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Report of Section 4 2001
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40218
H M Barnes, J Van Acker


Borate thermal treatments
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3715
Green, partially seasoned (air-dried, steam conditioned), or kiln-dried southern pine timbers were treated thermally using 15% disodiumoctaborate tetrahydrate solution. After treatment, sections were stored under non-drying conditions to allow for diffusion. Results showed that effective treatment meeting the AWPA minimum retention (0.17 B203 pcf [2.72 kg/m³] in the outer inch) and penetration (2...
H M Barnes, R W Landers, L H Williams


Field Testing of Copper Carboxylate Preservatives
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30322
This paper details our ongoing experience with field testing of copper naphthenate and other copper carboxylate preservative systems. Results from field stake tests at an AWPA Hazard Zone 4 test site are presented. In general, copper carboxylates made with ‘synthetics’ yielded results equivalent to or only slightly lower than systems with straight nap acids or nap acids amended with syntheti...
H M Barnes, M G Sanders, T L Amburgey


Copper naphthenate-treated Southern Pine pole stubs in field exposure. -Part 2: Chemical characterization of full size pole stubs 12 years after treatment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30246
This study examines the influence of pre-treatment and post-treatment steaming on the character and physio-chemical nature of copper naphthenate in hydrocarbon solvent treated pine in larger, pole diameter, pole stub-length samples. This work is the continuation of two projects that began almost a decade ago. Previous reports indicated that certain morphological changes might occur in small labora...
H M Barnes, D P Kamdem, M H Freeman


Innovations in the treatment of Southern pine heartwood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40172
Whereas the sapwood of southern yellow pine (Pinus spp.) is readily treatable, the heartwood is essentially impermeable to preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA). Preliminary studies at the Mississippi Forest Products Laboratory indicate that increases in penetration and retention of preservative in pine heartwood can be obtained by subjecting kiln dried dimension stock to varying m...
M G Sanders, T L Amburgey, H M Barnes


Ancillary properties of vapor boron-treated composites
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40210
This paper discusses the water absorption, thickness swelling, and internal bond strength of North American composites treated using a vapor boron treatment process. For oriented strandboard, high boron loadings led to lower internal bond strength and lower thickness swelling. Water absorption results were variable but no deleterious effect of treatment was noted. For medium density fiberboard, th...
W A Jones, H M Barnes, R J Murphy


A method for determining boron diffusion coefficients in wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30200
The radial unsteady-state diffusion coefficient for boron in southern yellow pine (Pinus spp.) was determined from measured concentration profiles using Egner's solution, a modified form of Fick's second law. The method uses a slicing technique to accurately determine concentration gradients with time in a single direction. The methodology should be applicable to any diffusible s...
J-B Ra, H M Barnes


Ground contact performance of wood treated by the MSU process
1990 - IRG/WP 3609
Environmental concerns have prompted a renewed interest in accelerated fixation schemes for CCA-treated wood. Results from stake tests of southern pine (Pinus sp.) treated using a conventional Bethell cycle are compared with matched stakes treated using the MSU Process. The effects of adding boric acid to the preservative formulation are also discussed. Differences among test plots are discussed....
H M Barnes, T L Amburgey, R W Landers


Biocide Treatments for Wood Composites - A Review
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40323
This paper reviews the biocidal treatment of wood composites. Included are in-process and post-process treatments. Various biocides are covered as are methods of application. Novel treatments and technologies are also presented....
J W Kirkpatrick, H M Barnes


Bending properties of treated western hemlock plywood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40064
This study investigated the mechanical properties of western hemlock plywood after treatment with waterborne preservatives and redrying. Unlike previously reported results for southern pine plywood, western hemlock plywood was more sensitive to redrying temperature than to preservative treatment. Generally, western hemlock plywood was affected by temperature and other variables. Losses in mechanic...
H M Barnes, A Khouadja, D E Lyon


A Preliminary Report on the Properties of Engineered Wood Composite Panels Treated with Copper Naphthenate
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40294
This paper reports on our preliminary investigation of the properties of randomly oriented strandboard which had waterborne or powdered copper naphthenate (CuN) incorporated into the board during manufacture. When compared to zinc borate-treated controls (ZnB), the mechanical properties of strandboard (MOR, MOE, work-to-maximum load, internal bond strength) were not adversely affected by treatmen...
J W Kirkpatrick, H M Barnes


Serviceability of copper naphthenate-treated poles
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30214
Copper naphthenate-treated poles in service were inspected for deterioration, penetration, retention, and serviceability. The study to date has included poles in all hazard zones in the United States. Poles installed by 12 different utilities and eight different treating companies are included in the survey. Both southern pine and Douglas-fir poles and distribution and transmission poles are inclu...
H M Barnes, M H Freeman, J A Brient, C N Kerr Jr


The Chemical and Biological Properties of Polymeric Betaine
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30512
Didecyl polyoxyethyl ammonium borate (DPAB), also known as Polymeric Betaine, was developed as a co-biocide for chromium-free copper based wood preservatives in Europe in the 1980’s. DPAB as a wood preservative has been reported previously. This paper summarizes the chemical, physical, and biological properties of DPAB. ...
H Härtner, S Schmitt, Futong Cui, H M Barnes


Bending Properties of FRT OSB
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40600
Fire retardant treated (FRT) oriented strandboard (OSB) and plywood of different widths were tested in static bending to determine width effects. Results were consistent with previous width effect studies and showed that increasing specimen width results in a decrease in sample MOR properties among all the sample groups tested in this study. Increasing sample width for OSB samples leads to more ...
J M Hill, H M Barnes, S Q Shi


Evaluation of Barrier Wrap Systems after 71 Months of Exposure
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40631
A 71 month study of the performance of booted samples in ground contact was conducted in AWPA hazard zone 4. Data indicated that excellent performance of wrapped systems, even over untreated wood, could be obtained. Instances of decay colonization or termite attack could all be attributed to some breaking of the integrity of the barrier system. Good performance for treatment below ground contact...
H M Barnes, M G Sanders, G B Lindsey, C McIntyre


Bending & tensile properties of vapor boron-treated composites
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40228
North American composites including laminated veneer lumber, oriented strandboard, and medium density fiberboard were treated by vapor boron technology and subsequently tested in static bending. Tensile properties were also determined for the two composite boards. The study was designed as 3 x 2 factorial with three treatment levels and two mill locations for each composite type. In general, mil...
H M Barnes, R J Murphy, B K Via


Copper naphthenate-treated Southern Pine pole stubs in field exposure: - Part 1: Gradient & biodeterioration analysis 12 years after treatment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30242
Naphthenates have been used for the preservation of timber and cellulose since their original identification in Russia in the early 1880's as part of a series of petroleum characterizations. Later work in the development of copper naphthenate as a heavy-duty preservative for poles led to the development of various treating cycles similar to other oil-borne systems. Recent work concerning ...
H M Barnes, M H Freeman


Performance of copper naphthenate-treated hardwoods
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30269
Copper naphthenate (CuNap) is a historically proven, commercially produced and industry utilized preservative for many wooden commodities including poles, fence posts, lumber, timber and wood shakes/shingles. Historically, most wood preservatives are tested using the sapwood of softwood species like pine (Pinus spp.) and or Douglas-fir (Pseudosuga menziesii) and even though the railroads of the wo...
H M Barnes, T L Amburgey, H M Freeman, J A Brient


The efficacy of polymer/preservative treatments in soil-bed exposure
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3729
Southern pine was treated with CCA, CCB, sodium borax/boric acid, or disodiumoctaborate, alone or in combination with an acrylic polymer system containing a water repellent. Treated samples were subjected to an unsterile soil burial test. The addition of polymer reduced the weight loss in borontreated samples at the lower retentions but not at the higher retention. Results with borates indicate th...
R J Murphy, H M Barnes, S M Gray


Mechanical properties of CCA-treated southern pine after post-treatment kiln drying
1989 - IRG/WP 3543
This report reviews current research dealing with the effects of waterborne preservative treatment and redrying on the mechanical properties of wood. In general, waterborne preservative treatments reduce average mechanical properties. This effect is exaggerated when treated wood is kiln-dried after treatment, especially at elevated temperatures. For lumber, recently completed research at the Missi...
H M Barnes, J E Winandy


Effect of post-treatment drying schedule on the modulus of elasticity of CCA-treated southern pine dimension stock using nondestructive methods
1987 - IRG/WP 3413
This paper describes the results from the nondestructive testing for modulus of elasticity (MOE) of southern pine (Pinus sp.) 2 x 6's treated with chromated copper arsenate and redried using three commercial kiln schedules. The data indicate that redrying CCA-treated southern pine dimension stock treated to above-ground retentions (4 kg/m³) has no deleterious effect on the MOE, regardles...
H M Barnes, S Moore


Effect of aqueous polymer treatments on wood properties. Part 2: Mechanical properties
1990 - IRG/WP 3611
Partially air-dried sapwood of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and southern pine (Pinus spp.) was treated with either aqueous polyacrylate or aqueous dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU) solutions. Tests for static bending, toughness, and hardness were conducted on matched treated and untreated pieces according to ASTM Standards. Properties of pine were not affected by treatment with the po...
Z Ashaari, H M Barnes, D E Lyon, R C Vasishth, D D Nicholas


Working plan: Second international collaborative field trial
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20056
This paper describes the scope, objectives, and approaches to be used in the second international collaborative field trial approved by the Scientific Programme Committee for partial funding in 1994. The trial is designed to develop a broad data base on causal mechanisms, interactions, and factor affecting the performance of treated wood in ground contact. The trial encompasses 12 different field ...
H M Barnes, T L Amburgey


Tool wear for vapor boron-treated composites
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40209
A series of composites, including oriented strandboard and medium density fiberboard, were treated via vapor boron technology. Treated samples were compared to untreated composites using a tool force measuring technique. Tool forces measured with a dynamometer indicated a positive effect of boron addition. Visual and SEM examination indicated a wider wear zone on the rake face of the tool for the ...
W A Jones, H M Barnes, H A Stewart, R J Murphy


Borates as wood preserving compounds: The status of research in the United States
1989 - IRG/WP 3542
This paper describes the extensive, on-going cooperative research effort among government and university research laboratories and industry to fully evaluate the potential for borates as wood preservatives in the United States. Research is discussed in terms of laboratory evaluations, field testing and mill trials, pilot plant pressure treatment studies, and remedial treatments. Future research pl...
H M Barnes, T L Amburgey, L H Williams, J J Morrell


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