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A comparison of the chemistry of alkaline copper and micronized copper treated wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30528
This paper discusses the chemistry of the reaction of alkaline copper and micronized copper with wood. The objective of this study is to examine the copper species produced in wood during the fixation reaction using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The initial experiments (phases 1 to 2) were designed to confirm the effect of time of treatment and solution concentration on the s...
Wei Xue, P Kennepohl, J N R Ruddick


Quantification of mobile copper (II) levels in micronized copper treated wood
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40550
The purpose of this study is to quantify the mobile copper(II) levels in micronized copper treated wood using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. A correlation between EPR and EDX intensities on mobile copper levels in a series of copper sulphate treated wood was created as a calibration standard. Laboratory treatments using micronized copper formulations were then carried out and ...
Wei Xue, P Kennepohl J N R Ruddick


Mobilized copper(II) concentrations in earlywood and latewood of micronized copper treated red pine
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30596
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was used in conjunction with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to quantify total copper and mobilized copper retentions in MCQ and MCA treated red pine. The MCQ treated red pine was found to have higher copper retention than that of the MCA treated one. Earlywood in general had higher total copper content than latewood. The mobilized and complexed cop...
Wei Xue, P Kennepohl, J N R Ruddick


Effect of soil contact on reacted copper(II) levels in micronized copper treated wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30616
Small 3 to 4 mm thick and approximately 80 to 100 mm long, samples were removed from wood treated with micronized copper quat (MCQ) or micronized copper azole (MCA) and buried full length in a soil bed. Samples were removed after 2, 4 and 8 weeks. The total copper was determined by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy and the amount of reacted micronized copper measured by electron paramagnetic r...
Wei Xue, P Kennepohl, Xingguo Jin, J N R Ruddick


Chemistry of copper preservative treated wood
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30651
The reaction chemistry of micronized copper wood preservatives is fundamentally different from any previous inorganic preservative system. In order to study the chemistry, analytical procedures had to be developed which allowed the determination of the total copper as well as the copper which reacted with the wood forming copper-wood complexes. With the success of this approach it also became poss...
Wei Xue, P Kennepohl, J N R Ruddick


Evidence for a role for precipitated copper on the chemistry of micronized copper treatments
2016 - IRG/WP 16-30690
Micronized copper preservative treatments of softwoods, result in mobile copper being formed by reaction of the basic copper carbonate (BCC) with the carboxylic acid functional groups in hemicellulose and pectic substances present in wood. Typically, the amount of reacted copper formed is approximately 0.3% Cu m/m. In this paper, two examples are discussed where remaining unreacted basic copper ca...
Wei Xue, P Kennepohl, J N R Ruddick


International co-operation in wood preservation research
1979 - IRG/WP 3145
If one searched the literature, one could find many examples of international co-operation in the field of research in wood preservation. For example, individual workers in different countries in Europe have got together and made replicate tests with both fungi and insects on various preservatives of common interest and their results have been published. Much co-operation has not had its results p...
R Cockcroft


Properties of strand board bonded with ammonium pentaborate (APB) modified phenol formaldehyde resin
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40455
Ammonium pentaborate (APB) is combined with phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin in this study to develop a high-performance wood-based composite. The effect of APB and its combination with polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the physical, mechanical properties as well as formaldehyde emission of strand board were tested and compared with disodium octaborate tetrahydrateand (DOT) and zinc borate (ZB). The resu...
Wei Gao, Jinzhen Cao


Evaluation of ACQ-D treated Chinese fir and Mongolian Scots pine with different post-treatments after 20 months of exposure
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30530
The performance of alkaline copper quat-type D (ACQ-D) treated Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.) and Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris Linn. var. mongolica Litv.) stakes after 20 months exposure in Chengdu and Guangzhou of southern China were evaluated according to AWPA standard E07-07. The ACQ-D treatments used two concentration levels (0.5 and 1.0%) and four different post-treatme...
Lili Yu, Jinzhen Cao, Wei Gao, Haitao Su


Effect of 4 Preservatives on Physical, Mechanical and Mold-Resistant Properties of Bamboo Oriented Strand Boards
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40483
This study investigated the effects of 4 preservative systems on physical, mechanical and mold-resistant properties of bamboo oriented strand board (OSB) panels bonded with urea formaldehyde resin. Preservative A (Zinc Borate), B (IPBC), C (AAC+Borate) and D (carbendazim + prochloraz) were incorporated with strands during blending at three loading levels. The results showed that the mechanical and...
Juwan Jin, Daochun Qin, Wanshu Wei, Kuan Fan


Curing kinetics of nano cupric oxide (CuO) modified PF resin as wood adhesive: Effect of surfactant
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40620
The effect of nano cupric oxide (CuO) in combination with surfactants on the curing kinetics of phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin, as well as the bonding strength of plywood prepared using the modified resin were investigated in this study using dynamic and isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The result showed that the incorporation of nano CuO along with alkane surfactant made in the...
Wei Gao, Guanben Du


Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of nano cupric oxide (CuO) modified aqueous phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40654
Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resins, modified by nano CuO incorporating alkane surfactant and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) 17-99, were analyzed by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The mechanical properties of its bonded plywood including tensile strength, modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE) and shear strength under five test conditions were evaluated. Results indicated that the incorpor...
Wei Gao, Guanben Du