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Field Testing of Copper Carboxylate Preservatives
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30322
This paper details our ongoing experience with field testing of copper naphthenate and other copper carboxylate preservative systems. Results from field stake tests at an AWPA Hazard Zone 4 test site are presented. In general, copper carboxylates made with ‘synthetics’ yielded results equivalent to or only slightly lower than systems with straight nap acids or nap acids amended with syntheti...
H M Barnes, M G Sanders, T L Amburgey


Innovations in the treatment of Southern pine heartwood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40172
Whereas the sapwood of southern yellow pine (Pinus spp.) is readily treatable, the heartwood is essentially impermeable to preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA). Preliminary studies at the Mississippi Forest Products Laboratory indicate that increases in penetration and retention of preservative in pine heartwood can be obtained by subjecting kiln dried dimension stock to varying m...
M G Sanders, T L Amburgey, H M Barnes


Ten year field test with a copper-borate ground line treatment for poles
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30017
A wood preservative paste consisting of borax and copper naphthenate has been tested to determine its efficiency in protecting wood from decay fungi and insects. The paste was applied to polyethylene-backed wraps that were fastened to the below-ground portions of unseasoned southern pine pole stubs. After 4 years of exposure in Mississippi, the untreated control stubs were completely deteriorated....
T L Amburgey, M H Freeman


Ground contact performance of wood treated by the MSU process
1990 - IRG/WP 3609
Environmental concerns have prompted a renewed interest in accelerated fixation schemes for CCA-treated wood. Results from stake tests of southern pine (Pinus sp.) treated using a conventional Bethell cycle are compared with matched stakes treated using the MSU Process. The effects of adding boric acid to the preservative formulation are also discussed. Differences among test plots are discussed....
H M Barnes, T L Amburgey, R W Landers


The antifungal efficacy of Guayule resin
1987 - IRG/WP 3429
The Naval Research Laboratory is evaluating the non-rubber-producing portion of guayule (Parthenium argentatum) resin as a protectant for wood in terrestrial and marine service. This study phase, in collaboration with the universities of Arizona and Mississippi State, evaluates the resin's fungicidal worth. Resin-impregnated pine sapwood was exposed to brown rot fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeu...
J D Bultman, R L Gilbertson, T L Amburgey, J E Adaskaveg, S V Parikh, C A Bailey


Facility for Conducting Field Tests on Coptotermes formosanus at LSU Agricultural Center
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20274
Efforts by Louisiana State University Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and Mississippi State University (MSU) research scientists, to conduct cooperative research on C. formosanus and other wood-related topics, have led to establishing an FST field test site at the LSU Agricultural Center Citrus Research Experiment Station, Port Sulfur, Louisiana. A minimum of 32 termite colonies will be establi...
W R Smith, T L Amburgey, G Henderson, D R Ring


Performance of copper naphthenate-treated hardwoods
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30269
Copper naphthenate (CuNap) is a historically proven, commercially produced and industry utilized preservative for many wooden commodities including poles, fence posts, lumber, timber and wood shakes/shingles. Historically, most wood preservatives are tested using the sapwood of softwood species like pine (Pinus spp.) and or Douglas-fir (Pseudosuga menziesii) and even though the railroads of the wo...
H M Barnes, T L Amburgey, H M Freeman, J A Brient


Log fumigation prevents enzyme-mediated sapwood discolorations in hardwoods
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10003
Non-microbial sapwood discolorations in hardwood lumber can cause economic loss by degrade of quality. Based on the hypothesis that the enzyme-mediated sapstain may develop in part from byproducts of parenchyma cells in wood, reshly felled logs of red oak (Quercus spp.) and sugar hackberry (Celtis laevigata) were fumigated under a plastic tarp with methyl bromide. Log sections were checked after f...
E L Schmidt, T L Amburgey


Prevention of non-microbial sapwood discolorations in hardwood lumber: chemical and mechanical treatments
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30137
Sapwood discolorations in hardwood lumber that are non-microbial in origin result from the formation of pigmented starch-like granules in ray parenchyma cells. These discolorations can be prevented by treating unseasoned lumber with an antioxidant (sodium bisulfite). Exposing unseasoned lumber to microwaves or treating logs with fumigants also will prevent these discolorations. Subjecting unseason...
T L Amburgey, S Kitchens


Working plan: Second international collaborative field trial
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20056
This paper describes the scope, objectives, and approaches to be used in the second international collaborative field trial approved by the Scientific Programme Committee for partial funding in 1994. The trial is designed to develop a broad data base on causal mechanisms, interactions, and factor affecting the performance of treated wood in ground contact. The trial encompasses 12 different field ...
H M Barnes, T L Amburgey


Borates as wood preserving compounds: The status of research in the United States
1989 - IRG/WP 3542
This paper describes the extensive, on-going cooperative research effort among government and university research laboratories and industry to fully evaluate the potential for borates as wood preservatives in the United States. Research is discussed in terms of laboratory evaluations, field testing and mill trials, pilot plant pressure treatment studies, and remedial treatments. Future research pl...
H M Barnes, T L Amburgey, L H Williams, J J Morrell


Effect of Oil Content on The Performance of Wood Treated with Pentachlorophenol
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30324
This paper details a five-year study on southern pine treated with pentachlorophenol in oil at various oil contents. Results from field stake tests at two Gulf Coast test sites are presented. Both biological efficacy and preservative depletion data are discussed. Results suggest that increasing oil content leads to better performance of wood treated with pentachlorophenol. Test results indicat...
H M Barnes, T L Amburgey, M G Sanders


Mold fungi - Major impediments to cleaning/repairing flood and rain-damaged homes
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40427
Damage to homes by hurricanes that make landfall in the south and southeastern United States, or sub-tropical and tropical regions, during the hot, humid summer months is compounded by the growth of mold fungi on wetted building materials. Most homeowners are better equipped to deal with construction problems associated with storm damage than to control the growth of mold fungi. Following hurrican...
T L Amburgey


Performance of Creosote/Chlorothalonil Preservatives
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30580
The addition of chlorothalonil to P2 creosote was found to increase the durability of southern pine in a series of ground contact stake tests. At retentions lower than those specified in the AWPA Standards, performance was increased when the creosote was amended with chlorothalonil. This indicates that lower creosote retentions may be required for as good or better ground contact when the amende...
H M Barnes, M G Sanders, G B Lindsey, T L Amburgey


Encapsulation Systems Combined with DOT Borate Treatments – The Future of Treated Crossties
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40670
Borates have been utilized in wood protection systems for many decades but only recently have been used in North America to treat crossties. This colorless, ordorless and very effective wood protection chemical has the ability to arrest and prevent the colonization of wood by both basidiomycete decay fungi and insects such as beetles and termites while ties are air seasoning or in service. Since ...
S C Kitchens, T L Amburgey