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Biofouling and bioresistance of bamboo in marine environment
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10482
Proudly known as “green gold” and popularly called as “poor man’s timber”, bamboo is closely interwoven with the life of scores of people around the globe because of its versatile qualities and desirable strength properties as a structural material. It is used for innumerable purposes both on land and in water including seas and brackishwater bodies. "Presently, bamboos constitute an i...
M V Rao, M Balaji, V Kuppusamy, K S Rao


Treatment behaviour of fresh and inservice catamaran logs
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30255
Catamaran is a conventional fishing craft fabricated by lashing 4 - 6 shaped logs of soft timber together. Over 73,000 of these craft fabricated out of 165,000 m3 of wood are in use along the vast east coast of India. Each craft lasts for 5-7 years. Over 15,000 m3 of timber is required annually for repairs and replacements of the craft. Such huge demand exerts enormous pressure on the resources. I...
V Kuppusamy, M V Rao, M Balaji, K S Rao


Utility, deterioration and preservation of marine timbers in India
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40314
Timber is extensively used in India in the marine environment for various purposes due to its several advantages over modern materials. Infact, its use is increasing in recent years, finding wider and wider applications and this scenario is not going to change in the near future. Though, the bio-deterioration problem is found very severe in tropical waters, still indigenous methods are widely empl...
B Tarakanadha, M V Rao, M Balaji, P K Aggarwal, K S Rao


Differential behaviour of wood rotters at water repellent Rubberwood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10386
Rubberwood samples treated with different concentration of aqueous solution of chromic acid has induced significant increase in water repellency and attains dimensional stability. Though water repellency and dimensional stability was achieved by treatment, the fungal invasion could not be completely controlled. Differential level of decay of brown and white rot in wood treated with water repellent...
H C Nagaveni, S S Chauhan, K S Rao


Preservative absorption response of planks of Anogeissus acuminata for plank-built catamarans
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40245
Due to shortage of timber coupled with other compelling factors, traditional fishermen along the east coast of India, especially of Andhra Pradesh, of late, are departing from conventional log type wooden catamarans. Instead, they are fabricating catamarans out of timber planks of hard woods and utilizing thermocol for buoyancy. Mostly, locally available timber of a Combretaceae species, Anogeis...
V Kuppusamy, M V Rao, M Balaji, K Rao


Natural durability of some common Indian timbers and marine plywood against biodeterioration in Kochi waters (India)
1992 - IRG/WP 92-4177
Panels of thirty-eight timber species and marine plywood were tested in Kochi harbour (South-west India) for periods ranging from 3 to 21 months, so as to evaluate their natural resistance against marine borers. Results indicate that all the timber species studied are non-durable, 6 of them having undergone more than 50% internal destruction within 3 months; 14 species in 6 months, 13 species and ...
L N Santhakumaran, M V Rao


Leaching of CCA preservative from treated timber in marine environment
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30254
Knowledge on the amount of preservatives leaching out of treated wood is essential to optimise the chemical loading in various species of timber required for different end uses. In order to gain more insight into this aspect, the residual CCA content in 40 treated timber panels belonging to 14 species removed on destruction by marine organisms from a series of durability tests conducted in Kochi w...
M V Rao, V Kuppusamy, K S Rao, L N Santhakumaran


Occurrence of marine wood borers at three ports in Andhra Pradesh, India
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10509
Marine wood borers are a specialised group of organisms which destroy the wooden structures and cause huge monetary losses. They are site specific and their distribution depends on the water quality of a particular area. Seven species of wood borers such as Martesia striata, Teredo furcifera, T. parksi, Lyrodus pedicellatus, L. bipartita, Bankia campanellata and B. carinata have been identifi...
B Tarakanadha, M.Balaji, R Ramamurthi, K S Rao


Introduction of plank-built catamarans along the north coast of Andhra Pradesh, India – A development of recent origin
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10483
Hitherto, the most versatile fishing craft of the poor traditional Indian fishermen - the catamaran is made of solid timber logs of a few selected species of broad-leaved softwoods. Of late, the fishermen find it difficult to get these conventional varieties of timber chiefly because of three reasons, a) scarcity of commodity, b) prohibitive costs and c) competition from match and veneer industri...
M V Rao, K S Rao, M Balaji, V Kuppusamy


Respiratory response of the wood boring teredinid, Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages) to copper stress
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10528
Wood boring teredinid molluscs engulf most of the wooden particles scrapped by them while actively boring into wood, obtaining nourishment for their metabolic activities. In order to protect the wooden structures from the biodeteriorating activity of such organisms, the wood is treated with different chemical formulations to prolong their service life. Copper chrome arsenic (CCA) is one such woo...
V Kuppusamy, M Balaji, M V Rao, K S Rao


Effects of two wood preservatives and one water repellant on the settlement of fouling communities in a tropical marine environment
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30293
Observations made on recruitment of fouling organisms on treated panels exposed at an Indian harbour, Krishnapatnam on the east coast (Lat: 13028’ to 13059’ N; Long: 80010’ to 80016’ E) during November, 1997 to October, 1999 are reported and compared with fouling communities on control panels. Wooden panels of Erythrina variegata, Paraserianthus falcataria, Tetrameles nudiflora an...
B Tarakanadha, K S Rao


Durability of Anogeissus acuminata timber used for plank-built catamarans
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10551
Catamaran, the most versatile traditional fishing craft used along the Indian coast is made hitherto of solid timber of a few selected species of broad-leaved soft woods. Due to scarcity coupled with high cost of these timbers, the craft, of late, are fabricated from the wooden planks of an indigenous hardwood species, namely, Anogeissus acuminata (Yon) belonging to the family Combretaceae. Infor...
M V Rao, M Balaji, V Kuppusamy, K S Rao


Performance of Paraserianthus falcataria treated with ACZA, ACQ, CC or CCA and exposed in Krishnapatnam harbour, India
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30382
Paraserianthus falcataria (=Albizia falcataria) treated to two retentions with ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA), ammoniacal copper quaternary (ACQ), ammoniacal copper citrate (CC) and chromated copper arsenate (CCA) was assessed over 34 months in a tropical marine waters at Krishnapatnam harbour on the east coast of India. ACZA treatment showed comparatively better resistance than CCA, ACQ a...
B Tarakanadha, K S Rao, J J Morrell


Need to develop processing technologies (for value addition) of the species evaluated for their properties and uses
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40307
The demand of timber in India for different industrial as well as domestic applications is ever increasing mostly due to urbanization and industrialization. This demand can only be met either from the imported timber or from the plantation resources outside the reserved and natural forests. There are a number of timber species grown under plantation forestry have their heartwood refractory to any ...
S R Shukla, S K Sharma, Y M Dubey, P Kumar, R V Rao, K S Shashidhar


Occurrence of wood-boring pholads in Kochi harbour waters (south-west coast of India)
1992 - IRG/WP 92-4175
The paper reports the occurrence of four species of wood-boring pholads (Pholadidae: Martesiinae), namely Martesia (Martesia) striata (Linnaeus), Martesia (Martesia) fragilis Verrill and Bush. Martesia (Particoma) nairi Turner and Santhakumaran and Lignopholas fluminalis (Blanford), in the Kochi back-waters, south-west coast of India. Of these Martesia nairi and Lignopholas fluminalis are now reco...
L N Santhakumaran, M V Rao


Effect of wood species on colonization by an unknown wood boring organisms in marine waters
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10108
The effect of wood species on the initial settlement by surface fouling organisms in marine environments was investigated by exposing heartwood panels of Douglas-fir ((Mirb.) Franco), western redcedar (Donn.), and Oregon white oak (Dougl. ex. Hooke) in an estuary located on the coast of Oregon. The oak and western redcedar panels were sparsely colonized over the first 39 days of exposure, while th...
K S Rao, P F Schnieder, J J Morrell


Leaching of CCA from Bombax ceiba catamarans in operation for 15 years
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50191
Core samples of wood at random were collected from all the timber pieces of each of the three catamarans made of CCA treated logs of Bombax ceiba put to continuous service for the last 15 years at the Lawson's Bay fishing village, Visakhapatnam. The samples were dried to constant weight, powdered, digested and analyzed for the residual salts of the preservative. The residual content of ...
V Kuppusamy, M Balaji, M V Rao, K S Rao


Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) Benth. ex Hook. f. and Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb.) R. Br. -- two timbers with promising durability under marine conditions
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10552
During the course of natural durability studies on indigenous timber at Visakhapatnam harbour, two species, namely, Cleistanthus collinus (Karada) and Wrightia tinctoria (Dudhi) were found to resist marine borer attack for reasonably longer periods. The panels of C. collinus completely resisted borer attack for 9 months but became susceptible to teredinid attack thereafter. The teredinids gradua...
M V Rao, M Balaji, V Kuppusamy, K S Rao


Destruction of wood and mangrove vegetation by marine borers in Goutami-Godavari estuary, east coast of India
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10021
This paper deals with the nature and extent of destruction caused by marine boring organisms to wood and mangrove vegetation in the Goutami-Godavari estuary along the east coast of India. Fifteen species, comprising of 11 teredinids, 1 pholad and 3 sphaeromatids were recorded from the area. For the first time, seasonality of recruitment, abundance and growth were studied for important species occu...
K S Rao, L N Santhakumaran, M Balaji, V V Srinivasan


Performance of preservative-treated rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) in Goa and Kochi waters (west coast of India).
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20104
Performance of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) against biodeterioration, when pressure-treated with Copper-Chrome-Arsenic (CCA) and Copper-Chrome-Boric (CCB) and exposed in Mandovi estuary (Goa) and in Kochi waters for a period of 32 months and 9 months respectively, has been discussed. The control panels were completely destroyed within a period of 4 to 6 months at both the localities. The resist...
L N Santhakumaran, M V Rao


Performance of Copper-Chrome-Arsenic (CCA) and Copper-Chrome-Boric (CCB) treated panels of Bombax ceiba and Paraserianthus falcataria against bio-deterioration at Krishnapatnam harbour, east coast of India
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30310
Results of investigations on the durability of light weight timber species (Specific gravity below 0.4) i.e., Bombax ceiba and Paraserianthus falcataria in treated and untreated condition conducted at Krishnapatnam harbour (Lat 13o28’ to 13o59’ N; Long: 80o10’ to 80o16’E) along the east coast of India are reported in the paper. Exposure trails were conducted with panels (Size: 30 x 3.8 x...
B Tarakanadha, N R Raveendra Prasad, K S Rao


Resistance of twenty-five species of timbers to marine borer attack at Visakhapatnam, east coast of India
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30036
Observations on the natural resistance of 25 species of timbers to marine borer attack for a twelve month period at the fishing harbour, Visakhapatnam, East Coast of India, indicate that none of the species was free from borer attack. The damage was mainly by teredinids - Teredo furcifera and Lyrodus pedicellatus. Martesia striata, Teredo parski, Bankia campanellata and Lyrodus bipartitus were als...
K S Rao, M Balaji, V V Srinivasan


The present status of wooden catamarans of the Indian Coast
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10231
Catamarans (a.k.a. kattumarams) are the most widely used fishing craft in India, and hundreds of thousands of poor, traditional fishermen depend on these vessels for their livelihood that are almost made entirely of wood. In recent years, acute shortages and phenomenal increases in prices of timber species used in catamaran fabrication have been reported, causing great hardship to the user communi...
K S Rao


Shockwaves in wood preservation
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40308
Shockwaves are strong perturbations in aerodynamics that propagate at supersonic speeds independent of the wave amplitude. Physically the occurrence of shockwave is always characterized in a fluid flow by instantaneous changes in pressure, velocity and temperature. In this paper we describe a new wood preservative injection system that has been developed utilizing the non-linear pressure spike beh...
G Jagadeesh, R Lal, G Ravikumar, K S Rao


Long term marine performance of ACZA treated Hem fir in Krishnapatnam harbour, east coast of India
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30409
The performance of Hem fir (Tsuga heterophylla) and Southern pine (Pinus sp.) treated with ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA) and copper dimethyldithio carbamate (CDDC) at two retention levels of each preservative was assessed in tropical marine waters at Krishnapatnam harbour on the east coast of India. Panels treated with ACZA of lower loadings (23.1 Kg/m3) had failed in 38 months while the ...
B Tarakanadha, K S Rao, J J Morrell


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