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Wood extractives as carbon sources for staining fungi in the sapwood of lodgepole pine and trembling aspen
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10098
Wood discoloration by sapstaining fungi reduces lumber value. In Canada, the most commonly recorded sapstaining fungi belong to the genera Ophiostoma. This work evaluated the effect that Ophiostoma piceae, Ophiostoma ainoae, and Ophiostoma piliferum used the lipids present in the sapwood of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.). Wood lipids, common...
Yong Gao, C Breuil


Serial techniques for producing fire-retardant wood products
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30127
A series of techniques including fire-retarders denoted by WFR-1, WFR-2. WFR and their applications in producing fire-retardant wood (WFR wood), fire-retardant plywood (WFR plywood), fire-retardant particleboard (WFR particleboard) and fire-retardant MDF (WFR MDF) were investigated The fire retarders were low toxic, decay resistant and less leachable. The treated wood and WFR panels were of excell...
Zhu Jia Qi, Liu Yan Ji, Gao Chao Ying


Long-Term Release of Arsenic, Chromium, and Copper from CCA-Treated Wood and Ash
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50227
In this study, laboratory long-term leaching studies were conducted to characterize the leaching behavior of arsenic, chromium, and copper from CCA-treated wood samples (block, chip, and sawdust) and CCA-wood ash and to determine the rate of release of the metals from the CCA wood products. The leaching solutions were periodically collected and analyzed for the concentrations of arsenic, chromium,...
Hyunmyung Yoon, Heeseok Kang, Yong-Chul Jang


Effect of steam on fixation of Cu-amine preservative treated wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-50251
The rates of copper fixation in copper amine preservative treated wood were investigated with different fixation conditions (20° with drying and 50° without drying) and post-steaming. We also measured the degree of leaching for other biocide components (azoles, quatz, and Cu-HDO). Treatments conditioned at 20° with drying required 50 days or more to fix in woods. While copper was stabilized i...
Sung-Mo Kang, In-Yong Hwang, Suk-Kuwon Kim


Leachability of Arsenic, Chromium and Copper from Weathered Treated Wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-50255
The objective of this study was to quantify the loss of arsenic, chromium and copper from weathered treated wood under normal field conditions as most residential structures currently in service in the U.S. have been constructed at least 3 years ago. For comparison, leaching from different retention levels of weathered CCA treated wood (low, medium and high) is compared to leaching from new ACQ tr...
A R Hasan, Ligang Hu, H M Solo-Gabriele, Yong Cai, L A Fieber


Speciation of leachates from CCA-treated wood
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-27
Different species of arsenic and chromium are characterized by different toxicities and different mobilities. The environmental impacts of CCA-treated wood would therefore be a function of the chemical forms of the metal releases. As a consequence a series of tasks were undertaken to evaluate arsenic and chromium species from CCA-treated wood. The intent of these tasks was to quantify the total...
H M Solo-Gabriele, T G Townsend, Yong Cai, B I Khan, Jin-Kun Song, J Jambeck, B Dubey, Yong-Chul Jang


Properties of strand board bonded with ammonium pentaborate (APB) modified phenol formaldehyde resin
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40455
Ammonium pentaborate (APB) is combined with phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin in this study to develop a high-performance wood-based composite. The effect of APB and its combination with polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the physical, mechanical properties as well as formaldehyde emission of strand board were tested and compared with disodium octaborate tetrahydrateand (DOT) and zinc borate (ZB). The resu...
Wei Gao, Jinzhen Cao


Evaluation of ACQ-D treated Chinese fir and Mongolian Scots pine with different post-treatments after 20 months of exposure
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30530
The performance of alkaline copper quat-type D (ACQ-D) treated Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.) and Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris Linn. var. mongolica Litv.) stakes after 20 months exposure in Chengdu and Guangzhou of southern China were evaluated according to AWPA standard E07-07. The ACQ-D treatments used two concentration levels (0.5 and 1.0%) and four different post-treatme...
Lili Yu, Jinzhen Cao, Wei Gao, Haitao Su


Optimization of oxalic acid production for bioleaching of metal components from CCA-treated wood by an unknown Polyporales sp. KUC8959
2010 - IRG/WP 10-50266
A brown-rot fungus, an unknown Polyporales sp. KUC8959, has recently been identified and proven as a prominent fungal species for bioremediation of CCA-treated wood wastes in our Lab. The fungus produced a larger amount of oxalic acid than other fungi tested, and removed 90 % or more of chromium, copper and arsenic from CCA-treated wood sawdust through bioleaching process. The bioleaching process ...
Yong-Seok Choi, Min-Ji Kim, Jae-Jin Kim, Gyu-Hyeok Kim


Fungal biodegradation of CCA-treated wood wastes
2011 - IRG/WP 10-50276
Fungal biodegradation could be employed as a pretreatment method to alleviate problems caused by landfill disposal of CCA-treated wood wastes (e.g. a shortage of landfill space and a release of leacheate). It could be used to decrease the volume of waste and to remove metals from waste simultaneously. We have screened hundreds of decay fungi, including fungi isolated from CCA-treated wood in servi...
Gyu-Hyeok Kim, Yong-Seok Choi, Jae-Jin Kim


Fixation and leaching characteristics of Malaysian tropical hardwoods treated with CCA-C
2012 - IRG/WP 12-50289
The fixation and leaching characteristics of 8 Malaysian tropical hardwood (MTH) species treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA-C) wood preservative were examined. The species evaluated were Acacia (Acacia mangium), Bintangor (Calophyllum sp.), Geronggang (Cratoxylon arborescens), Medang (Litsea sp.), Meranti rambai daun (Shorea acuminata), Putat (Planchonia sp.), Ramin (Gonystylus sp.) and S...
S Salim, S Shahomlail, Z Ashaari, Yong-Seok Choi, Gyu-Hyeok Kim


Curing kinetics of nano cupric oxide (CuO) modified PF resin as wood adhesive: Effect of surfactant
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40620
The effect of nano cupric oxide (CuO) in combination with surfactants on the curing kinetics of phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin, as well as the bonding strength of plywood prepared using the modified resin were investigated in this study using dynamic and isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The result showed that the incorporation of nano CuO along with alkane surfactant made in the...
Wei Gao, Guanben Du


Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of nano cupric oxide (CuO) modified aqueous phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40654
Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resins, modified by nano CuO incorporating alkane surfactant and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) 17-99, were analyzed by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The mechanical properties of its bonded plywood including tensile strength, modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE) and shear strength under five test conditions were evaluated. Results indicated that the incorpor...
Wei Gao, Guanben Du


Decay resistance of wood-plastic composites reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40655
The moisture and decay resistance of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour (WF) was investigated. Three different extractions were preformed: toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW). Delignification (DL) was performed using a sodium chlorite/acetic acid solution. All WPCs specimens were made with 50% by weight HDPE and WF, first com...
R E Ibach, Yao Chen, N M Stark, M A Tshabalala, Yongming Fan, Jianmin Gao


Study on Biological Distribution to Conserve the Tripitaka Koreana woodblocks in Haeinsa Temple
2015 - IRG/WP 15-10844
Tripitaka Koreana is the Wood-carved Buddhist scriptures which were made in 13th century. And Janggyeong Panjeon that is depository for the Tripitaka Koreana was built in 15th century. In recent days, biological damage becomes a serious problem to wooden cultural heritage including historical wooden buildings with global warming. In this study, termite monitoring on whole Haein-sa temple area and ...
Si Hyun Kim, Hyun Ju Lee, Yong Jae Chung


The whitening cause of Korean wooden heritage by flame retardant treatment
2015 - IRG/WP 15-20560
Korean wooden heritage used to treat by flame retardants in order to protect fire. There are 2 types flame retardant using for wooden heritage. These flame retardants treatment are basic measure that apply to wooden heritage along with other fire protection. The flame retardants cause white stains by reacting with Korean traditional wood painting (Dancheong) and increase wood humidity. The Korean ...
Jin Qyu Kim, Gyu-Seong Han, Yong Jae Chung, Hwa Soo Lee, Dong Won Son


Study on the Effects of Flame Retardant in Dancheong for Korea Wooden Cultural Heritage
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40692
This study identifies the effect of the agent depending on environment change and conducted basic study to prepare criteria for stable application. Dancheong sample, which is similar to wooden cultural heritage, was manufactured to study the effect of the agent on dancheong. Regular observation on the samples located in inland and shoreline area in the country detected visible phenomena. Whitening...
Hwa Soo Lee, So Jung Lee, Gyu Seong Han, Yong Jae Chung


Molecular identification of marine borers causing wood deterioration on marine facilities in Korea
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10955
The deterioration factors of wood which was used in the marine environment, Tongyeong (South Coast) and Incheon (West Coast) in Korea, were investigated in order to develop technologies for safe and long-term use of timber in ocean facilities. The marine microorganisms isolated by damaged wood were identified as morphological Chelura sp. and Teredo sp. As a result of DNA sequencing, it was confir...
Sae-Min Yoon, Min-Ji Kim, Won-Joung Hwang, Yong-Seok Choi, Dong-Won Son


Biological assessment of bio-based phase change materials in wood for construction applications
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40935
Solid wood can serve multi-functionality for energy savings in buildings. The study reveals the results of bio-deterioration and degradation of solid Scots pine wood used to incorporate single or multicomponent fatty acid mixtures as bio-based phase change materials (BPCMs). The sapwood samples were impregnated with capric acid (CA), methyl palmitate (MP), lauryl alcohol (LA) and a mixture of coco...
S Palanti, A Temiz, G Köse Demirel, G Hekimoğlu, A Sari, M Nazari, J Gao, M Jebrane, T Schnabel, N Terziev