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Controlled fixation technology
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-12
Controlled fixation techniques have been developed and adopted in a number of countries where chromium containing preservatives are predominantly used. The purpose of this technology is to reduce both on-site pollution and holding requirements for freshly treated timber. The fixation mechanism is complex and the time taken to complete the reaction is dependent upon a number of factors. A number of...
M Connell, W J Baldwin, T Smith


Sediment toxicity study of marine piles treated with CCA-C
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-35
A study was undertaken to demonstrate the effects of 10-day exposure to sediments mixed with leachate from chromated copper arsenate Type-C (CCA-C) southern pine marine piles treated to a retention of 40 kg/m³ (2.5 pcf) and untreated southern pine piles on the benthic amphipod, Ampelisca abdita. The biological endpoint used to establish effects was organism survival. Leachate obtained during a 28...
W J Baldwin, E A Pasek, P D Osborne


Hydroponic Phytoremediation of Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) and Copper Contaminated Water
2014 - IRG/WP 14-50304
The removal of selected metals by duckweed (Lemna minor) and parrotfeather (Myriophyllum aquaticum) from a simulated aqueous environment contaminated with Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) and copper sulfate was studied in a controlled laboratory experiment. The duckweed and parrotfeather’s tissues were analyzed to evaluate the removal of copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), and arsenic (As) from CCA cont...
C Keith, H Borazjani, S Diehl, Y Su, Fengxian Han, B Baldwin