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Questionnaire - Fungal decay types
1985 - IRG/WP 1265
T Nilsson


The effect of certain wood extractives on the growth of marine micro-organisms
1977 - IRG/WP 438
S E J Furtado, E B G Jones, J D Bultman


Isolation and identification of the fungal flora in treated wood
1976 - IRG/WP 144
J F Levy


Extracellular hydrogen peroxide producing and hydrogen peroxide reducing compounds of wood decay fungi
1991 - IRG/WP 1516
Extracellular H2O2-producing and H2O2-reducing compounds were isolated from wood-containing cultures of all the white-rot and brown-rot fungi and Ascomycetes which well degraded wood, but were not detected in the culture of the fungi which degraded little wood. The compounds are glycopeptides with a low molecular weight, require H2O2 for one-electron oxidation, catalyze the redox reaction between an electron donor such as NADH or ascorbic acid and O2 to produce H2O2 via O2·-, and produce ·OH by Fenton's reaction between the ferrous iron bound to the ligands and H2O2. The compounds show no phenol-oxidase activity and catalyze the hydroxylation of phenol to catechol and hydroquinone in the presence of H2O2.
A Enoki, G Fuse, H Tanaka


Tebuconazole - A new triazole fungicide for wood preservation
1990 - IRG/WP 3629
The main cause of economic damage to timber and millwork worldwide are Basidiomycetes (brown and white rot). After testing a wide range of triazole derivatives for their effectiveness against decay fungi, Tebuconazole, a triazole compound, was selected. The physico-chemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological data of this substance are described. Tebuconazole is unleachable, light-stable, heat-stable and suitable for use in both solvent-borne and water-borne formulations. Tests carried out by official institutes show that Tebuconazole is resistant to both leaching and evaporation. Toxic values measured in accordance with EN 113 and EN 73 (e.g. Gloeophyllum trabeum: 0.03-0.08 kg/m³ a.i.) reveals the great potential of Tebuconazole to protect treated wood against decay fungi.
R Gründlinger, O Exner


Fungitoxic effect of the quaternary ammonium compounds wood preservatives against the Ascomycetes and Deuteromycetes
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30138
Results of investigation on fungitoxic value of the three formulations of wood preservatives based on the quaternary ammonium compounds (lauryldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, lauryldimethylbenzylammonium bromide, alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride) in relation to the surface wood colouring (moulds) and soft-rot fungi have been presented. The agar-plate (screening) and agar-wood plate for moulding fungi and vermiculite-block methods for soft-rot fungi were applied. A high effectiveness of the formulations was proved.
J Wazny, P Rudniewski


Field study: Wood degradation pattern in buildings and utility poles in tropical climates of Nigeria
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1521
The paper is the result of five years field study of wood degradation patterns in three ecological forest zones (Guinea Savannah, Tropical rain forest and mangrove forest zones, respectively). It involved 800 residential buildings and 700 electric overhead transmission poles. The methodology used was a modified Eslyn (6) test. A high rate of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes attack especially on the windward side of residential buildings was noted. A high incidence of subterranean termite attack as well as their ability to bridge resistant structures to reach their ultimate host was recorded. Powderpost beetles attack in household furniture and fittings made of non-durable wood and sapwood were common, but particle board proved immune. Overhead electric transmission poles pressure treated with cole tar based preservatives proved very resistant to biodeterioration. Seasoning defects are a common feature on the windward side of buildings and a major problem in poles. The author concluded that because of the favourable climate, pressure or other deep penetration treatments is desirable for all non-durable woods in tropical climates. Wood preservative formulations for utility poles should possess some dimensional stabilization properties. Remedial treatments were also recommended for dry rot, termite and powderpost beetles in existing structures.
E O Onuorah


List of fungi observed in avalanche barriers located in subalpine and alpine regions
1970 - IRG/WP 17
In the Subalpine region (Schilt-Stein; 1400-1500 m above sea level) the following fungi were observed: Basidiomycetes: Corticium alutaceum, Corticium ochraceum, Corticium sp., Collybia sp., Dacryomyces deliquescens, Exidia glandulosa, Lenzites abietina, Lenzites sepiaria, Lenzites trabea, Osmoporus odoratus, Peniophora pubera, Peniophora sp., Polystictus abietina, Poria placenta, Poria mucida, Poria versipora, Poria sp., Schizophyllum commune, Stereum sanguinolentum. In the Alpine region (Dorfberg-Davos; 1900-2500 m above sea level) the following fungi were observed: Basidiomycetes: Corticium alutaceum, Corticium ochraceum, Cyphella sp., Dacryomyces deliquescens, Exidia glandulosa, Flammula sp., Hydnum alutaceum, Hymenochaeta fuliginosa, Hypholoma sublateritium, Lenzites abietina, Lenzites sepiaria, Mycena sanguinolenta, Nematoloma fasciculare, Osmoporus odoratus, Peniophora gigantea, Peniophora pubera, Peniophora subtilis, Peniophora sp., Phellinus nigrolimitatus, Polyporus adustus, Polyporus fragilis, Polystictus abietina, Poria medulla panis, Poria placenta, Poria reticulata, Poria taxicola, Poria vaillantii, Poria vaporaria, Poria versipora, Schizophyllum commune, Stereum sanguinolentum, Trametes pubescens, Trametes serialis Ascomycetes: Geoglossum sp., Lachnea scutellata, Otidea sp. Myxomycetes: Acryria punicea, Stemonitis fusca.
O Wälchli


Isolation and identification of the fungal flora in treated wood. Revised technique
1977 - IRG/WP 159
At the 8th Annual Meeting in Wildhaus a paper was presented for discussion on the isolation of fungi from treated wood.·Since then work of this nature has been undertaken at Imperial College and as a result a revision of that document has been made and is presented here. The main alterations are: 1) To streamline the isolation procedure 2) Modification of the benomyl agar 3) The inclusion of a standard, low concentration malt medium, for the comparison of all isolates. This was found to be necessary due to the similar appearance of the same organism on different mediar. This isolation procedure thus supersedes the previous one outlined in Document No: IRG/WP/144.
C P Clubbe, J F Levy


An unusual soft-rot decay pattern caused by the Ascomycete Hypoxylon mediterraneum (de Not.) J Miller
1984 - IRG/WP 1222
A distinct pattern of soft-rot decay has been observed for the fungus Hypoxylan mediterraneum (de Not.) J. Miller. This fungus also produced decay patterns typical of brown and white rot decay. The production of characteristic cavities by Hypoxylan mediterraneum was prolific in the hardwoods Eucalyptus maculata and Eucalyptus regnans, but infrequent in the softwoods, Pinus elliottii and Pinus radiata. The chemistry of this decay was investigated using carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR). This technique produced results valuable to the understanding of the timber decay activities of Hypoxylan mediterraneum.
D M Francis, L E Leightley


Photostabilization of Wood with Higher Molecular Weight UV Absorbers
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30524
Higher molecular weight UV absorbers were created by reacting the epoxy-functionalized UV absorber 2-hydroxy-4(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-benzophenone (HEPBP) with maleic, phthalic or succinic anhydride. The ability of the UV absorbers to photostabilize wood was then examined. FTIR-spectroscopy confirmed that HEPBP reacted with phthalic anhydride to create a polyester that preserved the UV-absorbing benzophenone group. There was less evidence that the polyester was formed when HEPBP was reacted with maleic or succinic anhydride. HEPBP-phthalic anhydride was the most effective UV absorber at photostabilising wood. This UV absorber showed increased UV absorption around 270 nm, formed a leach-resistant film at wood surfaces and was able to restrict both weight and tensile strength losses of thin wood veneers during accelerated weathering, unlike chromium trioxide and a UV absorber-hindered amine light stabilizer. We conclude that higher molecular weight polyester-type UV absorbers show promise as a way of photostabilizing wood and briefly discuss how more effective systems could be developed.
P D Evans, M J Chowdhury


Elimination of colonies belonging to higher termite group using insecticide bait: A short review
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10908
Controlling termite infestation by using baiting method is gaining popularity around the world. Lower group of termites particularly belonging to the genus Coptotermes have proven to be easy to control by this method due to their nature of feeding. However termites belonging to higher group, such as those under Termitidae were initially thought to be a challenge as they mostly fed on fungal gardens cultivated inside their mounds. This papers reviews a few studies now available which prove baits can be used to control and eliminate colonies of higher termites.
P Dhang


Dynamics of fungi colonization on the surface of Scots pine wood during natural weathering in different European climate zones
2022 - IRG/WP 22-10984
Wood The presence of fungi leads to biomaterial decay and/or changes in aesthetical appeal. The start of fungi colonization as well as the following growth on wood are primarily influenced by four factors: ambient temperature, moisture history of the object, access to oxygen, and intrinsic properties of the exposed wood, considered here as a source of nutrients for microorganisms. A prevalence of fungal spores in a close vicinity, combined with favourable environmental conditions are indispensable for the initiation of the growth of microorganisms. All the above factors are highly dependent on the local circumstances and especially climate conditions. It is important to understand the effect of weather on the diversity and distribution of endemic fungal communities in advance, to identify plausible remedies as related to the present global climatic changes. It is foreseen that the composition of fungal cultures as well as their growth kinetics on various wood substrates may evolve in the near future. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between specific weather conditions, representing diverse climate zones, on the occupancies and colonization dynamics of fungi/mould species. The test was performed on untreated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood samples exposed to natural weathering for 12 weeks from July to September 2021, in two locations: 1) Izola (Slovenia, 45°32'12.98"N, 13°39'42.98"E), representing the mild Mediterranean climate of southern Europe, and 2) Skellefteå (Sweden, 64°45'2.41"N, 20°57'10.04"E) representing Scandinavian or northern Europe climate zone. The local weather conditions recorded during the exposure period were used for modelling the growth kinetics. Fungi colonizing wood surfaces were manually collected from twin samples at each location, every second week, by swabs and cultured on nutrient media. The identification of fungi was performed visually according to the mycological keys of the detected genus. The presence of fungi was first noticed after 2 weeks of exposure. The majority of species detected were Ascomycetes from the genus Cladosporium, Aureobasidium, and Aspergillus. The combination of climatic parameters influences the compositions and colonisation of microorganisms on Scots pine wood. However, the obtained results showed fluctuations in the colonisation of the spores of culturable fungi. This might be the influence of other factors including geographic location, sensitivity of each fungal species to environmental factors, animals, plants, human activities, and pollutants that need to be taken in account.
F Poohphajai, O Myronycheva, O Karlsson, L Rautkari, J Sandak, A Sandak