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Effects in vivo of various tensides (surface-active agents) on Reticulitermes santonensis De Feyteaud
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10417
The results of studies of surface active agents (tensides, surfactants) on the feeding behavior and mortality of Reticulitermes santonensis De Feyteaud are described. The effects of these agents on the nature and relative populations of eight gut-inhabiting symbionts are also examined. Among the various tensides tested, bee's poison was the most effective in causing rapid termite death. A...
W Unger


The resistance of painting materials and consolidants against wood-destroying insects
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10239
Natural and synthetic adhesives, varnishes, painting materials and consolidants were used in investigations of bioresistance against newly hatched larvae and beetles of Hylotrupes bajulus (L.). Animal glues, casein, drying oils and natural resins such as dammar resin and shellac, were not resistant to attack by these larvae. Similarly, semi- and all-synthetic polymers tested including hydroxypropy...
W Unger, H Fritsche, A Unger


Conservation of wooden cultural property
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30038
A survey of the conservation of wooden archtitectual monuments, art objects and archaeological finds is presented. Each of the three areas has typical conservation problems which reqire the use of selected wood preservatives and consolidation agents. Furthermore specific protection and consolidation methods are necessary. A precise damage diagnosis with non-destructive testing methods is the first...
A Unger, W Unger


On the Influence of Wood Destroying Fungi on the Feeding Intensity of Termites
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10893
The baiting and feeding stimulating effect of wood attacked by fungal isolates of the species Coniophora, Lentinus, Poria and Gloeophyllum on termites Reticulitermes santonensis is examined. There are significant relationships between the activity of fungal isolates and the feeding behaviour of termites. The most active isolates can be used for increase the attractiveness of wood to wood-destroyin...
W Unger, T L Woods


An Historical Roof Timber System in the Old Town of Berlin-Spandau
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10949
In Europe the “Charter of Venice” was enacted on the 31st of May 1964. It is the international directive for the preservation of historic buildings and monuments. All countries in Europe now involve professional wood scientists and engineers in maintaining and preserving historical buildings. Here we discuss a restoration project involving 17th century roof timbering. This project may be used ...
M Luke, W Unger, D Nellessen


On the effectiveness of fumigants against wood-destroying insects and fungi in wooden cultural property
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10030
Based on a survey of the history of the use of fumigants the actual agents are mentioned in relation to their biogenic effect on wood-destroying insects and fungi as well as their corrosive behavior on cultural property. Furthermore the conditions for the use of reactive fumigants in buildings are discussed. Trials to control wood-destroying insects and fungi by nitrogen and bromomethane are the m...
W Unger, A Unger


Reinfestation of consolidated ancient wood by insects
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10290
Wooden artifacts are often attacked by wood-destroying insects. Therefore conservators have to stabilize numerous objects from such attack. Initially we studied the resistance of painting materials and consolidants on unaffected recent wood against wood-destroying insects (IRG/WP 97-10239). Further, we wanted an answer to the question: Are artifacts, formerly destroyed by wood-borers, reinfested b...
W Unger, A Unger, U Schiessl


Determination of chlorine-containing wood preservatives in art objects using Micro-XRF
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20266
The applicability of a mobile energy-dispersive micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) spectro-meter for the analysis of organochlorine-containing wood preservatives in art objects was tested. Information about the relative degree of contamination and the efficacy of detoxification measures with emulsive solvent systems can be gained using the intensity of the chlorine signals. μ-XRF t...
J Bartoll, A Unger, S Krug, K Püschner, H Bronk


On the resistance of consolidated ancient wood against Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen: Fr.) Schroeter
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10348
Structural timbers and other wood objects of cultural value in historical buildings and museums are often attacked by wood-destroying fungi. The aim of conservators is to preserve such damaged timbers and prevent further biodeterioration by impregnation with consolidants. There is little knowledge of the resistance of consolidated timber and art objects to a new attack by wood-destroying fungi. Br...
W Unger, A Unger, U Schiessl


Development of threshold values for boron compounds in above ground exposures: Preliminary trials
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30179
Boron is increasingly used both as an initial and remedial treatment for protecting wood against fungal and insect attack. While establishing lethal dosages for boron against insects through feeding tests is relatively simple, establishing thresholds for fungal attack poses more of a challenge. Tests using boron dispersed in agar artificially surround the fungus with both boron and excess nutrient...
J J Morrell, C M Freitag, S Unger


Screening test methods with termites as first laboratory evaluation of new active substances for wood preservation
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10135
European test methods (EN) with termites have been compared with long-standing experience from screening test methods in the laboratory of Eberswalde. The results are discussed in terms on the possibility of using screening test methods as the first laboratory evaluation of new active substances in wood preservatives. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are considered. Only a small a...
W Unger


Field test of wood preservatives with Nasutitermes rippertii RAMBUR in Cuba
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10181
A field test of wood preservatives was carried out with Nasutitermes rippertii RAMBUR in the vicinity of the Material Testing Centre „Alexander von Humboldt" in Santiago de las Vegas/ Havana (Cuba) for 12 and 24 months. Test specimens of Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Fagus sylvatica L. with dimensions of 25 x 25 x 490 mm³ were arranged vertically or horizontally in a circle o...
W Unger


Effect of fumigation with Sulfuryl Difluoride on wood inhabiting fungi, a laboratory test
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30410
Special methods are necessary for the control of wood destroying organisms in the preservation of monuments and historic buildings because of the conservation of their originality and uniqueness. The control of wood destroying organisms can be realized with conventional liquid wood preservatives or alternative methods. One of these methods is the fumigation. One fumigant, which was in the past of...
A Pfeffer, W Unger, G Fröba, G Binker


Wood printing plates from the Dürer era – species identification and anatomical study
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20364
Anatomical examinations serve to answer questions regarding the artistic technique and authenticity of art objects made of wood. The wood of 28 printing plates from the 15th and 16th centuries from the Berlin Kupferstichkabinett were investigated. Seven of these which date from the Dürer era (Albrecht Dürer, 1471-1528) were examined in more detail. With one exception, the plates from the Dürer ...
M Penkuhn, W Unger


Comparison of laboratory termite test methods
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20365
Seven standardized laboratory tests with termites were evaluated. The bioassays were made in accordance with EN 117, SAA32 E08, SAA32 E09, Ebw 02, the American Wood-Preservers’ Association (AWPA) Standard E1-97, the Japan Wood Preserving Association (JWPA) Standard 11 (1) and The Protocols for Assessment of Wood Preservatives. Two different wood preservatives each in three concentrations and add...
H-U Kruschinski, W Unger, A F Preston


Effects of cold treatment on wood destroying fungi important in cultural heritage
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10706
The dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen:Fr.) Schroeter is notorious in building environments for its vitality, destructive potential, and the huge costs associated with remediation of damage caused to wood of cultural heritage. Due to the potentially adverse of effects of chemical treatment methods such as have been attempted in the past, more benign physical methods of treatment, e.g. heat t...
M Lüdicke, W Unger, G Binker


Stained wood: The identification of natural dyes and mordants in wooden works of art
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20434
On the basis of current knowledge only natural-colored wood species crafted to veneers were used for the decorative design of furniture and wooden interior in classical antiquity.First applications of artificially stained wood can be dated to the late Middle Ages. In the Renaissance wooden works of art were manufactured by using intarsia of natural-colored, fungus-stained and artificially stained ...
A Unger, W Unger


The decontamination of a historical xylotheque with liquid carbon dioxide
2011 - IRG/WP 11-10757
The pharmacist Johann Heinrich Linck senior (1674-1734) created the xylotheque (collection of wood species) in Leipzig, Saxony (Germany). His son, Johann Heinrich Linck junior (1734-1807), continued the valuable and unique collection, which now belongs to the Museum Waldenburg near Dresden, Germany. In the past the cupboard, including the wood specimens, was impregnated with a wood preservative co...
S Zoppke, A Unger, J Mankiewicz, M Eisbein


Cobblestone Church in Gross Gievietz: Historic Wooden Construction and Potential for Conservation and Use
2011 - IRG/WP 11-10760
A majority of cobblestone churches situated in the German Federal State Mecklenburg-Vorpommern demonstrates immense construction deficiencies and are threatened by decay. The historic cobblestone church located in Groß Gievitz, built in the 13th century, is one such church in which the roof beam constructions have degraded considerably due to deficiencies in reconstruction measures. This paper d...
A Schulze, W Unger


Application of a model for the prediction of fungal degradation of thermally modified beech timber by Trametes versicolor
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40622
Colour measurement technology is found to be feasible for characterization of the property changes of thermally modified timber (TMT). In opposite to time-consuming and expensive laboratory tests a non-destructive test represents an improvement for the manufacturer of TMT. Therefore the aim of this study was to develop a method which allows sorting the different treatment intensities after the man...
Clauder, L., Richter S., Unger, W., Pfriem, A


Shells of Coconut and their Durability against Termite Attack
2015 - IRG 15-10853
All tropical and subtropical areas of the Earth are inhabited by termites. In climates with moderate temperatures, they occur less frequently. Especially wood and non-wood materials that grows in tropical areas and used there in timber constructions and woodworking, wood durability and protection against termites should be researched. This paper reports findings from an experimental “AW011” la...
M Dass, A H H Wong, W Unger


Durability Testing of a Cattail (Typha spp.) based Insulation Material against Termite Attack
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10879
The use of insulating materials is particularly important in the construction industries, especially with regard to the use of wood and naturally occurring substances. The use and durability of natural materials as insulating materials is of keen interest to many construction experts, and continues to be a topic of intense investigation. It is generally agreed that the use of natural substances ...
M Dass, W Unger, T L Woods


On the natural durability of RED MERANTI for window frames as a function of gross density wood
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10927
MERANTI is a wood species belonging to the family Dipterocarpaceae, in the genus SHOREA (Shorea spp.). The genus has approximately 196 species with four subgenera. The subgenus RUBROSHOREA is commonly named RED MERANTI (RM) and is found on the Malayan Island of Sarawak, Indonesia, with approximately 65 varieties (Symington 1943). According to Brazier (1956), the distribution of gross densities wi...
K Hasse, W Unger, T L Woods


The anatomical determination of wood samples found in the “Fürstengräber” from Lübsow (Poland)
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10930
The paper presents the results of anatomical research identifying three wooden fragments from the “Princes Graves” (“Fürstengräber”) in Lübsow, Poland. The research demonstrates that the wooden fragments are typical of wood harvested from European forests. The physicals conclusions are important for the research of Jan Schuster, from the University of Lodz, Institute of Archeology, Pol...
J Schuster, W Unger, T L Woods


Green Coloration of Wood in the Forest and Laboratory by Chlorociboria spp. – Applications for Furniture
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10947
Discoloration of wood caused by living saprophytic fungi is commonly found on lumber. These fungi do not destroy the integrity of wood, but the discolorations they cause are often considered undesirable. In Tunbrigde Wells (Great Britain), seldomly found green colored wood, usually considered commercially irrelevant, was valued for use in restoration of wood inlay artwork. The aim of this researc...
S Krause, W Unger, P Heydeck