Your search resulted in 91 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
New developments in wood preservation
1974 - IRG/WP 335
Most of the developments in wood preservation in recent years have been stimulated by changing circumstances, particularly the increasing interest in reducing hazards and environmental, pollution but also the serious difficulties that are now being encountered in obtaining economic supplies of established preservatives. There is perhaps a danger that new controls to reduce pollution dangers may be...
B A Richardson
High-energy multiple impact (HEMI)-test – Part 2: A mechanical test for the detection of fungal decay
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20339
The suitability of the high-energy multiple impact (HEMI)-test for detection of early fungal decay was examined. The HEMI – test characterizes the treatment quality of thermally modified wood by stressing the treated material by thousands of impacts of pounding steel balls. This method differentiates between heat treatment intensities, which are expressed by structural changes of the wood. Simil...
C R Welzbacher, C Brischke, A O Rapp
High-energy multiple impact (HEMI)-test – Part 1: A new tool for quality control of thermally modified timber
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20346
Thermal modification processes improve durability and dimensional stability of wood, but the strength properties, especially the dynamic ones, are compromised and need to be considered with respect to industrial quality control. Results from standard dynamic strength testing, such as impact bending tests, suffer from high variability, and therefore require a high number of replicates. To overcome ...
C Brischke, A O Rapp, C R Welzbacher
Mechanical strength of wood from the Vasa shipwreck
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20381
Samples from three ancient ship wrecks (Vasa, Elefanten, and Gröne Jägaren) and recent oak samples as reference were examined with regard to mechanical strength using the high-energy multiple impact (HEMI) - test method, which delivers the resistance to impact milling (RIM) of a material. Adoption and optimisation of the test method for the particular sample size of the wooden drilling cores was...
A O Rapp, C Brischke, C R Welzbacher, T Nilsson, C Björdal
The effect of gamma radiation on selected wood properties
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40394
As an easy, fast, and effective sterilisation method, gamma irradiation changes molecular structures not only in pest’s living cells, but also in wooden cell walls. Radiation-induced depolymerisation causes significant changes in some properties of wood crucial for restoration and for laboratory testing of wood-preservative effectiveness. The influence of gamma radiation concerning total amount ...
R Despot, M Hasan, A O Rapp, C Brischke, C R Welzbacher
Estimating the heat treatment intensity through various properties of thermally modified timber (TMT)
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40459
The suitability of different measures for prediction of the heat treatment intensity was investigated. Therefore, the resistance to impact milling (RIM), the lightness L*, the equilibrium moisture content (EMC), the anti swelling efficiency (ASE) and the total amount of soluble carbohydrates (TSC) of heat treated specimens were correlated with corresponding fungal resistance achieved by heat treat...
C R Welzbacher, C Brischke, A O Rapp
Influence of heat treatment intensity on the structural integrity of 14 timber species
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40586
Thermally modified timber (TMT) is characterized by improved durability and dimensionally stability, but strength properties, especially the dynamic ones, are compromised at the same time. Because dynamic standard tests require high efforts and time, the high-energy multiple impact (HEMI) –test was developed for the fast and reliable characterisation of the structural integrity of TMT, showing a...
C R Welzbacher, C Brischke, G Maier
Changes in mechanical and chemical properties of wood exposed outdoors
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20550
The aim of this study was to investigate differences in certain mechanical and chemical properties of three different wood species (common beach (Fagus sylvatica), Norway spruce (Picea abies), and copper-ethanolamine (CuE) impregnated Norway spruce (Picea abies)) that were exposed in use class 3 (CEN, 2006) for periods between 4 and 30 months. The results show, that changes in the investigated me...
N Thaler, C Brischke, D Žlindra, V Vek, M Humar
The effect of preservative treatment on mechanical strength and structural integrity of wood
2015 - IRG/WP 15-30667
The use of wood for demanding construction applications is increasing in Europe. Wooden constructions are frequently designed of susceptible conifer wood, which is endangered by wood decay fungi in wet applications. Therefore in many cases treating wood with preservatives is unavoidable to ensure the desired service life. However, chemical treatment of wood can result in changes of its mechanical ...
M Humar, D Kržišnik, C Brischke
Problems caused by termites in buildings in the State of Sao Paulo
1976 - IRG/WP 150
Termites are the main insects attacking buildings in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. Their attack occurs in wood and wooden materials as well as paper, textile, leather and so on....
M S Cavalcante
Improved equipment and technique for high pressure sap displacement impregnation of natural round wood
1972 - IRG/WP 309
Hitherto the main problem in the practical application of high pressure sap displacement impregnation (HPSD) has been in devising a satisfactory cap. Such a cap must be easily fitted to different size log ends to give a leak proof seal. The present contribution describes a new type of cap and sealing system designed to meet these requirements....
C G W Mason, F B Shorland
Changed susceptibility of the chemically and thermally degraded spruce wood to its attack by the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10322
In buildings, some intentional or unintended situations can occur at which some wood products are exposed to aggressive chemicals and also to higher temperatures. Occasional activity of fungi on such pre-attacked wood products can be either higher or lower. This paper deals with changes in the susceptibility of spruce wood (Picea abies L. Karst.) to attack by the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans, ...
A fixation model, based on the temperature dependence of CCA-C fixation
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40163
A model was prepared for the fixation of 1% CCA-C in red pine that allows the prediction of extent of fixation based on the temperature history of the treated wood following pressure treatment. The reaction kinetics of the rapid initial reaction and the slower main reaction were characterized using the Van t'Hoff equation. The initial reaction could be represented by a 10th order chemical...
P A Cooper, K M F Kazi, Jianbin Chen, Y T Ung
Decay resistance of high performance biocomposites based on chemically modified fibres
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40120
Different partners within the framework of a European research project produced high performance biocomposites aiming at the utilisation of board materials as durable products both in dimensional and biological degrading circumstances. This paper summarises test data, which indicate the potential of board materials produced with modified fibre material. The chemical modifications applied cover a r...
V Rijckaert, J Van Acker, M Stevens
Preservative treatment of Pinus elliottii
1987 - IRG/WP 3435
The treatment of Pinus elliottii with copper-chrome-arsenic preservative by four alternative seasoning and treatment methods is investigated. Steam conditioning followed by either alternating pressure method (APM) or 'Q' treatment resulted in inadequate preservative penetration. Air drying or high temperature drying followed by the Bethell process resulted in a high standard of t...
P Vinden, L Carter
Radio frequency heating times for sterilization radiata pine solid piles
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40815
In this work was sterilized wood packaging material of radiata pine, stacked as solid piles without stickers, for determining the heating times using radiofrequency treatment. The experiments were performed in a radio frequency semi-industrial equipment. The results showed that the radio frequency heating times increases with wood volume and that radio frequency treatments were faster than convent...
H Esquivel, V Sepúlveda, J Torres, L Salvo, R A Ananías
Exterior wood stains
1980 - IRG/WP 3135
Experience has shown that conventional paints cannot now be relied upon to provide a complete seal against water entry, that in practice water can often circumvent the film and that the paint, far from serving to keep water out will seal it in. Moreover present-day paints are often subject to localised and premature failure out of doors and consequently entail high maintenance costs. Problems of w...
E R Miller
Resin bleed after light organic solvent preservative treatment - the effect of drying method and process type
1986 - IRG/WP 3378
The effects of drying method and treatment process type on resin bleed were investigated. High-temperature drying of resinous radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) heartwood resulted in improved wood permeability, higher preservative uptake, and greater resin bleed when treated by the Rueping process. Resin bleed was reduced substantially when timber was treated by the Lowry process, and totally eli...
Observations on the uptake and penetration of various liquids in clear heartwood and sapwood of Pinus radiata D.Don
1983 - IRG/WP 3224
Volumetric uptake of water (aqueous copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA)) or methanol, applied by bulk hydrostatic pressure to air dried clear heartwood specimens of Pinus radiata D. Don, far exceeds that of a wide variety of polar and non-polar solvents. In air dried sapwood, the volumetric uptake of CCA tends to be less than that achieved for most solvents including methanol. No comprehensive explanation...
J E Barnacle
The effect of high temperature and long pressing time on the dimensional stability and decay resistance of OSB
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40237
The exterior use of OSB is restricted because when it is exposed to wet conditions swelling, loss of internal bond strength (IB) and decay occur. In this study an alternative process of pressing which results in the production of dimensionally stable and a more decay resistant strandboard was investigated. Boards were pressed at elevated temperatures for prolonged pressing cycles and their physi...
G J Goroyias, M D C Hale
Utilization of plasma treatments in the field of wood protection
2021 - IRG/WP 21-40912
Plasma treatments have been used for modification of surfaces of wood and wood-based materials for some decades and solutions were developed to apply it for wood protection. This contribution aims to present the background, introduce the available plasma technology, and to give an overview on the typical applications and benefits....
S Dahle, H Militz
Distribution of cellulases in the body of Coptotermes formosanus and the probability that the termite uses glucose as an energy and carbon sources
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10202
We assayed extracts of the digestive system and of the whole body of Coptotermes formosanus to determine where the various cellulases, glucose, and related substances were concentrated and to detect pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in the hindgut-removed body in order to verify its full cellulolytic system. About 20%, 18% and 36% of the total exo-1,4-ß-glucanase activity of C. formosanus were dete...
S Itakura, H Tanaka, A Enoki
High CCA retentions and the protection of eucalypt power poles
1983 - IRG/WP 3226
Tasmanian power pole material treated to high retentions, was analysed to accurately determine the amount of CCA preservative in the timber. Material from the same disc was subsequently exposed in unsterile soil in order to determine the effectiveness of treatment. Results showed that even at high retention levels, soft-rot attack was not prevented. Fourteen further poles were sampled, but this ti...
L E Leightley, J Norton
EELS (Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy) - a technique for quantification of nitrogen and other light elements in the cell wall
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20163
A literature survey was performed to find progress in techniques for monitoring penetration of synthetic resins in wood cell walls. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in combination with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was successfully applied for the high resolution examination of the distribution of a partly methylated hydroxymethyl melamine resin in Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst...
A O Rapp, H Bestgen, W Adam, R-D Peek
Durability of surface preserved wood particle boards submitted to atmospherical influence
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40039
The worldwide problem of the continuously growing deficit of high quality natural wood material has caused the attempts of many research workers to find effective composites such as wood particle boards (WPBs) for replacing the massive wood for constructive purposes, depending on where the boards are exploited - in the open or under a shed, they are submitted to various climatic factors such as he...