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Preventive action against fungal decay: A comparative experiment on the effects of natural and artificial infection of wood by Basidiomycetes
1981 - IRG/WP 2160
M Fougerousse


Accelerated wood decay in a soil bed test under greenhouse conditions compared with a stake test under field condition
1991 - IRG/WP 2384
The rate of decay of oak, beech, Douglas fir, pine and spruce stakes in an outside test field were compared with the decay rate of the same species in a greenhouse soil-bed test. Strength loss after four and six months respectively was measured by determining the compression strength parallel to the grain. The results show that all species, strength loss in the greenhouse was 2 to 4 times higher than under field conditions. The rate of strength loss correlates with the rate of weight loss.
J E Polman, S G Michon, H Militz


Glulaminated poles - Progress report after 7 years' testing
1987 - IRG/WP 3444
In 1979 a number of glulaminated poles with various preservative treatments were placed in a greenhouse at Uppsala, at the Simlångsdalen test field in southern Sweden and under a power line just south of the Arctic circle in order to study their resistance against biological degradation. The tests have shown that the comparatively best performance will be obtained if each lamination is treated with a water-borne preservative (only CCA was used in this test) whereafter the laminated pole is treated with creosote.
J Jermer, Ö Bergman


Field and greenhouse testing of window joinery of pine and spruce treated with LOSP
1991 - IRG/WP 3658
Norwegian window frame components of full size were double vacuum-treated with TBTN and TBTO, and connected as 'L-joints' and subsequently coated with stains. The corner sections were exposed (out of ground contact) both in field (temperated coastal climate, Taastrup, Denmark) and in a greenhouse (Uppsala, Sweden). The window frame L-joints of spruce (Picea abies Karst.) - treated and untreated showed a lower moisture content after exposure both in field and in the greenhouse than similar L-joints of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). After 70 months' exposure the spruce had almost the same permeability level as pine heartwood and far less than the pine sapwood. Since water permeability and moisture content are regarded as decisive factors for the development of decay, spruce may therefore be considered as suitable as pine, as far as durability is concerned, when used in impregnated window joineries.
F G Evans, B Henningsson, E Borsholt


The use of preservative containing waste wood as substrate for growing greenhouse crops
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50011
In the Netherlands a large amount of waste wood and wood waste is produced every year. An important part of this amount comes from the pallet and packaging industries. One of the possibilities to re-use this relatively clean material is to convert it into substrates for growing crops in glass houses instead of the commonly used materials such as rock wool and glass wool. In this research, the influence of several material parameters such as wood species, texture, density, height, water holding capacity on the growth of cucumbers has been studied and this has been compared with the growth on rock wool, which is applied in approximately 95% of the glasshouses in the Netherlands. Furthermore, the influence has been investigated of anti blue stain preservatives on the growth of the cucumber plants, this kind of preservatives is often used in the dutch industry for protection of pallets. In general it can be concluded that when waste wood is to be used as substrate a few preservatives can be accepted and some others can not. The wood species teture, density, height and water holding capacity of the substrate showed to have only a slight effect on the growth of cucumbers.
W J Homan,H Militz


The growth and metal content of plants grown in soil contaminated by a copper/chrome/arsenic wood preservative
1977 - IRG/WP 3110
Salts of copper, chromium and arsenic are used together in water soluble formulations for the preservation of wood against insect and fungal attack. Copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) preservatives are of proven efficacy and, used correctly, ensure a useful service life for timber for 30 years or more with little, if any, attendant threat to the environment from the treated wood itself. The preservative treatment site can, however, provide a point of entry for the preservative into the general environment by way of spills and leaks of the treating fluid and run off from treated wood, with resultant contamination of the surrounding soil. The possible effects of the CCA salts on plant growth and metals uptake are the subject of this paper. In a series of greenhouse pot experiments the effects of varying concentrations of CCA in soil on the germination, growth and cropping of beans, carrots and tomatoes was studied. Crops produced by the plants were analysed for their copper, chromium and arsenic contents. Additionally, grasses were grown to assess possible land reclamation difficulties. It was found that soil having a combined copper, chromium and arsenic concentration of approximately 7000 ppm completely inhibited the growth of all the plants tested, while certain concentrations below this inhibited or retarded growth to some degree. Carrots grown in soil containing approximately 1000 ppm Cu, Cr, As (200 ppm As) produced crops containing nearly twice the current recommended limit for arsenic in food. Relating the levels of CCA used in the experimentally dosed soil with the amounts found in soil samples taken from preservative treatment sites, it is apparent that many contaminated areas would not support plant life. Less heavily contaminated soil will support growth and may give rise to crops with arsenic levels higher than those deemed to be safe.
C Grant, A J Dobbs


Glue laminated poles - Progress report after 12 years' testing
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3685
In 1979 a number of glued laminated poles treated with CCA and creosote were placed in a greenhouse at Uppsala, at the Simlångsdalen test field in southern Sweden and under a power line just south of the Arctic circle in order to study their resistance against biological degradation. The tests have shown that the comparatively best performance will be obtained if each laminate is first treated with a water-borne preservative (only CCA was used in this test) and thereafter the laminated pole treated with creosote. These poles are after 12 years' exposure in the field still free from decay.
J Jermer, Ö Bergman


The Relative Performance of an Organic Preservative System under UC3A and UC3B Conditions using Two Test Methods
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20429
Coated L-joints have been used for decades to evaluate the performance of wood preservatives in protected environments. This study was conducted using matched coated and uncoated L-joints to simulate above ground protected and unprotect exposures. When exposed to constant moisture in a greenhouse environment, coated and uncoated L-joints give very similar performance results. In contrast, exposing coated and uncoated L-joint out-of-doors revealed that the coated L-joints performed worse than the uncoated samples.
C F Schauwecker, A Zahora, A F Preston


Towards designing eco-friendly buildings with in-built termite protection
2010 - IRG/WP 10-50273
The increase in greenhouse gases, leading to global warming, is considered by a consistent scientific worldview not due to natural variation, but due to the growing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and other atmospheric pollutants. Global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion and cement production rose from 22.6 billion tons in 1990 to an estimated 31.2 billion tons in 2007 – a staggering 37 percent increase. This is 85 million tons of carbon dioxide spilled into the atmosphere each day – or 13 kg on average per person. The realisation that saving the global climate and protecting ecosystems, now and in future, in a warming world, affects everyone. So, how are the IRG members and IRG as an institution, which include the building, chemical, academic, and pest control industries dealing with the challenge of global warming in sustaining their businesses? Can we advise these industries to make choices to minimise the impact of global warming and minimise their carbon footprints? Can IRG convey to the world at large the profound long-term consequences of the ‘experiment’ we are now conducting with Earth’s atmosphere, with emphasis on a sustainable wood protection industries. Furthermore, on the biological level, we have scant data on the effects of climate change to the distribution, ecology, biology and control of wood-destroying insects and wood-decay bacteria and fungi. Preliminary field tests were carried out against Coptotermes species at Caloundra in Queensland (Qld) and Nhulunbuy in Northern Territory (NT). The test samples were exposed to active above ground mound colonies of Coptotermes lacteus in Caloundra and Coptotermes acinaciformis in Nhulunbuy and there was no visible evidence of feeding or tunnelling into the Hemcrete® samples. In this paper, with global warming in mind, we offer suggestions to the timber, building, chemical, and pest control industries to consider the advent and utilisation of bio-composite, carbon negative products, such as, Hemcrete®. We consider this product meets the challenge of an eco-friendly building product that is termite resistant.
J R J French, B M Ahmed Shiday, B Maggiolo, D Maggiolo


How carbon stored in harvested wood products contribute in a greenhouse gas accounting perspective
2017 - IRG/WP 17-50327
In 2014 the net annual removal by Norwegian forests was 30.4 mill ton CO2-eqvivalents while the emissions in other sectors was 53.2 mill ton CO2-eqvivalents. Hence, forests can play a major role in the national greenhouse gas balance. But forests also contribute to the carbon pool stored in wood products. The aim of this paper is, by using Norway as an example, to illustrate how the greenhouse gas emission reporting of harvested wood products (HWP) are performed, what results it provides and what the trends are. According to the Norwegian convention reporting to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) the total Norwegian HWP pool served as a sink (net annual removals) until 2009, thereafter it has served as a source (net annual emissions). Why? The main reason is that since 2006 the number of paper factories in Norway has declined. This has resulted in a drastic reduction of export of paper and paperboards. Additional reasons for the change are periods with reduced use of sawnwood domestically and increased import at the expense of domestic production. The finance crisis in 2008 – 2009 resulted in a temporary marked drop in production value and downscaling of Norwegian production.
G Alfredsen, G Søgaard