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The applicability of life cyle analysis and alternative methods in the wood preservation industry
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50023
In the Netherlands, several case studies have been performed using the life cycle analysis method (LCA). This type of research is aimed at an inventory and classification (sometimes including also evaluation) of the environmental impacts of a product, from the raw material to waste stage ("cradle to grave" approach). In a LCA each environmental impact is assessed in terms of, for example, mass of ...
P Esser, J Cramer


Chemical analysis of TnBTO in lap-joints
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20173
This research was performed as part of the EU project FACT (contract SMT4-CT96-2135) on field tests out of ground contact and ageing methods. The results reported here are part of the work on the experimental lap-joint standard (ENV 12037). TNO investigated the TBTO content of 32 lap-joints by analysing the tin content of 90 samples. The lap-joints were treated with two different TBTO-concentratio...
A Voss, P Esser, W L D Suitela


Penetration of deltamethrin in micro-emulsion formulation after injection in wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40068
In the Netherlands (and some other European Countries) the remedial treatment of death watch beetle is still a problem. This is because the larvae of this insect penetrate the central heartwood of mainly large oak beams. The heartwood is difficult to treat. The preventive treatment of wood boring insects has only recently been permitted in the Netherlands. Since 1989 injection of insecticides is r...
P Esser, W L D Suitela


Waste management of wood products in life cycle assessment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50154
Within the framework of the European project LIFE SYS WOOD (contractnr. FAIR CT95-7026) TNO has performed a study on the waste management of wood demolition waste for inclusion in Life Cycle Assessment. In LIFE SYS WOOD one of the main aims was to develop a consistent LCA methodology for wood products. LCA case studies have been performed by partners on wood as raw material, glulam contructions, O...
P Esser, P Eggels, A Voss


Leaching results of shower test on L-joints with boric acid, bifluoride and TBTO rods
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50051
As part of the EC-project "Improvement of a local preservation process for wood products with reduced environmental impact", TNO has performed a leaching test on L-joints treated with pills with boric acid (Defence corner), bifluorides (Woodpil 55) and TBTO (Woodcap). The L-joints were exposed in an adapted shower test during 10 days, using 70 liters of water per day. The experiment is designed to...
P Esser, M J Boonstra, W L D Suitela, A J Pendlebury


Copper leaching from Kemwood ACQ and Embalit CBC treated wood products
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50150
TNO has performed a study on the leaching of copper from Kemwood ACQ and Embalit CBC treated wood products, further referred to as ACQ and CBC. The sawn dry wood has been impregnated using an industrial vacuum-pressure process with ACQ (with or without Ultrawood 4) or with CBC, under supervision of Flexchemie B.V. After treatment samples have been transported and subjected to leaching tests at TNO...
P Esser, W L D Suitela, H Trompetter


Penetration of surface applied deltamethrin micro-emulsion formulations in four European timber species
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20030
The Netherland's Government, in line with many other European Governments initiated a programme (KWS2000) aimed at significantly reducing the emission of volatile organic compounds by the year 2000. As part of this programme a research project is currently underway to evaluate the potential for replacing organic solvent based remedial treatments with micro-emulsion formulations of the sam...
P Esser, W L D Suitela, A J Pendlebury


The WOODCARE project: Development of detection methods for Death watch beetle larvae and fungal decay
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20172
Woodcare was a European project coordinated by English Heritage. The aim of the research was to develop more targeted and more environmentally friendly treatment methods for Death watch beetle infections in Oak constructions of historical buildings. TNO has developed two new methods for fast and reliable detection of Death watch beetle larvae and related fungal decay in Oak. The problem with Death...
P Esser, P Van Staalduinen, A C Tas


Assessment of residual retentions in creosote treated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) poles after 45 years ground contact service in the Lemstervaart in the Dutch polder
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50022
In a project funded by the Water State Authorities (RWS) and the Noordoostpolder Water Board, the residual retentions in ten creosote treated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) poles were examined after 45 years ground contact service along a canal (Lemstervaart) in the Dutch Noordoostpolder. The Lemstervaart location was selected due to the fact that the poles involved had been originally treated and ...
P Esser, W L D Suitela, A J Pendlebury, H Visscher


Dutch national environmental policy strategy (NMP): Implications throughout the life cycle of treated timber and for the Dutch preservation industry
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-31
All overview of relevant environmental legislation and instruments for control is given for each stage of the life cycle of treated timber. Recent policy in the Netherlands has been focused around the "National Environmental Policy Strategy", in which a general policy with regard to reduction of pollution to the air, soil and water is described. The principle is one of an "Integrated Chain of Cont...
P Esser, D A Lewis, A J Pendlebury


Detection of dry rot by air analysis
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2399
Detection of dry rot (Serpula lacrymans) at an early stage appears to be very difficult in practice. Also control inspections in buildings, after remedial treatment of dry rot, have a limited accuracy. The use of trained dogs in Denmark initiated the idea for this research on the possible use of air analysis as a detection method. The Centre for Timber Research-TNO (TNO-CHT) and the Institute for ...
P Esser, A C Tas


Proposal for a method aiming at the quantification of the impact of wood extraction in Life Cycle Assessment
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50113
Life Cycle Assessment has been accepted as an instrument for the assessment of the environmental impact of products. Characterisation factors for impact assessment of emissions from products have been established. To date no characterisation factor exists for the extraction of biotic resources, for example wood. Since the main disadvantage of using wood as a material lies in the extraction of reso...
P Esser, E Van der Voet


Preliminary desk research in the Netherlands on development of a Knowledge Based System for Life Cycle Assessment of wood products
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50093
TNO is currently coordinating an EC-project (LIFE-SYS WOOD) to develop a consistent approach to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of wood products. Existing and new LCA-inventory data of six wood products will be evaluated on reliability and consistency. After validation, LCA-results will be made available through a Knowledge Based System (by 1998-1999). The aim of the KBS is to make LCA-results availab...
P Esser, D Robson, R Vanhauten


A field study on the suitability of the European lap-joint test
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20239
Within the framework of the European SM&T Research Project "Co-normative research on field tests for wood preservatives out of ground contact in conjunction with methods for preconditioning test specimens prior to test" (FACT) one aim was to establish the suitability of the European lap-joint test (as it is described in ENV 12037:1996) to assess wood preservatives in the field in EHC 3. Scots ...
M Grinda, Ö Bergman, H-V Borck, D Dickinson, P Esser, R Gründlinger, H Leithoff, S Molnar, L Paajanen, N Pfabigan, E D Suttie, F Thomassin, T Nilsson, J Van Acker, M Van Der Zee, A Voss


Decay rates and strength and stiffness loss in foundation beams
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1563
The TNO Centre for Timber Research has executed an extensive research programme into the rate of decay in foundation beams, as a result of lowering of ground water tables. The aim of the research was to develop a method, predicting the decrease in strength and stiffness in beams, due to wood decay during drytime of foundation beams. With the calculated extremes in decay, the damage caused by local...
P Esser, H S Buitenkamp


A comparison of shower test results from CCF, CCZF, CCB and Cu-quat treated timber
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50054
The shower test quantifies the amount of specific preservative components which leach from treated timber under simulated open storage conditions. The test method measures leaching from both organic and inorganic salt treated timber. Shower tests of CCF, CCZF, CCB and Cu-quat treated timber which have been performed over the last 5 years by TNO are reviewed and compared. Leached components are qua...
M J Boonstra, A J Pendlebury, P Esser