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The difficult choice of the preservation industry when changing to more environmentally acceptable products
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50156
Until recent years the preservation industry in Norway had no problems with the environmental authorities. However, during the last three years the pressure has increased, and the authorities' solution to restrict hazardous chemicals is to introduce green (environmental) taxes for the products containing these chemicals, and also for the pressure-treated wood. The preservation industry ac...
F G Evans


Physical properties of ß-1,4-Xylanase produced by Postia (=Poria) placenta: Implications for the control of brown rot
1987 - IRG/WP 1318
The degradation of hemicelluloses is an early event in wood decay by brown-rot fungi. An understanding of the physical properties of hemicellulases may suggest target mechanisms for the development of new control agents. Endo-b-1,4-xylanase was partially purified by column chromatography from wood decayed by Postia (= Poria) placenta. The enzyme was extremely resistant to denaturing conditions; no...
J A Micales, F Green III, C A Clausen, T L Highley


Report of Section 1 2003
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10502
F Green III


Treatment of fresh green round bamboos culms (Dendrocalamus strictus) by sap-displacement (wick) method
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40311
Sap displacement method has great potential for treating short length bamboos as it does not require any technical equipment. The process is simple and large nos. of bamboos can be simultaneously treated in relatively short period. There is no wastage of chemicals as the remnant solution reused. Bottom ends and middle portion had better treatment in compared to lop end portion. With increasing len...
R Lal, C N Vani


Protection of Ochroma pyramidale from fungal decay with N,N-napthaloylhyroxylamine
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30182
Fungal decay of wood in service results in billions of dollars (U.S.) in losses annually. Recent environmental restrictions, both U.S. and international, are limiting and eliminating the use of broad-spectrum, heavy metal biocides for wood preservation. Restrictions result primarily from problems with disposal. New wood preservatives need to be developed and tested which specifically target key el...
F Green III, T L Highley


Oxalic acid production of fifteen brown-rot fungi in copper citrate- treated southern yellow pine
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10388
Non-arsenical copper-based wood preservatives have grown in number since the 1980's as a response to environmental concerns posed by arsenicals. Interest in copper tolerant decay fungi has increased accordingly. Oxalic acid (OA) production by brown-rot fungi has been proposed as one mechanism of copper tolerance. Fifteen brown-rot fungi representing the genera Postia, Wolfiporia, Serpula,...
F Green III, C A Clausen


Observations on the penetration of preservatives into green timber
1985 - IRG/WP 3335
Differences in the rate and extent of diffusion of MBT and NaPCP-based preservatives following a short dip treatment were observed. The importance of preservative distribution as well as toxicity to the target organisms in governing the ultimate performance of any anti-sapstain compound is discussed....
G R Williams, R A Eaton, D A Lewis


Restrictions or environmental taxes as regulatory means - How will they influence the use of pressure treated wood?
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-28
In all the Nordic countries except Norway, we have environmental restrictions on the use of pressure treated wood. In Norway we expect environmental taxes on a large number of various products in 1998/99 - probably also pressure treated wood with one or more of the heavy metals copper, chromium and arsenic. The paper will discuss how this can influence the use of pressure treated wood and cause a...
F G Evans


Inhibition of wood decay and termite damage by calcium precipitation
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30111
Fungal decay of wood in service, especially brown rot, results in billions of dollars (US) of losses annually. Recent environmental restrictions, both U.S. and international, are limiting or eliminating the use of broad spectrum biocides for wood preservation, primarily due to problems with disposal. In order to design new, environmentally benign methods for control of wood decay fungi, it is esse...
F Green III, T A Kuster, L Ferge, T L Highley


Inhibition of termite damage by N'N-napthaloylhydroxyamine (NHA): Reticulotermes flavipes (Kollar) vs. Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10354
The calcium precipitating agent NHA has been shown to protect southern yellow pine (SYP) from wood decay and termite damage comparable to CCA in field tests (Gulfport, MS) for two years (Crawford and Green, 1999). In a collaborative study, SYP wood blocks were vacuum treated with three concentrations of aqueous NHA and exposed in a no-choice test to Eastern subterranean termites (FPL, USA) and For...
F Green III, S T Lebow, T Yoshimura


Laboratory tests on light organic solvent preservatives for use in Australia. - Part 6: Soft rot resistance of three fully formulated preservatives on different timber substrates
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30245
The above-ground soft rot resistance of substrates treated with three fully formulated light organic solvent preservatives (Cuprivac Green WR, Impresol WR 205 and Vacsol) was studied using a modified vermiculite burial method. The substrates were sapwood of Pinus elliottii and P. radiata and heartwood of Eucalyptus regnans, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Shorea sp. (a lower and a higher density source) an...
G C Johnson, M A Tighe, J D Thornton


Treatability problems - Relationships between anatomy, chemical composition and treatability
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40213
This report documents the results of phase 1 and 2 of a 3-phase research program. In phase 1, two hundred and fifty-six (256) Southern pine (pinus spp.) nominal 2 x 6's (38 mm x 140 mm) from a single mill in Georgia (southeastern US) were evaluated for treatability with CCA preservative. After treatment, 128 pieces representing a broad range of treatment characteristics were selected and ...
J E Winandy, F Green III, D Keefe


Evaluating the natural durability of native and tropical wood species against Reticulitermes flavip
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10539
Environmental pressures to eliminate arsenate from wood preservatives has resulted in voluntary removal of CCA for residential applications in the United States. A new generation of copper organic preservatives has been formulated to replace CCA for decking and in-ground applications but there is no guarantee that these preservatives represent a permanent solution to all related problems. There...
R A Arango, F Green III, K Hintz, R B Miller


Commercial potential of the four-cycle method for the impregnation of green beech sleepers in Yugoslavia
1975 - IRG/WP 347
This paper was presented to the Conference on Wood Protection held in Sarajevo (Yugoslavia) in 1973. The paper was based partially on the report prepared by J. Struhar and G. F. Franciosi, who were appointed in 1972 as FAO consultants to demonstrate the new impregnation process for green beech sleepers in Yugoslavia. The so-called 4-cycle method was developed at the State Forest Research Institute...
N Vidovic


Application of roller-pressing method to the novel liquid impregnation treatment of green timber
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40198
A transverse compression technique enabled us to impregnate liquid into green timber through replacement of the free water in the timber with a treatment liquid without any critical physical damage to the timber by the roller-pressing method. The roller-pressing is supposed to remove free water the cell cavities and to concurrently introduce the treatment solution into green timber in the treatmen...
M Inoue, K Adachi, K Tsunoda, Y Imamura, S Kawai


Serpula lacrymans, The Dry Rot Fungus and its Tolerance towards Copper-based Wood Preservatives
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10555
Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a suspicion about tolerance toward cop...
A C Steenkjær Hastrup, F Green III, C A Clausen, B Jensen


Transformation of Ophiostoma picea and Trichoderma harzianum with green fluorescent protein (GFP)
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10477
While microbial colonization of wood is presumed to be characterized by a myriad of interactions between numerous organisms, studying these processes is often difficult owing to the opaque nature of the wood and the inability to readily distinguish among the many species colonizing the material. One method for enhancing the ability to distinguish organisms is to induce specific proteins in one or ...
Ying Xiao, L M Ciuffetti, J J Morrell


Gas chromatographic determination of 1,8-naphthalimide, N-Hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide (N,N-naphthaloylhydroxylamine) and the sodium salt of N-Hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20259
A number of naphthalimide (NI) derivatives are used as efficient laser dyes, in medicine or in scanning electron microscopy. Only N,N-naphthaloylhydroxylamine (NHA) has been shown to be an effective wood preservative against wood decay fungi and termite damage. However, limited information is available concerning the analytical detection of NI-derivatives in treated timber. There is a clear need ...
E Melcher, F Green III


Proposed model for the penetration and decay of wood by the hyphal sheath of the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta
1989 - IRG/WP 1391
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of Pinus sp. decayed by the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta confirmed the existence of extracellular membranous structures previously described by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These structures appear to be an integral part of the hyphal sheath and assume a variety of forms including lamellar sheets, fibrils, and vesicles. These structures were observe...
F Green III, M J Larsen, L L Murmanis, T L Highley


Early detection of brown-rot decay in southern yellow pine using immunodiagnostic procedures
1990 - IRG/WP 2356
Immunodiagnostic procedures have been used to detect incipient decay of southern yellow pine by six common brown-rot fungi. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised to liquid culture fractions of the six fungi. The antibodies, after preadsorption to sawdust, were tested in particle agglutination assays, immuno-dot blot, and ELISA for their·ability to detect the decay organisms when they were grow...
C A Clausen, F Green III, T L Highley


Steam/hold/APM boron treatment - Treatability trials with green gauged radiata pine
1987 - IRG/WP 3439
Freshly sawn 100 x 50 mm radiata pine was green gauged, steam conditioned and preservative treated with a mixture of borax and boric acid using a modified Alternating Pressure Method (APM) treatment schedule. A 12 hour holding period between steam conditioning and treatment resulted in the necessary moisture loss and moisture re-distribution to facilitate treatment to NZ Timber Preservation Author...
P Vinden


Protection of southern pine using N,N-Napthaloylhydroxylamine: Field tests, soft-rot cellars and aquatic bioassay leach testing
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30204
Recent environmental restrictions are limiting the use of broad-spectrum biocides for wood preservation. There is an urgent need for new, sharply targeted, environmentally benign wood preservatives. N'N-Napthaloylhydroxylamine (NHA), a water-soluble calcium-precipitating agent, has been shown to inhibit decay by brown-rot and white-rot fungi in soil-block tests and prevent damage by Easte...
D M Crawford, F Green III


Hemicellulosic induction of oxalic acid in Postia placenta
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10060
Most studies suggest that enzymes produced by brown-rot fungi are too large to penetrate sound wood structures, even after decay begins. Thus, nonenzymatic agents have been proposed to initiate brown-rot decay. We have reported that the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta MAD-698 initiates a 2-fold decrease in wood pH within 7 days of colonization which is mediated by production of oxalic acid. Strai...
F Green III, M Larsen, T L Highley


The long road to understanding brown-rot decay. A view from the ditch
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10101
Interest in understanding how brown-rot fungi decay wood has received increasing interest in recent years because of a need to identify novel targets that can be inhibited for the next generation of antifungal wood preservatives. Brown-rot fungi are unique in that they can degrade holocellulose (cellulose and hemicellulose) in wood without first removing the lignin. Furthermore, they degrade holoc...
F Green III, T L Highley


Preservative treatment of green timber by diffusion
1984 - IRG/WP 3291
The preservative treatment of green timber by diffusion is reviewed together with criteria which influence the economics of the process. New process options are described which should overcome some of the technical and economic disadvantages of double diffusion. These include the use of coagulating agents which increase the viscosity of the preservative solution and facilitate treatment by momenta...
P Vinden


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