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Confocal laser scanning microscopy of a novel decay in preservative treated radiata pine in wet acidic soils
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10215
Light microscopy of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) field test stakes (20x20x500mm3) exposed in wet acidic (pH 3-4) soil for 12 - 24 months showed predominance of an unusual type of decay characte-rised by tunnelling attack of wood cell walls. After two years decay was moderate to severe in wood treated to ground contact CCA specifications and also equivalent retentions of creosote, and a numb...
R N Wakeling, Ying Xiao, A P Singh


A comparison of soft rot, white rot and brown rot in CCA, CCP, CCF, CCB, TCMTB and benzalkonium chloride treated Pinus radiata IUFRO stakes, after 9-15 years exposure at five test sites in New Zealand
1991 - IRG/WP 1485
The aim of this study was to determine if decay type varies significantly between five field trial test sites of different soil type, aspect and climate in 9-15 year old, replicate CCA, CCF, CCP. CCB, TCMTB and AAC treated IUFRO stakes. A visual on-site assessment of decay type on every test stake was made and observations confirmed by microscopical examination. Regression analyses were used to de...
R N Wakeling


Effect of methylene bisthiocyanate on morphology and ultra-structure of a sapstain fungus, Ophiostoma floccosum
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10471
In vitro effects of methylene bisthiocyanate (MBT) on hyphal morphology and ultrastructure of Ophiostoma floccosum were examined using differential interference contrast, epifluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Differential interference contrast microscopy suggested that MBT caused rapid changes to the morphology of O. floccosum resulting in excessive formation of vacuoles and...
T Singh, B Kreber, R N Wakeling, A Stewart


Report of Section 1 2001
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10418
R N Wakeling


Growth of two selected sapstain fungi and one mould on chitosan amended nutrient medium
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10466
In vitro studies were undertaken to investigate the effect of chitosan on growth of Leptographium procerum, Sphaeropsis sapinea and Trichoderma harzianum. Chitosan was tested at three molecular weight (MW) ranges and different concentrations formulated as either a powdered suspension or as a solution. The results generally showed that low MW chitosan produced a greater inhibitory effect on growt...
C Chittenden, R N Wakeling, B Kreber


Thermotolerant mould growth in dehumidifier kilns in New Zealand
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10169
Growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and Paecilomyces variottii is common on wood dried in dehumidifier kilns that operate within a temperature range of 35-55°C. Aspergillus fumigatus causes an unacceptable blue / grey discolouration of the woods surface and prolonged exposure to spores during handling of mouldy wood can cause health problems amongst timber workers. A survey of dehumidifier kiln opera...
R N Wakeling, J G Van der Waals


Effect of wood moisture on ability of Sphaeropsis sapinea to colonise Pinus radiata
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10311
The factors influencing colonisation of unseasoned radiata pine logs by sapstaining fungi which can result in detrimental wood discolouration, are being explored. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of wood moisture content on fungal growth and wood colouration (melanisation). Five replicate trials were set up using increment cores (10mm diameter) which were taken from ...
B Kreber, D R Eden, R N Wakeling, C M Chittenden, J G Van der Waals, B Carpenter


Novel observations on the micromorphology of soft rot attack of wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10176
Electron microscopic examinations of decaying Pinus radiata horticultural posts which had been treated with CCA preservative prior to being placed in service about nine years ago showed the presence of soft rot fungi and tunnelling bacteria. Some novel observations on the micromorphology of the soft-rotted areas of tracheid walls are described here. The micromorphology of soft-rotted areas was hig...
A P Singh, R N Wakeling


A study of decay type variability in variously treated Fagus sylvatica and Pinus radiata field test stakes exposed at a vineyard for 30 - 45 months
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10271
Pinus radiata test stakes were treated with 10 kg/m3 of CCA plus 4 lower retentions in a geometric series of 1.5. Fagus sylvatica was treated with 15 kg/m3 and 2 lower retentions. Both timber species were also treated with equivalent retentions of various new generation preservatives (P. radiata was also treated with creosote). Whilst these stakes were exposed at 11 sites in New Zealand (NZ) and 2...
R N Wakeling, A P Singh


The efficacy of Sentry® as a treatment for the control of sapstain in pre-infected radiata pine
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30260
Experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of Sentry® when used to control sapstain fungi on radiata pine branch billets stored under high fungal hazard conditions. Prior to antisapstain treatment, the billets were pre-infected with a mixed inoculum of staining fungi and held from zero to 10 days at 25°C and 75% relative humidity. This was done to produce billets with different degrees...
C Chittenden, J G van der Waals, B Kreber, R N Wakeling


A study of the decay type potential of seven soils
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1539
The aim of this experiment was to determine the significance of the fungal inoculum potential and physico-chemical properties of five field trial test site soils, a garden compost known to cause white rot in copper treated fence palings, and soil from a zone between 2 and 15 centimetres from a CCA treated post with brown rot, in causing differential decay type in Pinus radiata and Poplus deltoides...
R N Wakeling


Sentry®, a new antisapstain formulation for protecting logs and lumber. - Part 2: protection of lumber
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30189
Recent research conducted by Forest Research, Chemcolour Industries (NZ) Ltd. and Fletcher Challenge Forest Ltd. has resulted in the development of antisapstain formulations that meet the efficacy requirements of the New Zealand Forest industry for export logs. One treatment, called Sentry®, is now poised for commercial use in New Zealand for treating export logs, having undergone an extensive su...
R N Wakeling, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, J G Van der Waals, B Carpenter, I Dorset, R Kuluz, J Wakeman


A light and electron microscopic study of decayed CCA-treated radiata pine (Pinus radiata) wood from a cooling tower
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10056
An inspection of an industrial cooling tower in New Zealand showed surface decay of 12 year old Pinus radiata wood panels treated with CCA preservative to a retention of around 15 kg/m³ of salt. Wood decay micromorphology typical of that caused by soft rot fungi, white rot fungi, 'stripy' and 'v-shaped' erosion bacteria and cavitation bacteria were all commonly...
A P Singh, R N Wakeling, D R Page


Microscopic characteristics of microbial attacks of CCA-treated radiata pine wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10011
Light and electron microscopic observations were made of CCA-treated radiata timbers, which had been placed in service in a vineyard soil as supporting poles and as part of a house pile, to determine the cause of their deterioration. The house pile had failed in service after between 9 and 13 years and was of particular interest because decay was more severe in deeper regions than at the surface a...
A P Singh, R N Wakeling


Field performance of novel antisapstain formulations
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30125
The effectiveness as antisapstain formulations of combinations of oxine copper (Cu-8), carbendazim, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, flusilazole, didecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC), an alkanolamine borate (SB), benzalkonium chloride (BAC), 2-n-octylisothiazolin -3-one (isothiazoline) and p-chlorophenyl-3-iodopropagilformal (CPIPF) was determined for freshly sawn, block-stacked radiata pine in th...
D R Eden, R N Wakeling, C M Chittenden, J G Van der Waals


Biofumigation of sapstaining fungi using natural products
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10428
Control of deep-seated fungal infections in raw logs of radiata pine continues to be a challenge for achieving consistent and satisfactory protection of high value logs destined for export markets. To develop solutions for this problem, a study was undertaken to investigate inhibition of spore germination and growth of sapstaining fungi by volatiles released from a selection of natural products. ...
B Kreber, C Chittenden, R N Wakeling


Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) of decayed wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10273
Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is currently being used to examine biodegraded wood and is proving to be a useful new technique in this area of work. Non-invasive optical sectioning within a thick specimen (20 - 50 µm), coupled with post image processing techniques allows manipulation of images and 3-D reconstruction from serial sections. Glutaraldehyde can cause cell autofluorescence,...
Ying Xiao, R N Wakeling, A P Singh


Bacteria are important degraders of cooling tower timbers: New Zealand experience
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10128
Microscopic examinations of CCA-treated Pinus radiata timbers in industrial cooling towers in New Zealand showed bacteria and soft rot fungi to be primarily responsible for the decay of these timbers. Of these micro-organisms, erosion bacteria appeared to be most widespread, attacking wood cell walls independently as well as together with tunnelling bacteria and soft rot fungi. Tunnelling bacteria...
A P Singh, R N Wakeling


Advances in understanding the mode of action of methylene bisthiocyanate against Sphaeropsis sapinea
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30284
The importance of arresting sapstain pre-infection in radiata pine in New Zealand, to prevent downstream sapstain in both logs and sawn timbers has been clearly demonstrated. Efforts are being made to improve the efficacy of diffusible antisapstain agents through improved understanding wood/fungicide/fungus interactions. The mechanism of action of methylene bisthiocyanate (MBT) was investigated u...
T Singh, R N Wakeling, B Kreber, A Stewart


Effect of test site, preservative and wood species on decay type Glenbervie pastoral and radiata pine forest sites
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30248
Pinus radiata stakes were treated with 0.8, 1.2, 1.8, 2.7 and 4.1 kg/m3 of CCA and Fagus sylvatica with 2.7, 4.1 and 6.1 kg/m3 of CCA. Both wood species were also treated with equivalent retentions of a copper plus triazole preservative (CT) (0.89, 1.3, 2 and 3 kg/m3 of copper for pine & 2.5 and 4 for beech) and chlorothalonil plus chlorpyriphos in oil (CC) (1.4, 2.1, 3.2 and 4.8 kg/m3 of chlo...
R N Wakeling


Laboratory trial to identify potential in-forest treatments to control fungal pre-infections of radiata pine logs
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30220
Development of fungal infections of radiata pine logs by wood degrading fungi commences immediately after tree felling. In general, subsequent antisapstain treatments are unable to control fungal degrade on logs where the pre-treatment log storage time exceeds 2-5 days. However, use of an in-forest treatment of logs may be advantageous to log exporters to control fungal pre-infections during the p...
D R Eden, B Kreber, R N Wakeling, J G Van der Waals, C M Chittenden


Laboratory and field trials of novel antisapstain formulations
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30146
This document covers the results of laboratory and field trials of combinations of fungicides formulated using a patented technology (PCT NZ 96/00143). A 3 week laboratory trial that uses radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) branch discs as a substrate was used to determine which combinations possessed a suitable spectrum of fungitoxicity against key sapstain, mould and decay fungi. In particular f...
R N Wakeling, P N Maynard, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, B Carpenter


Use of mixed populations of microflora to control sapstain on radiata pine
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10427
Most methods of biological control in the wood products field have focused on the use of single species of fungi or bacteria to control sapstain or decay. The approach taken in this study involved applying soil microorganisms, in combination with nutrients and various adjuvants that collectively form the biological control system. Radiata pine branch discs, autoclaved or fresh, were dipped in ...
C Chittenden, R Wakeling, B Kreber


Premature failure of CCA treated vineyard posts from brown rot
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10016
A survey of CCA (AWPA Type C) treated posts used as grape vine trellis supports, to determine the extent and type of decay was carried out at a terraced vineyard in the Hawkes Bay region of the North Island of New Zealand. Of 357 posts examined out of a total of 970 in the vineyard, 47% had moderate to severe decay or had failed, 20% had established decay, 10% had a trace of decay and 23% had no s...
R N Wakeling, A P Singh


Comparison of the FRIM and forest research laboratory methods for screening of anti-sapstain formulations
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20170
Two laboratory methods for screening of anti-sapstain formulations were compared. The method adopted by the Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) involved 3 weeks assessment of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) blocks, dipped in the candidate formulation and inoculated with mycelial/spore suspension of sapstain (Botryodiplodia theobromae) or decay (Schizophyllum commune) fungi, and incubated on ...
A H H Wong, D R Eden, C M Chittenden, M E Hedley, R N Wakeling


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