Thu...
K Jacobs, H Mende, W Scheiding


Physical properties of ß-1,4-Xylanase produced by Postia (=Poria) placenta: Implications for the control of brown rot
1987 - IRG/WP 1318
The degradation of hemicelluloses is an early event in wood decay by brown-rot fungi. An understanding of the physical properties of hemicellulases may suggest target mechanisms for the development of new control agents. Endo-b-1,4-xylanase was partially purified by column chromatography from wood decayed by Postia (= Poria) placenta. The enzyme was extremely resistant to denaturing conditions; no...
J A Micales, F Green III, C A Clausen, T L Highley


Effect of medium-term degradation of beech wood by erosive (Phanerochaete chrysosporium) and lignin-selective (Ceriporiopsis subvermispora) strains of white rot fungi on its selected physical properties
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40292
At the Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology a fungal delignification of normal and tension beech wood by erosive and lignin-selective strains white-rot fungi has been studied. The pre-treatment of both kind of wood samples was accompanied by partial delignification and apparent changes of their physical properties influencing the polar liquids penetration....
R Solár, S Kurjatko, M Mamonová, J Hudec


Report of Section 1 2003
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10502
F Green III


Treatment of fresh green round bamboos culms (Dendrocalamus strictus) by sap-displacement (wick) method
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40311
Sap displacement method has great potential for treating short length bamboos as it does not require any technical equipment. The process is simple and large nos. of bamboos can be simultaneously treated in relatively short period. There is no wastage of chemicals as the remnant solution reused. Bottom ends and middle portion had better treatment in compared to lop end portion. With increasing len...
R Lal, C N Vani


The effects of heat treament on the specific gravity of beech and spruce wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40254
The effects of heat treatment on specific gravity of beech (Fagus orientalis) and spruce wood (Picea orientalis) naturally grown and intensively used in forest products industry in Turkey were studied. The wood samples were cut into 2 x 2 x 3 cm. Heat treatment was than applied to the wood samples at four different temperatures (130 °C, 150 °C, 180 °C and 200 °C) and three different durations...
S Yildiz, Ü C Yildiz, G Colakoglu, E D Gezer, A Temiz


Research on the effects of wood preservatives on the physical and mechanical properties of Iranian beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky)
1985 - IRG/WP 3351
This research work was conducted with the aim of using preservatives such as Basilit and Wolman Salts with Iranian beech and to study any physical and mechanical changes these might have on the beech species of Iran. Samples were divided into three groups; one group were used as untreated controls, the second group was treated with Basilit and the third group was treated with Wolmanit. Results obt...
P Niloufari


Observations on the penetration of preservatives into green timber
1985 - IRG/WP 3335
Differences in the rate and extent of diffusion of MBT and NaPCP-based preservatives following a short dip treatment were observed. The importance of preservative distribution as well as toxicity to the target organisms in governing the ultimate performance of any anti-sapstain compound is discussed....
G R Williams, R A Eaton, D A Lewis


The effects of heat treatment on the toughness of beech wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40283
The effects of heat treatment on toughness of beech (Fagus orientalis) wood naturally grown and intensively used in forest products industry in Turkey were studied. The wood samples were cut into 5 x 5 x 5 cm. Heat treatment was than applied to the wood samples at three different temperatures (130 °C, 150 °C and 180 °C) and three different durations (2 h, 6 h and 10 h) under air atmospheres. ...
S Yildiz, Ü C Yildiz, E D Gezer, Ali Temiz, E Dizman


Protection of Ochroma pyramidale from fungal decay with N,N-napthaloylhyroxylamine
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30182
Fungal decay of wood in service results in billions of dollars (U.S.) in losses annually. Recent environmental restrictions, both U.S. and international, are limiting and eliminating the use of broad-spectrum, heavy metal biocides for wood preservation. Restrictions result primarily from problems with disposal. New wood preservatives need to be developed and tested which specifically target key el...
F Green III, T L Highley


Oxalic acid production of fifteen brown-rot fungi in copper citrate- treated southern yellow pine
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10388
Non-arsenical copper-based wood preservatives have grown in number since the 1980's as a response to environmental concerns posed by arsenicals. Interest in copper tolerant decay fungi has increased accordingly. Oxalic acid (OA) production by brown-rot fungi has been proposed as one mechanism of copper tolerance. Fifteen brown-rot fungi representing the genera Postia, Wolfiporia, Serpula,...
F Green III, C A Clausen


The effects of heat treatment on anatomical changes of beech wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40284
The effects of heat treatment on anatomical changes of beech wood (Fagus orientalis) naturally grown and intensively used in forest products industry in Turkey were studied. The wood samples were cut into 2x2x3 cm and than conditioned at 25 °C and 65 % relative humidity for 3 weeks. Heat treatment was than applied to the wood samples at four different temperatures (130 °C, 150 °C, 180 °C and ...
Ü C Yildiz, Z Gerçek, B Serdar, S Yildiz, E D Gezer, E Dizman, A Temiz


Autoxidation of beech condensate
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40261
Liquid effluent from steaming beech wood was studied. The effluent contains many phenolic compounds which can present a significant toxicity. The effluent was treated by oxidation was carried out at 250 rpm for 30 min with NaOH. This was followed flocculation with CaCl2 for 30 min. The influence of parameters such as pH, time of autoxidation were studied. Experimental results reveal the electrosta...
M Irmouli, J P Haluk


Protection of beech veneer for fruit and vegetable boxes
1981 - IRG/WP 3176
In Yugoslavia about 50,000 m³ of low quality beech logs annually are rotary cut into veneer from which boxes are made for transporting fruit and vegetables. Because of steaming before rotary cutting, beech veneer becomes extremely sensitive to mould attack which decreases the quality and commercial value of the final product. To avoid mould attack, veneer sheets are dried to 16% moisture content ...
N Vidovic


Inhibition of wood decay and termite damage by calcium precipitation
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30111
Fungal decay of wood in service, especially brown rot, results in billions of dollars (US) of losses annually. Recent environmental restrictions, both U.S. and international, are limiting or eliminating the use of broad spectrum biocides for wood preservation, primarily due to problems with disposal. In order to design new, environmentally benign methods for control of wood decay fungi, it is esse...
F Green III, T A Kuster, L Ferge, T L Highley


The effect of ACC (Celcure) on durability of blue beech
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30209
Durability of the sapwood and heartwood of blue beech (Carpinus betulus) against white rot fungus (Coriolus versicolor) was studied. As treatment three concentrations of preservative (control or 0%, 3%, and 5% of ACC) were applied. The measuring 1.5x2.5x5cm3 as dimension of wood samples (sap and heartwood) was used. During 16 weeks exposure, untreated wood blocks were completely deteriorated by th...
S M Kazemi


Effects of heat treatment on water repellence and anti-swelling efficiency of beech wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40223
The heating of solid wood to higher temperatures is the simplest and the cheapest means for stabilizing its dimensions. For the investigation of the effect of thermal treatment on water repellency effectiveness and anti-swelling efficiency of beech wood (Fagus orientalis Lipsky), air-seasoned samples of beech wood were heated in presence of air at temperatures of 130 C, 150 C, 180 C and 200 C for ...
S Yildiz


Decrease of the antidecay resistance of beech wood treated with organotin fungicides after its natural ageing
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30185
The antidecay resistance of beech-wood samples (120 x 8.5 x 8.5 (MM)) treated with tributyltin fungicides gradually decreased due to prolongation of their natural ageing: tributyltin fungicides (TBTO, TBTS, TBTCA, TBT-DEDTK were applied by pressure impregnation technique in ethanole solutions (c = 0. 1%, 0.33% or 1%); treated beech-wood samples were naturally aged without their contact with grou...
L Reinprecht


A comparison between the effects of ACC & CFK on the durability of beech, hornbeam and cottonwood by using Dipping & Bethel methods in the North of Iran
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40089
From the economical point of view, increasing the lumber durability by the application of preservative treatments is very important. In this study, samples were randomly selected from Fagus orientalis Lipsky., Carpinus betulus L. and Populus deltoides Bartr. in two forms (Board & Squared cross-section) and have been treated with ACC & CFK by using Dipping & Bethel methods. The matched ...
D Parsapajouh, V Etemad, K Pourtahmasebi


Inhibition of termite damage by N'N-napthaloylhydroxyamine (NHA): Reticulotermes flavipes (Kollar) vs. Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10354
The calcium precipitating agent NHA has been shown to protect southern yellow pine (SYP) from wood decay and termite damage comparable to CCA in field tests (Gulfport, MS) for two years (Crawford and Green, 1999). In a collaborative study, SYP wood blocks were vacuum treated with three concentrations of aqueous NHA and exposed in a no-choice test to Eastern subterranean termites (FPL, USA) and For...
F Green III, S T Lebow, T Yoshimura


Comparative life cycle assessment of Swiss railroad sleepers
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50117
The results of an environmental LCA carried out on railway sleepers made of prestressed concrete, sectional steel and creosote impregnated beech as used on main lines of Switzerland's railways are presented. All extractions from and insertions into the environment which were connected with the manufacture, use and disposal of the different types of sleeper were inventoried and assessed, i...
T Künniger, K Richter


Laboratory tests on light organic solvent preservatives for use in Australia. - Part 6: Soft rot resistance of three fully formulated preservatives on different timber substrates
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30245
The above-ground soft rot resistance of substrates treated with three fully formulated light organic solvent preservatives (Cuprivac Green WR, Impresol WR 205 and Vacsol) was studied using a modified vermiculite burial method. The substrates were sapwood of Pinus elliottii and P. radiata and heartwood of Eucalyptus regnans, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Shorea sp. (a lower and a higher density source) an...
G C Johnson, M A Tighe, J D Thornton


Treatability problems - Relationships between anatomy, chemical composition and treatability
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40213
This report documents the results of phase 1 and 2 of a 3-phase research program. In phase 1, two hundred and fifty-six (256) Southern pine (pinus spp.) nominal 2 x 6's (38 mm x 140 mm) from a single mill in Georgia (southeastern US) were evaluated for treatability with CCA preservative. After treatment, 128 pieces representing a broad range of treatment characteristics were selected and ...
J E Winandy, F Green III, D Keefe


Evaluating the natural durability of native and tropical wood species against Reticulitermes flavip
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10539
Environmental pressures to eliminate arsenate from wood preservatives has resulted in voluntary removal of CCA for residential applications in the United States. A new generation of copper organic preservatives has been formulated to replace CCA for decking and in-ground applications but there is no guarantee that these preservatives represent a permanent solution to all related problems. There...
R A Arango, F Green III, K Hintz, R B Miller


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