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Appearance of PEC-treated poles in service
1985 - IRG/WP 3323
Poles treated with conventional high temperature creosote (HTC) are banned for use in Australia by the major union handling them. Pigment emulsified creosote (PEC) is an acceptable alternative because it provides much dryer and cleaner commodities than does HTC. More than 5000 poles have so far been treated with PEC and many are being installed into service. The brown pigmented PEC 30 B has given variable results, with some pole species still exuding preservative after treatment. White pigmented PEC 30 W therefore has been introduced to replace PEC 30 B and the surface quality of poles has been further improved. The weather conditions following treatment and during service have been found to influence the drying of surfaces even on poles treated with PEC 30 B. A survey of 157 standing PEC-treated poles and 67 HTC-treated 'controls' has highlighted a marked difference between cleanliness of the two treatments. A questionnaire survey of union members handling the poles has produced inconclusive results, although there appears to be a marked bias shown by some workers against creosote in any form. Our survey of poles in service clearly indicates that PEC represents a new preservative with considerable future potential.
H Greaves, C-W Chin, K J McCarthy, J B Watkins

Further progress towards a cleaner creosote treatment - Summarised report
1984 - IRG/WP 3304
This document provides an up-dated progress report on our development of pigment emulsified creosote (PEC) used as a cleaner alternative to conventional high temperature creosote. A range of commodities (both hardwood and softwood) has now been satisfactorily treated in pilot plant and full scale commercial operations. Both brown (PEC 30B) and white (PEC 30W) formulations have been used. In addition a number of biocides have been added to PEC 30B in order that wood may be treated to lower overall creosote levels while still retaining full preservation performance. It is anticipated that PEC will be used to treat a wide range of hardwood and softwood commodities.
H Greaves, C-W Chin, J B Watkins

Clean creosote - its development, and comparison with conventional high temperature creosote
1983 - IRG/WP 3235
Pigment emulsified creosote (PEC) is presently being tested and shows considerable stability in terms of water content, pigment level, pH, viscosity, rheological behaviour and microscopy. Timber samples from several eucalypt species have been treated with PEC and side matched samples treated with conventional high temperature creosote (HTC). The PEC treated specimens showed higher weight retentions of total preservative, (based on sapwood volume) than did the HTC treated samples. In terms of whole creosote however, retentions were not significantly different. Fuming was negligible immediately the PEC treated samples were removed from the pressure cylinder. In addition, the surface of freshly treated PEC samples was drier and much easier to handle than HTC treated samples and they remained dry even after eight months of weathering. 'Crud' formation on the surfaces of the exposed PEC samples was less than the corresponding HTC samples. There was no apparent difference in the penetration and macro-distribution of the two preservatives in the sapwood of matched samples. Full depth of sapwood penetration of both preservatives was visible.
C W Chin, J B Watkins, H Greaves

The performance in the sea of seven experimental piles after sixteen years at Port Douglas, North Queensland
1989 - IRG/WP 4151
After 16 years at Port Douglas, two double-treated Pinus radiata piles were in excellent condition, a CCA-treated Pinus elliottii pile was in good condition other than for a confined streak of teredinid attack, while two CCA-treated and two untreated turpentine piles were moderately to severely attacked by Sphaeroma in the tidal zone. The marine borers collected were Sphaeroma terebrans, Martesia striata, Lyrodus sp., Teredo sp., Limnoria unicornis, Limnoria indica and Limnoria insulae.
L J Cookson, J E Barnacle, C N McEvoy

A laboratory bioassay method for testing preservatives against the marine borers Limnoria tripunctata, L. quadripunctata (Crustacea) and Lyrodus pedicellatus (Mollusca)
1990 - IRG/WP 4159
A laboratory culture and bioassay method is described for the marine borers Limnoria tripunctata, Limnoria quadripunctata, and Lyrodus pedicellatus. The methods were tested in a bioassay using established marine preservatives. The attack produced on blocks treated with CCA or creosote in some ways paralleled the attack found in the sea. Limnoria tripunctata attacked treated and untreated pine blocks more readily than eucalypt blocks, a difference that was much less apparent in the other species. Limnoria tripunctata was more active on blocks placed on the floor of aquaria, than on blocks suspended in the seawater, or those placed with limnoriids in separate dishes.
L J Cookson

Comparison of the in-ground performance of pigment emulsified creosote (PEC) and high temperature creosote (HTC)
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30217
A long-term field trial was conducted in Australia to compare the in-ground performance of two oil-borne preservative formulations, conventional high temperature creosote (HTC) and a modified creosote formulation, pigment emulsified creosote (PEC). Three retentions (50, 100 and 200 kg/m³) were targeted for each formulation. An additional retention of PEC formulation (308 kg/m³), which contained 200 kg/m³ of creosote, was also included in the trial. Treated and untreated Eucalyptus regnans sapwood specimens were exposed horizontally below-ground to a range of economically important species of subterranean termites and wood decay fungi at two tropical and one semi-arid test sites. After 11 years of exposure, specimens treated with 200 kg/m3 of HTC and specimens treated with PEC containing 200 kg/m3 of creosote continue to perform well. Results of the field trial demonstrate that PEC will perform comparably to HTC on an equivalent creosote retention basis.
J W Creffield, H Greaves, N Chew, N K Nguyen