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Environmental behaviour of treated wood in (semi-)permanent contact with fresh or seawater
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-20
This study presents a strategy for the environmental toxicity evaluation of treated wood towards the aquatic compartment, using non target water organisms toxicity tests. A lixiviation process is applied on wood (Pinus sylvestris) treated with several wood preservatives formulations. The lixiviation process is carried out in the laboratory with ultrapure water or synthetic seawater. After chemica...
P Marchal, C Martin


Alternative technologies for wood wastes recycling - Part B: Biotreatment of PCP- and creosote-treated wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-18 b
Alternative technologies have been investigated to detoxify treated wood. Two classes of organic compounds are studied. Creosote-treated wood are classified in France as dangerous wood wastes. A conventional incineration could be provided for these wood wastes but the cost of this elimination could be very high (> 2000 FFR/ton). For these reasons, we have tested two kinds of new processes as al...
S Legay, P Marchal, G Labat


Environmental risk assessment of treated timber in service: The Environment Focus Group approach
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50162
In the context of the Biocidal Products Directive (98/8/EC), and of the OECD work on wood preservatives, the Environment Focus Group (EFG), comprising 8 institutes and the European Wood Preservative Manufacturers Group, has been working on the environmental risk assessment of treated timber in service. A literature review of emissions from treated timber has revealed that very little existing data...
G Deroubaix, G Labat, I Le Bayon, S Legay, P Marchal, C Yrieix, E Melcher, R-D Peek, S De Geyter, J Van Acker, W J Homan, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy, E D Suttie, A J Nurmi, A-C Ritschkoff, D Rudolph, I Stephan, D Aston, E F Baines, J B Simonin


Risk assessment of energetic valorization of treated wood - wooden recycling
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50072
The most useful method for the valorization of wood wastes and wooden wastes is energetic valorization. In France the percentage of wood treated by antisaptain products is around 30%. Currently with the growing regulation, there is a need for cleaner methods and technology to allow sustainable valorization. The preservatives concerned are common organochlorine compounds (NaPCP) less used nowadays ...
G Deroubaix, P Marchal, G Labat


Environmental risk assessment of treated wood - A mesocosm study
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-8
In order to evaluate the environmental impact of treated poles, we have developed physical models (mesocosms) containing around 250 kg of natural soil and a treated pole. On the top of each mesocosm, a spraying mechanism, which can distribute ultrapure water through several nozzles, was built. On the lower part of each mesocosm, a small tank, which can contain some litres of leachate, was placed...
P Marchal, F Poly


Qualifying ecotoxicity research on tropical hardwood leachates
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50096
Almost as a rule, quantification and identification of various types of environmental contamination is grounded on chemical evaluation principles. Yet for monitoring surface water pollution, aquatic bio-assays may provide a more direct way to assess the potential hazard of environmental samples. A battery of such tests is experienced onto leachates of tropical hardwoods used in ground and water co...
G M F Van Eetvelde, P Marchal, M Stevens


Assessment of treated wood leachates genotoxicity with a bacterial test
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50089
Genotoxicity is known as the damage caused by environmental stressors (biological, chemical and physical) on the genetic material of an organism. This toxicological effect can be assessed by a lot of biological assays and especially by bacterial tests. These tests are frequently performed on environmental samples or on pures substances and are in that case, strongly correlated to the carcinogenic ...
P Marchal, C Martin


Environmental characterisation of retification process by-products (liquid and gaseous wastes)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-10
In order to reduce environmental risks during the service life of the treated wood and to find new alternative developments on the durability of wood, some research and technology development have been made on thermal treatment. The retification process is one of these processes. The retification process induces chemical modification of the lignin and cellulosic components and modifies the intrins...
G Labat, E Bucket, S Legay, C Yriex, P Marchal, E Raphalen, M Vernois, R Guyonnet, H Besset, E Fredon), G Vilarem, L Rigal, C Raynaud


Aquatic toxicity research of structural materials
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50114
Continuing from preliminary results reported on the aquatic toxicity of some tropical hardwoods under high hazard conditions, a more comprehensive research study is set-up in order to assess the environmental toxicology of various structural materials in water applications. Hazard class 4 preservative treated wood is tested for its toxic response on a battery of aquatic test organisms, next to con...
G M F Van Eetvelde, S De Geyter, P Marchal, M Stevens


Alternative methodology for the environmental impact assessment of treated wood: the wood emissions ecotoxicology
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50161
Preservative products and technologies are important for optimising the use of wood and wood products in our society. The regulations of their use under the european Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC will require an evaluation of the environmental impact of treated wood. The methodology currently used for this determination is the PEC/PNEC ratio. It consists of calculating PEC values (Predictive...
P Marchal, H W Wegen, J Van Acker, E Melcher, R-D Peek, W J Homan, D Aston, D Rudolph, E F Baines


Environmental impact of PCP and NaPCP in the aquatic and atmospheric compartment
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-06
PCP and NaPCP were studied for their aquatic toxicity on bacteria, microalgae and daphnids and for their behaviour in the atmospheric compartment with a climatic chamber. Results of aquatic toxicity bioassays showed that toxicity was higher at low pH. This can be explained by the pKa value of 4.7 of PCP and the higher concentration of the non dissociated form of the pesticide at more acidic pH. Vo...
P Marchal, P Vasseur, G Ozanne


Influence of boiling on the quality of oakwood during peeling processes
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10656
Peeling process may be an efficient technology to transform secondary quality trees into veneer. After cutting and drying, veneer can be used for plywood or LVL production. If natural durability of these new panels is sufficient, they may be used for joinery production without preservative treatment. With the collaboration of ENSAM Cluny, Zvolen University and Pau University, we have investigated ...
M Svoradová, F Charrier, R Marchal, L Bléron, B Charrier, J-C Butaud


The potential of silicone-based formulations to enhance wood properties through industrial treatment for outdoor use
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30578
High hygroscopicity is one of the main weaknesses of wood as far as its susceptibility to biodegradation, and specifically to fungal decay. New wood preservation technologies are constantly entering the wood protection market, competing with traditional, biocide-based preservation. Silicones are commercially used as hydrophobic agents on stones and concrete. They belong to the restricted number of...
F Simon, F Marchal, F Pochon, M Kutnik, I Le Bayon


Functional silicones used as a potential tool for the development of non-biocidal wood treatments
2015 - IRG/WP 15-30665
The increase of wood resistance against biological agents for outdoor use is conventionally performed by deep impregnation with preservatives. However, some of the traditional wood preservatives, used for decades for wood protection and regarded as the most effective, are currently subjected to severe restrictions because of their toxicity. In fact, new preservation technologies are constantly ent...
F Lhumeau, C Delaite, F Marchal, F Pochon, M Kutnik


Functional silicones used for wood protection: preliminary study
2017 - IRG/WP 17-30720
Due to worldwide regulation the wood preservation domain is constantly changing. Silicones are used for different industrial applications as hydrophobic agents. This property could enable to reduce water uptake of wood treated with these compounds. Treated wood could then be less prone to dimensional variation and fungal attack, those parameters being driven by variations in wood’s moisture cont...
C Reynaud, F Marchal, F Pochon, M Kutnik


GDR3544 “Science du Bois” - Academic and Industrial French Partnerships on Wood Science
2019 - IRG/WP 19-50362
The wood sciences are currently practiced by a very diverse community of disciplines, themes and institutional contexts of different actors. The Research Group in Wood Sciences (GDR3544 "Sciences du Bois") was created in 2012 by the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), and renewed from 2016 to 2020. The objectives of GDR " Science du Bois " are to manage the coordination of wood scienc...
J Gril, R Marchal, K Candelier