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Establishing standard principles for laboratory bioassays of termiticides with subterranean termites - progress, problems and prospects
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10013
Laboratory bioassays of termiticides, including wood preservatives, aim to give an indication of the likely concentrations effective in preventing damage to timber products and other materials in the field. In laboratory bioassays field conditions should be simulated as closely as possible. With a wide range of procedures in use around the world it may often be difficult to compare results between...
M Lenz, J W Creffield, Zhong Yun-hong, L R Miller


Laboratory evaluation of phoxim in plywood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30264
Two types of phoxim treated plywood bonded by phenolic resin glue and urea resin glue were challenged with termites of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki in laboratory. It was found that the sawdust of phoxim treated plywood bonded by phenolic resin glue was not active or did not kill termites of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki within the test period. Moreover, the phoxim treated plywood bonded by phen...
Zhong Junhong, Lin Liling, Huang Hong


Biodeterioration and preservation of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis)
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10084
Plantation-grown rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) in the tropics is fast emerging as a significant provider of quality hardwood for a variety of non-structural products, as the aesthetics of the timber is its creamed colour resembling perhaps the priced but depleting Ramin wood or even American beechwood. However rubberwood logs and sawn materials are highly sensitive to sapstain, fungal decay an...
L T Hong, A H H Wong


Decay Resistance and Bonding Properties of Structural Flakeboard
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40233
Experimental structural flakeboard panels consisting of differing furnishes and resins were produced and tested for internal bond, linear expansion, thickness swell, and decay resistance. One group of panels was produced with recycled CCA-treated wood as the furnish and commercial phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin as the binder. Other groups of panels were produced with either mixed hardwoods or so...
T F Shupe, Chung-Yun Hse


Removal of CCA from Spent CCA-Treated Wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50192
A novel method for the removal of CCA components from spent CCA-treated wood has been developed. The CCA-treated wood was first converted into liquid in the presence of polyethylene glycol and glycerin at mild temperatures (120 – 150 0C) by using sulfuric acid as catalyst. The resulting viscous liquefied wood was then resolved in acetone/water solvent. The hazardous components (i.e., Cr, As, and...
Lianzhen Lin, Chung-Yun Hse


Bamboo preservation in Vietnam
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40457
This paper presents the current state of bamboo preservation in Vietnam. The report focuses on the importance of bamboo preservation in relation to the bamboo resource and utilization, the major methods for preservation (such as non chemical und chemical methods), and emphasises the today’s pressing problems of research, standards as well as information for the bamboo preservation industry in Vi...
Tang Thi Kim Hong


Control of the Formosan subterranean termite in China
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10088
The termite fauna of China comprises 44 genera of which approximately 481 species are described. The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, is one of the most economically important species. Its distribution, the damage it causes, commercial preventive remedial measures in China, are briefly reviewed. Laboratory experiments utilizing either antibiotics or sodium borate on w...
Zhong Junhong, Liu Liling


Protection of rubberwood timber. Part 1: Impregnation with boron preservatives
1989 - IRG/WP 3551
Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were treated with a 3% proprietary mixture of borax/boric acid using three different treatment schedules i.e. full-cell, full-cell to refusal and full-cell with 12 cycles of vacuum/pressure. Freshly cut samples had mean preservative retentions of 187 kg/m³, 214 kg/m³ and 178 kg/m³ respectively. Pre-air dried samples for one week had retentions of 252 kg/m³, 308 ...
L T Hong, C C K Liew


Performance of proprietary formulations of anti-sapstain preservatives on Hevea brasiliensis timbers in laboratory tests
1989 - IRG/WP 3532
A total of 10 proprietary and two experimental formulations were assessed for their effectiveness against sap-stain caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae on Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis). Sterilized wood samples 5x20x40 mm³ were dipped in the test chemicals for 60 seconds and then inoculated with 0.5 ml of culture filtrate of Botryodiplodia theobromae for incubation in sterile, damp petri dishes....
L T Hong


Comparative performance of copper azole and copper-chrome-arsenate treated rubber wood in Australian, Malaysian and New Zealand tests sites
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30213
Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) has been used for non-structural products where appearance is important. It has rarely been used for structural uses where preservative treatment is required. In order to evaluate the in-ground durability of preservative-treated rubberwood, test stakes (20 x 20 x 500 mm3) were treated to four retentions of CCA and copper azole (Tanalith® E) and installed in test si...
J A Drysdale, M E Hedley, E Loh, L T Hong


Fixation and leaching characteristics of Douglas-fir treated with CCA-C
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50213
Fixation and leaching characteristics of CCA-treated Douglas-fir was evaluated using the expressate method and the AWPA E11-97 leaching procedure. CCA fixation, as monitored by the chromium reduction, was much faster in heartwood than in sapwood; however, copper and arsenic fixation in heartwood appeared to be incomplete regardless of the extension of fixation time. This poor fixation of copper a...
Gyu-Hyeok Kim, Yun-Sang Song, Dong-heub Lee


Protection of wood for above ground application through modification with a fatty acid modified N-methylol/paraffin formulation
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40378
Hydrophobic chemical modification can be regarded as an alternative approach to conventional wood preservation using biocides in order to protect wood in hazard class 3 according the European Standard EN 335-1. A formulation containing fatty acid modified N-methylol/paraffin and an aluminium salt catalyst was used to change the material properties of wood in order to protect wood from fungal dec...
Nguyen Hong Minh, H Militz, C Mai


Effect of Cinnamomum kanehirae Extractives on the Compositions of the Fermentation Broth of Antrodia cinnamomea
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10632
The fruiting body of Antrodia cinnamomea, called niu-chang-chih, is well known and highly prized in Taiwan as a folk medicine. This fungus is endemic to Taiwan and the growth of which is restricted to the inner heartwood cavities of another endemic tree species, Cinnamomum kanehirae. The fungal basidiomes have been used for treating food and drug poisoning, diarrhea, abdominal pain, hypertension, ...
Ruo-Yun Yeh, Yuan-Min Shen , Shang-Tzen Chang


A comparison of the resistance of pyrethroid-treated wood to damage by Coptotermes acinaciformis in Australia and C. formosanus in China and the USA
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10830
Field trials, using a single aboveground method of exposure, were used to assess a range of retentions of two pyrethroids (bifenthrin and permethrin) in Pinus radiata D. Don sapwood against two species of Coptotermes in three countries to provide directly comparable results. Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) in Australia, C. formosanus Shiraki in China and C. formosanus in the USA consumed simi...
J Creffield, M Lenz, D Scown, T Evans, Junhong Zhong, B Kard, J Hague, K Brown, E Freytag, J Curole, R Smith, T Shupe


Anti-fungal activity of rutin and rutin-metal complexes as wood protectants
2017 - IRG/WP 17-30708
The anti-fungal activity of Rutin, a flavonoid, alone or complexed with copper or zinc was investigated in a petri dish test with Gloeophyllum trabeum and Trametes versicolor as the test fungi. Rutin and the Rutin-metal complexes showed significant inhibition against each fungus. Rutin-Cu and Rutin-Zn strongly inhibited the brown rot fungus, G. trabeum, while Rutin and Rutin-Zn inhibited T. versic...
Li Yan, J J Morrell, Jie Zhong, Xiuzhu Mao