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Supercritical fluid treatment: Effects on bending strength of white spruce heartwood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20008
The effects of supercritical carbon dioxide on wood strength were evaluated using white spruce heartwood, a species known to be especially susceptible to collapse during exposure to higher pressures. The effects of pressures of 2000 or 3600 psig and temperatures of 40 or 80°C were evaluated using 30 or 60 minute exposure periods. No significant differences were noted in modulus of rupture or modu...
S M Smith, J J Morrell, E Sahle-Demessie, K L Levien

The effect of preservative distribution in small blocks of Pinus sylvestris on the toxicity of tributyltin oxide to Reticulitermes santonensis Feytaud
1971 - IRG/WP 206
Small blocks of Pinus sylvestris (50x25x15 mm³) were treated by a full-cell method with various concentrations of tributyltin oxide in benzene. Replicate blocks were then freeze dried, rapidly air dried or slowly air dried and exposed to surface attack by the subterranean moistwood termite Reticulitermes santonensis Feytaud. At all concentrations it was found that the freeze-dried blocks were mor...
M P Levi, D N R Smith

Fungal colonisation of the keelson and associated structures of a nineteenth century wooden frigate: Concepts of community structure and development
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10072
The early stages of microbial colonization and succession of wooden surfaces exposed to the sea have been extensively studied as have the community structures of archaeological timbers subjected to submergence and then retrieval from the sea. The frigate UNICORN, a largely intact 19th century wooden ship based in Dundee, Scotland, provides the microbial ecologist with a unique opportunity to study...
N A White, J W Palfreyman, G M Smith

Prevention of Termite Tubing Over Non-Wood Construction Materials Using Glycol Borate
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30358
Glycol borates have been demonstrated to prevent termite tubing and attack of wood materials and are extensively used as termite preventative applications in new construction in the USA. This study evaluated the ability of such systems to prevent Formosan subterranean termite tubing over non-wood materials. Concrete was selected as a common inert construction material and tests were carried out ...
W R Smith, J D Lloyd

Field evaluation of CCA movement in sap-displaced copper chrome arsenic treated softwood poles
1989 - IRG/WP 3539
Commercial sap-displaced UK grown Scots and Corsican pine, and Sitka and Norway spruce poles were exposed in a field site at Dundee, Scotland and radial distribution profiles of CCA monitored prior to implantation and after subsequent field exposure. Results show that groundline levels of all preservative elements were higher after 1 and 2 years field exposure compared with those recorded prior to...
S D Hainey, G M Smith, A Bruce, P D Evans, B King, H J Staines

Facility for Conducting Field Tests on Coptotermes formosanus at LSU Agricultural Center
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20274
Efforts by Louisiana State University Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and Mississippi State University (MSU) research scientists, to conduct cooperative research on C. formosanus and other wood-related topics, have led to establishing an FST field test site at the LSU Agricultural Center Citrus Research Experiment Station, Port Sulfur, Louisiana. A minimum of 32 termite colonies will be establi...
W R Smith, T L Amburgey, G Henderson, D R Ring

Effect of moisture and cellulosic substrate on decay of hardwoods by soft-rot fungi
1982 - IRG/WP 2173
The development by Forintek Canada Corp. of standard test procedures for laboratory preservative evaluations using soft-rot fungi was requested by the American Wood Preservers' Association. In Europe, through cooperative studies in the International Research Group on Wood Preservation, several attempts have been made to produce a standard procedure, but variability in results obtained bet...
A Byrne, R S Smith

Alternatives to CCA-treated Pinus radiata as vineyard posts
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50212
An estimated 10 million trellis posts per year are used in Australian vineyards and about 75% of these are CCA-treated Pinus radiata. CCA-treated Pinus radiata posts are brittle and at times in short supply. Use of some products containing CCA is being restricted in Australia. Recently, plantation forestry has expanded rapidly for disposal of industrial and irrigation wastewater. Thinnings from th...
M Mollah, J Smith, K McCarthy, L J Cookson

Effects of air-seasoning on fungal colonization and wood strength of Douglas fir poles
1987 - IRG/WP 1315
Air seasoning economically reduces the moisture content of Douglas fir poles before pressure treatment with preservatives. Advanced decay in poles in service has resulted when decay fungi (Basidiomycetes) colonized poles during air-seasoning and survived the treatment process. These problems have led to recommendations to severely limit this practice. To determine the role of these fungi in peeled...
J J Morrell, M E Corden, R D Graham, B L Kropp, P Przybylowicz, S M Smith, C A Sexton

Effect of species composition of preservative-treated Douglas fir plywood on its decay resistance
1978 - IRG/WP 2114
Plywood is now commonly used for constructional purposes in environmental situations where decay by wood-destroying fungi can be a considerable risk. However there seems to be a lack of understanding of the relative durability of plywood, both untreated and when treated with wood preservatives. Part of the reason for this situation has been the difficulty of carrying out laboratory decay tests on ...
R S Smith, P Balcaen

A laboratory evaluation of tributyltin ethanesulphonate as an aqueous fungicide in wood preservation
1983 - IRG/WP 3229
Toxic limit data, using both leached and unleached wood test blocks, are reported for aqueous solutions of tributyltin ethanesulphonate against four Basidiomycete fungi, Poria placenta, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Coriolus versicolor and Coniophora puteana. An in situ study of the tributyltin compound in Scots pine and ponderosa pine sapwood has been carried out, using the technique of 119mSn Mössbauer...
R Hill, P J Smith, J N R Ruddick, K W Sweatman

Assessment of the effects of rentex remedial treatment on some wood pole inhabitant micro-organisms
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30053
The effects of a remedial ground-line treatment using Rentex, a stabilised paste containing a mixture of fluoride and dichromate salts, on the micro-organisms inhabiting a sample of some 160 creosoted, on-line, electricity distribution poles, have been investigated as part of an appraisal of the efficacy of this remedial treatment. Half of the poles were treated and the other half used as controls...
D C R Sinclair, G M Smith, A Bruce, H J Staines

A comparison of analytical techniques
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20061
This paper compares carefully-controlled weight retentions and analysis by XRF, ICP, combustion methods and a new extraction procedure for the new preservative, Copper(II) Dimethyldithiocarbamate (CDDC). Various experimental parameters such as particle size and drying conditions were investigated. In general, the correlations between and among the procedures are very high. The extraction-colorimet...
A C Gallacher, C R McIntyre, M H Freeman, D K Stokes, W B Smith

Cation analysis of wood degraded by white and brown rot fungi
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1552
Changes in the concentrations and composition of cations within wood colonized by the brown-rot fungi Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum and the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Phanaerochaete chrysosporium were analyzed using plasma emission and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In degraded poplar wood significant decreases in pH and electrical resistance readings were observed as...
J Jellison, K C Smith, W T Shortle

The effect of aqueous leaching on moisture uptake by CCA-treated blocks during soil burial
1987 - IRG/WP 2283
Mass loss, moisture content and nitrogen data from two soil burial experiments with untreated and CCA-treated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Carr) and lime (Tilia vulgaris Hayne) are presented. These show that aqueous leaching of CCA-treated wood prior to burial significantly reduces its subsequent moisture uptake from soil. In the case of lime, a reduction in the...
C A Green, G M Smith, B King

Studies in an accelerated soil bed facility on the decay susceptibility of U.K. grown spruce and pine poles treated with copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) by pressurised sap-displacement. Part 1: Setting up of soil beds and initial soft rot results
1990 - IRG/WP 2344
The paper describes the methodology used in the construction and early operation of an accelerated soil bed facility used to examine the decay susceptibility of U.K. grown Scots and Corsican pine and Sitka and Norway spruce treated with C.C.A. by high pressure sap-displacememt. The design and control of the facility as well as the preparation, soil exposure and soft rot decay analysis of quarter p...
A Bruce, S D Hainey, G M Smith, B King, P D Evans

Fluoride and chromium concentrations in soil adjacent to remedially treated distribution poles
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50066
Soils adjacent to Rentex treated 'on-line' distribution poles were analysed for total fluoride and chromium content for comparison with background values of these elements. Soil samples 6 cm and 25 cm downslope of selected poles were recovered at 1 week, 1 month, 6 and 12 months after treatment. Background soil samples were taken 50 m from the poles at sampling times. Fourteen po...
D C R Sinclair, G M Smith, A Bruce, H J Staines, P Durrant

Formosan Subterranean Termite Resistance to Heat Treatment of Scots Pine and Norway Spruce
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40264
New challenges to the durability of wood building materials have arisen in the U.S. The Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) now infests sizable portions of the U.S. south and their range is extending. Heat treatments offer a unique opportunity for wood-based composites because many of the process techniques already employ various thermal applications and could be easil...
W R Smith, A O Rapp, C R Welzbacher, J E Winandy

CCA removal from treated wood by chemical, mechanical and microbial processing
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-26
Most preservative-treated wood produced and consumed in the U.S. is treated with toxic inorganic compounds containing copper, chromium, and arsenic. Because chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is fixed to the wood, treated wood has not been considered toxic or hazardous and is currently landfilled. Increasing public concern about environmental contamination from treated wood combined with increasing q...
C A Clausen, R L Smith

Analysis of the boron content of preservative treated oak and pitch pine heartwood before and after leaching
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3697
Studies to determine the effects, if any, of a variety of boron formulations on heartwood of English oak and American Pitch pine have been previously reported (King et al (1991)). Small wood blocks were treated, at 10°C or 45°C, with borax, polybor or Boracol 20 for periods of 1 month or 4 months then analysed or continuously leached with tap water for a period of 1 month. Reported results showe...
S McCutcheon, G M Smith, J W Palfreyman, B King

Effects of boron formulation on specific timber types used in ships of historical importance
1991 - IRG/WP 3676
This paper reports results of preservative treatment and leaching experiments, using borax, polybor and boracol 20, on small wood blocks of English oak and American pitch pine heartwood. Earlier experiments on the performance of various biocides as possible additives to bilgewater to prevent fungal decay of shipping timbers had suggested that some formulations of boron might be associated with phy...
B King, G M Smith, J W Palfreyman, S McCutcheon

Use of Moisture Meters with Treated Wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40382
Drying wood treated with waterborne preservatives after treatment to near outdoor EMC conditions improves its physical performance characteristics. This is primarily due to the reduced checking, splitting and warping which can occur when wet wood, particularly if restrained from shrinking by being nailed or otherwise fastened, shrinks in use. Monitoring of the drying process, rate, and end point...
W B Smith, Hwan Myeong Yeo, C Stark, B Morey, C Tascioglu, P Schneider, D Herdman, M Freeman

Estudio comparativo entre postes de Eucalyptus saligna Smith, Pinus caribaea Morelet (pino macho) y Hormigón
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40436
As consequence of the Energy Revolution and the amplification of the communication networks, Cuba carries out significant expenditures of foreign currencies in the import of public service posts. It is presented in this work a synthesis of the current problem in Cuba of the public service posts (PSP), since as answer to the stocks of improvement of the national Electric System, the demand of this ...
C Sosa Suárez, I D Velázquez Viera, K Manzanares Ayala

Life Cycle Assessment Comparison of Treated Wood to Alternate Materials – Overview, Results and Lessons
2011 - IRG/WP 11-50282
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has proven useful in documenting the “green” benefits of various treated products compared to the commonly used alternates. To date, six LCA comparisons have been done or are nearing completion using ISO14040 and 14044 principles and data from US EPA databases. In almost all cases, the impact indicators for treated wood products show considerably smaller adverse e...
T Stephen, P E Smith, C R McIntyre

A comparison of the resistance of pyrethroid-treated wood to damage by Coptotermes acinaciformis in Australia and C. formosanus in China and the USA
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10830
Field trials, using a single aboveground method of exposure, were used to assess a range of retentions of two pyrethroids (bifenthrin and permethrin) in Pinus radiata D. Don sapwood against two species of Coptotermes in three countries to provide directly comparable results. Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) in Australia, C. formosanus Shiraki in China and C. formosanus in the USA consumed simi...
J Creffield, M Lenz, D Scown, T Evans, Junhong Zhong, B Kard, J Hague, K Brown, E Freytag, J Curole, R Smith, T Shupe

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