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Termite Management and the U.S. Experience: A Case for Wood Treatment & Integrated Control
2015 - IRG/WP 15-30678
A brief overview of termite control is given using specific experiences from the U.S.A. Five major types of termite treatment now prevail: soil applied chemical barriers, in-structure chemical barriers (in-situ applied wood and foundation treatments), physical barriers, treated wood and termite baits. In general, ‘stand-alone’ pretreatments or ‘primary’ treatments are often discussed and ...
J D Lloyd, K van den Meiracker


Service life prediction of wood: scale-dependent tools within a bio-engineering framework
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20387
Service life prediction (SLP) is a complex yet essential method for the building industry. Accurate and precise assessment of the components is crucial for a strong position of wood on the market. As it is a biological material, wood has an inherent variability and is susceptible to fungal attack. Therefore a profound knowledge of these characteristics is the corner stone of SLP for wood products....
J Van den Bulcke, J Van Acker, M Stevens


Wood plastic composites from modified wood. Part 3. Durability of WPCs with bioderived matrix
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40423
The decay resistance of fully bio-derived wood plastic composites, WPCs, was tested in both laboratory and field tests. The laboratory tests were performed according to modified versions of AWPA E10 (soil-block test) and ENV 807 (tests in three un-sterile soils) and the field tests according to EN 252 (stakes in ground) and EN 275 (resistance to marine borers). The WPC materials for laboratory tes...
M Westin, P Larsson Brelid, B K Segerholm, M Van den Oever


Continuous moisture measurement (CMM) to detect failure of moisture resistance
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20422
A wood coating system will fail to perform properly after a certain time of weathering. From that moment, the substrate is especially prone to fungal attack. Moisture plays a key role on weathering performance, wood protection efficacy and decay susceptibility of wood. Therefore, knowledge of the moisture dynamics of the applied wood protection is of significant importance in the prediction of the...
I De Windt, J Van den Bulcke, J Van Acker


The biological durability approach for wood product performance and service life prediction
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20457
The performance of wood-based products under conditions that enable biodegradation are of concern to all who envisage sustainable use of forest based products. This concern is also the basis of classification of wood species on the basis of their biological durability. Engineers are looking for options to transfer such classification into practical service life values for constructions and related...
J Van Acker, J Van den Bulcke, L De Boever


Improved analysis of field test data related to service life prediction of tropical wood species
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20458
Long field trials of wood in ground contact give valuable data on the natural durability of the material. The European Standard EN 350 gives guidance on how to perform these durability classification, but is limited to the use of averages of in-service life of a set of specimens compared to a reference set. Starting from a database of visual assessment of field stake testing, it is possible to obt...
J Van den Bulcke, A Wong, Ling Wang Choon, Yoon Soo Kim, J Van Acker


Impact of wood species on the performance of exterior wood coatings
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40519
To prolong the service life of a wooden construction the protective function of a coating is of utmost importance. The chemical composition as well as the wood-coating interface affects the performance of this protective layer and obviously wood species have an impact too. This paper discusses the influence of wood species on the overall coating performance. Therefore, a range of opaque waterborne...
I De Windt, J Van den Bulcke, J Van Acker


Moisture dynamics of WPC as basis for biological durability
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40520
The largest market for wood-polymer composites (WPCs) is currently decking. Although many products are commercially available, a proper standard for the assessment of the biological durability of WPC does not exist. Recommended standards for testing resistance against basidiomycetes should be completed with a method to bring the specimens in a worst case situation, obtaining a moisture level high ...
N Defoirdt, J Van Acker, J Van den Bulcke


Non-destructive evaluation of wood decay
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20479
Evaluation of wood decay is often prone to subjective assessment. Standard rating scales are based on human perception of decay, often in addition to weight loss measurements. Especially the assessment of graveyard specimens or other long term testing material that has to be monitored regularly on a non-destructive basis, is challenging. In this paper two techniques are presented that can deliver ...
J Van den Bulcke, I De Windt, N Defoirdt, J Van Acker


Limited variability in biological durability of thermally modified timber using vacuum based technology
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40567
The SmartHeat® thermal timber treatment is a new technology based on the process parameters being steered very precisely mainly due to the vacuum applied and heating system involved. Timber treated with this technology shows a potential for less variability of biological durability in one batch. Several batch treatments were sampled and assessed on statistical variability of decay resistance agai...
J Van Acker, S Michon, J Van den Bulcke, I De Windt, B Van Swaay, M Stevens


Plywood under the scanner: linking moisture dynamics and 3D structure
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20491
Plywood is highly esteemed as a construction material. Yet, the influence of moisture on both strength and durability are important factors. Especially the dynamics of moisture desorption and absorption should be taken into account when assessing the quality of a panel, which is a fact for all panel materials. This paper therefore focuses on the monitoring of the moisture dynamics of plywood subje...
J Van den Bulcke, I De Windt, N Defoirdt, J Van Acker


Testing service life for use class 3: accelerated L-joint performance of commodities
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20500
Above ground testing is considered important for the assessment of treated wood intended for use class 3. Laboratory testing of efficacy of biocides as well as of natural durability focussing on such applications has to be linked to performance and service life. An accelerated L-joint test was some 15 years ago developed at the Ghent University to allow worst case assessment under semi-controlled ...
J Van Acker, J Van den Bulcke, I De Windt, L De Vetter


Protective nanoparticle coating reducing water absorption of wood species
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40614
Nanoparticle coatings were deposited onto different tropical wood samples for controlling the surface hydrophobicity. The styrene(maleimide) nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous dispersions under pure conditions or in combination with 70 wt.-% palm oil. A first evaluation of the non-coated wood surfaces indicates a high dependence between the water contact angles, the average surface roughnes...
P Samyn, A Paredes, G Becker, H Van den Abbeele, L Vonck, D Stanssens


Statistical analysis of durability tests - Part 1: Principles of distribution fitting and application on laboratory tests
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20504
Service life prediction is an important topic in wood research, especially with regard to the Construction Products Regulation (CPR). Both laboratory tests as well as in-service performance testing are therefore essential in combination with proper monitoring and analysis tools. A crucial concept is variability in testing and analysis, especially for a biological material such as wood. The larger ...
I De Windt, J Van den Bulcke, C Brischke, C R Welzbacher, A Gellerich, S Bollmus, M Humar,


Statistical analysis of durability tests - Part 2: Principles of time-to-failure and application on field test data
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20512
Service life prediction is an important topic in wood research, especially with regard to the Construction Products Regulation (CPR). Both laboratory tests as well as in-service performance testing is therefore essential, in combination with proper monitoring and analysis tools. A crucial concept is variability and the incorporation of variability in tests and analysis. In this paper we focus on t...
J Van den Bulcke, I De Windt, C Brischke, C R Welzbacher, A O Rapp, J Van Acker


Variability in durability of some selected South-American wood species
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10831
Within the scope of sustainable forest management one wants to encourage the proper use of lesser known wood species. Therefore the market has to shift from a demand-driven towards a supply-driven market without loss of wood quality. It is generally known that the durability from pith to bark varies thus, affecting the overall durability of wood species. Consequently, a detailed analysis is necess...
I De Windt, P ’t Hooft, J Van den Bulcke, J Van Acker


Moisture dynamics of wood and wood-based products – Results from an inter-laboratory test
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20539
In the frame of the European research project PerformWOOD in close liaison with the CEN task group TG EN 350 of CEN TC 38 WG 21 in total six research institutes teamed up and initiated an inter-lab trial (Round Robin) to investigate the suitability of different test methods to determine the wetting ability of wood. The moisture performance of wood and wood-based products has been recognized as key...
C Brischke, L Meyer, C Hesse, J Van Acker, I De Windt, J Van den Bulcke, E Conti, M Humar, H Viitanen, M Kutnik, L Malassenet


Statistical analysis of 40 years of preservative in-ground stake testing in Australia
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20552
Wood is widely recognized as a valuable material, yet the natural durability of some wood species limits its use for certain outdoor purposes. For decades, a wide range of methods and chemicals have been developed to increase the resistance of wood against degrading microorganisms and termites. Preservative treatment has a long and widespread tradition in wood protection. Proper testing of the eff...
J Van den Bulcke, L J Cookson, I De Windt, W Li, J Van Acker


Critical parameters on moisture dynamics in relation to time of wetness as factor in service life prediction
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20555
The concept of natural durability or enhanced durability based on the presence of active ingredients having an impact on both fungi and insects is not the only parameter steering the material resistance. Complementary resistance to getting wet (wetting ability) and consequently the ease of drying afterwards will lead to a parameter related to the time a piece of wood will remain under such wet con...
J Van Acker, I De Windt, W Li, J Van den Bulcke


Biological durability of natural fibre reinforced composites
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40681
Composite materials reinforced with wood or non-wood natural fibres have the potential to be a lighter and lower-cost alternative construction material. Until better availability and properties and a lower cost price of degradable polymers makes their use more prevalent, the application of natural fibre reinforcements in synthetic polymers is an intermediate step towards products that are complete...
N Defoirdt, I De Windt, J Van den Bulcke, J Van Acker


The potential of 2D NIR imaging for wood protection research
2015 - IRG/WP 15-20566
Investigating wood and wood-based materials using infrared spectroscopy has since long been explored. Recently, image-based systems have been developed that are used in food and pharmaceutical industries for rapid screening. Such hyperspectral cameras are able to collect spatial and spectral information simultaneously, resulting in a volume with a spectral profile for each pixel of the image. We p...
J Van den Bulcke, N Defoirdt, W Li, J Van Acker


Introduction of the COST FP 1303 Cooperative Performance Test
2015 - IRG/WP 15-20567
COST Action FP 1303 “Performance of bio-based building materials” successfully started in October 2013 and an ambitious program was set up for the four year programme. COST Actions provide an excellent opportunity for collaborative research, e.g. in the frame of Round Robin tests. The idea of this respective test was to distribute a fairly simple test set up to as many places in Europe as poss...
M Humar, C Brischke, L Meyer, B Lesar, N Thaler, D Jones, S Bardage, C Belloncle, J Van den Bulcke, J M Abascal, G Alfredsen, D Baisch, B Brunnhuber, G Cofta, E Grodås, E Frühwald Hansson, M Irle, H Kallakas, J Kers, M Klamer, P Larsson Brelid, A B Maider, K C Mahnert, E Melcher, R Möller, M Noël, L Nunes, G A Ormondroyd, S Palanti, N Pfabigan, A Pilgård, A O Rapp, P Schumacher, E Suttie, T Teppand, M Touza, J Van Acker


Non-destructive monitoring of structure and moisture dynamics of plywood exposed outdoors to improve service life prediction and fit-for-purpose design
2015 - IRG/WP 15-20570
Plywood is an important construction material yet prone to water uptake, which can decrease strength and increase decay risk. To predict service life and improve fit-for-purpose design, it is crucial to understand the moisture behavior and structural changes of plywood. In this research, several plywood specimens were exposed outdoors for approximately one year. During this period, the moisture di...
W Li, J Van den Bulcke, I De Windt, M Dierick, J Van Acker


Environmental Fate of Micronized Copper
2015 - IRG/WP 15-50310
The environmental fate of wood preservatives is an important aspect to estimate the health and environmental impact. Although biocides from treated wood may be released into the soil, water or air, the latter pathway is frequently neglected in favour of leaching studies. Nonetheless, wood dust is well known to cause a variety of adverse health effects, in particular diseases to the respiratory tra...
C Civardi, L Schlagenhauf, J Benz, C Hirsch, J Van den Bulcke, M Schubert, J Van Acker, P Wick,


Global survey on durability variation – on the effect of the reference species
2016 - IRG/WP 16-20573
Climate change due to anthropogenic emissions is the largest environmental challenge of our time. Forest-based value chains play an important role in reducing the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere. Maximizing the use of wood to tackle climate change requires improved understanding of the service life of timber products. This information can best be obtained from field testing and while there i...
R Stirling, G Alfredsen, C Brischke, I De Windt, L P Francis, E Frühwald Hansson, M Humar, J Jermer, M Klamer, M Kutnik, P Laks, I Le Bayon, S Metsä-Kortelainen, L Meyer-Veltrup, P I Morris, J Norton, T Singh, J Van Acker, J Van den Bulcke, T M Venås, H Viitanen, A H H Wong


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