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Copper fixation in ACQ-D treated Chinese fir at various temperature and relative humidity conditions
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30436
In this study, the effect of different conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and duration of post-treatments on accelerating copper fixation in ACQ-D treated Chinese fir wood blocks was investigated. The conditions include the combination of three temperatures (21, 50, and 70?) and two relative humidity levels (20% and 80%), also include four temperatures (50, 70, 90, and 110?) without con...
Jinzhen Cao, Lili Yu


Accelerated fixation of ACQ-D treated Chinese fir with different post-treatments
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40400
With the enhanced focus on the environmental impact of the preservative-treated wood in recent years, it is necessary to perform some post treatments to prevent contamination of soil and ground water and reduce copper losses from ACQ treated wood in service. In this study, the potential of hot air, hot water, steaming and microwave post treatments to accelerate the fixation of copper in ACQ-D trea...
Lili Yu, Jinzhen Cao, P A Cooper


Tensile stress relaxation of wood impregnated in different ACQ formulations at various temperatures
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40456
The reactions between ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ) constituents and wood components were investigated by tensile stress relaxation approach. Small wood samples were stressed and impregnated in ACQ solutions with different formulation including the ethanolamine (MEA) to copper molar ratio, copper (as copper oxide) to quat (as DDAC) weight basis, treatment temperature and also the solution concentra...
Lili Yu, Jinzhen Cao


Evaluation of ACQ-D treated Chinese fir and Mongolian Scots pine with different post-treatments after 20 months of exposure
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30530
The performance of alkaline copper quat-type D (ACQ-D) treated Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.) and Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris Linn. var. mongolica Litv.) stakes after 20 months exposure in Chengdu and Guangzhou of southern China were evaluated according to AWPA standard E07-07. The ACQ-D treatments used two concentration levels (0.5 and 1.0%) and four different post-treatme...
Lili Yu, Jinzhen Cao, Wei Gao, Haitao Su


The effect of didecyldimethylammonium chloride on growth of different strains of mould fungus Gliocladium roseum
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10105
The tolerance and degrading ability of different strains of Gliocladium roseum towards didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) were studied. All four of the strains of Gliocladium roseum were tolerant to DDAC and after their growth on amended malt agar, the retention of DDAC in the medium was reduced....
Yu Zheng, J N R Ruddick


The suitability of isothiazolone microemulsions as long term wood preservatives
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30150
Microemulsion formulations of 4,5 dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one were investigated to determine the leaching potential of these formulation types as well as their efficacy against decay fungi. These patented low leaching formulations exhibited good anti fungal efficacy in standard tests combined with minimal leaching of the active ingredient from the wood. The data suggests that the excel...
B M Hegarty, Bing Yu, L E Leightley


Microemulsion formulations for wood protection chemicals
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30030
A microemulsion is a thermodynamically stable oil-water dispersion system. As a formulation it provides many unique features such as water compatibility for water-insoluble chemicals, formulation stability, good bioavailability and environmental acceptance. This paper discusses the major criteria for the formulations of water-insoluble wood biocides and the comparison in properties between convent...
Bing Yu, L E Leightley


Determination of thermal degradation of isothiazolone treated wood
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30154
Wood treated with 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one was the subject of thermal degradation study. The study included burning isothiazolone treated wood under various temperatures with and without oxygen. The result showed that no harmful combustion products, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-furans and polychlorinated biphenyls, were detected. These fin...
Bing Yu


Leaching performance, decay and termite resistance of wood treated with boron compounds incorporated with phenol-formaldehyde resin
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30503
A resol-type phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin was synthesized and designed to penetrate wood incorporated with boron compounds in order to immobilize boron in wood. The leaching performance, decay and termite resistance of treated wood was investigated. Three kinds of boron compounds, that is, boric acid (BA), borax (BX) and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT), were selected to mix with PF and tw...
Liping Yu, Jinzhen Cao


Rapid Microwave-Assisted Acid Extraction of Metals from Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)-Treated Southern Pine Wood
2009 - IRG/WP 09-50262
The effects of acid concentration, reaction time, and temperature in a microwave reactor on recovery of CCA-treated wood were evaluated. Extraction of copper, chromium, and arsenic metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine wood samples with three different acids (i.e., acetic acid, oxalic acid, and phosphoric acid) was investigated using in microwave reactor. Oxalic acid wa...
Bin Yu, Chung Y Hse, T F Shupe


Microwave-Assisted Organic Acids Extraction of Chromate Copper Arsenate (CCA)-Treated Southern Pine
2010 - IRG/WP 10-50267
The extraction effects of acid concentration, reaction time and temperature in a microwave reactor on recovery of CCA-treated wood were evaluated. Extraction of copper, chromium, and arsenic metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine wood samples with two different organic acids (i.e., acetic acid and oxalic acid) was investigated using a microwave reactor. Oxalic acid was e...
Bin Yu, Chung Y Hse, T F Shupe


Effect of P/F ratio, PF concentration and treating method on boron leaching from wood treated with PF modified boron compounds
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30559
In order to immobilize boron in wood, three kinds of resol-type phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin with different P/F ratios were synthesized in laboratory and incorporated with three types of boron compounds to treat wood. The used boron compounds included boric acid (BA), borax (BX) and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT). The leaching test of boron from wood blocks was performed according to the...
Liping Yu, Jinzhen Cao


Termite resistance of wood impregnated with phenol-formaldehyde (PF) modified boron compounds
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30604
In order to investigate the effect of phenol-formaldehyde (PF) modified boron compounds on termite resistance of two main plantation-grown wood species, namely, Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) and Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.), laboratory termite tests and field tests were carried out according to AWPA standard E1-97 and AWPC protocols/2007. Different concentrations of b...
Jinzhen CAO, Liping YU, Xuexiang HE


Practical extraction of metals from CCA-treated wood
2014 - IRG/WP 14-50305
The extraction effects of acid concentration, reaction time and temperature in a microwave reactor on recovery of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood were evaluated. Extraction of copper, chromium, and arsenic metals from CCA-treated southern pine wood samples with three different wood particle sizes (i.e., (1) 0.5 cm3, (2) 0.5x05x1.0 cm, and (3) 0.5x0.5x1.5 cm) was investigated using a m...
Bin Yu, Chung Y Hse, T F Shupe