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Preliminary PIXE micro-analysis of copper-chrome-arsenic preservative treated Malaysian hardwoods
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20169
The novel nuclear microscopy, essentially the Particle-induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) system, was applied for examining the macro-distribution and micro-analysis of copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) preservative in Malaysian hardwoods Koompassia malaccensis, K. excelsa, Alstonia spp. and Dipterocarpus spp., and one temperate pinewood Pinus sylvestris, where the preservative retention differed between the...
A H H Wong, R B Pearce, G W Grime, F Watt


Best handling practices for wood crossties (sleepers)
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40714
Wooden crossties (sleepers) dominate the rail industry in the USA. Most ties are hardwood treated with oil-borne preservatives using pressure treatment. Incipient decay (called ‘stack burn’) commonly develops during the pre-treatment drying process and reduces tie performance and longevity. Practices to minimize stack burn and enhance wooden tie performance are discussed as an aid to non-wood ...
N Irby, J Lloyd, A Taylor, J Watt