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The “wire-loop slicing technique” for the rapid field collection of large numbers of Coptotermes acinaciformis termites from above-ground mound colonies
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10583
This technique of rapidly slicing through an above-ground C. acinaciformis mound colony with a steel wire-loop attached to a vehicle allows the collection of large numbers of termites. The sliced mound topples onto a tarpaulin arranged on the ground, the outer wall layers break away in large segments, and the carton materials incorporating the termites are readily collected and transferred to larg...
B M Ahmed, J R J French

Comparison of various types of bait containers designed to aggregate large numbers of foraging subterranean termites from natural populations in below-ground mound colonies
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10116
At Walpeup in the semi-arid mallee country of north-west Victoria (350 km from Melbourne), there are several indigenous subterranean termite species, none of which build above-ground mound colonies but build their colonies below-ground and/or in trees. This paper describes a baiting experiment in which three types of bait containers were compared in their ability to aggregate large numbers of fora...
J R J French, B M Ahmed

How predictive are laboratory experiments for assessing the effects of chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSI) on field colonies of terrnites? - A comparison of laboratory and field data from Australian mound-building species of termit
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10143
A singular advantage of using mound building species of termite is their directly accessible nest. This allows evaluation of control methods by accurate assessment of the effects at the colony level. The mound building species Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) and Nasutitermes exitiosus (Hill) were used to test the CSI, hexaflumuron, in laboratory and field trials. Laboratory results showed tha...
M Lenz, P V Gleeson, L R Miller, H M Abbey

Intraspecific variability in feeding capacity of Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1983 - IRG/WP 1175
This paper describes laboratory studies to evaluate the comparative feeding capacity within and between five mound colonies of Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Matched specimens of mountain ash, pine and coachwood were exposed to five replicate 10 g groups of termites from each colony source. After an initial 8-week exposure period, all groups were assessed for vitality and continued feeding ...
C D Howick, J W Creffield

Implications for comparability of laboratory experiments revealed in studies on the variability in survival and wood consumption between colonies of Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae
1983 - IRG/WP 1196
(Summary of paper 1193) Groups of Coptotermes acinaciformis, originating from six colonies, three taken from each of two localities, 1500 km apart, in northern Australia (Townsville, Darwin) were kept at population densities of 0.005, 0.01 and 0.02 g termites/mL. Survival and wood consumption of the groups after 8 weeks followed a similar pattern in the colonies from both collection areas. Groups were least vigorous at the lowest population density; their performance reached a maximum at a population density of 0.01 g/mL. The subsequent decline in vigour was less marked as the highest population density was approached. However, the actual values for survival and wood consumption varied widely between colonies, irrespective of their origin. It is recommended that in all laboratory experiments which use survival and wood consumption as indicators of termite vigour, controls of a favourable as well as an unfavourable food type are included which would serve to monitor the vigour of the termites. Results from termite sources whose vigour falls below a certain threshold value would have to be treated with caution and could not be used in definative data, as e.g. in defining critical retentions of wood preservatives.
M Lenz

A case for adopting a standardised protocol of field and laboratory bioassays to evaluate a potential soil termiticide
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20275
The rationale for adopting a new approach to the field testing of potential soil termiticides is advocated on the grounds that current testing methods are limited to termite bioassays and do not address quantitatively the persistence and bioavailability of soil termiticides to foraging subterranean termites over time and in different soil types. Furthermore, the present testing regimes assume fiel...
J R J French, B M Ahmed

Implications for comparibility of laboratory experiments revealed in studies on the variability in survival and wood consumption between colonies of Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae
1983 - IRG/WP 1193
Groups of Coptotermes acinaciformis originating from six colonies, three taken from each of two localities 1500 km apart in northern Australia (Townsville, Darwin), were kept at population densities of 0.005, 0.011 and 0.02 g termites/mL. Survival and wood consumption of the groups after 8 weeks followed a similar pattern in the colonies from both collection areas. Groups were least vigorous at th...
M Lenz

The effect of high and low boron soils on foraging termite behaviour and their metabolic systems
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10602
The highest concentrations of boron are found in ground water and soils of some of the driest climate areas (arid and semi arid regions) in the world. This present study examined the various concentrations of boron levels on filter papers against the subterranean termite species Coptotermes from different provenances and different boron soil levels. The termites were presented with no-choice bioas...
B M Ahmed, J R J French, P Vinden

International collaborative laboratory comparison of two wood preservatives against subterranean termites: Third update and first report
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10174
At the 24th annual meeting of IRG in Orlando, USA, in May 1993 an international subterranean termite laboratory bioassay to compare the various preferred termite protocols used by IRG termitologists was initiated. The author was nominated to co-ordinate this comparative laboratory evaluation of two wood preservatives, copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) and copper naphthenate (Cu-Na) against the subterran...
J R J French

Laboratory and field evaluation of Plasmite Reticulation System using bifenthrin as a chemical barrier within wall cavities against subterranean termites.
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20307
Laboratory and field bioassays undertaken to demonstrate Plasmite Reticulation system effectively delivers the termiticide (bifenthrin) within a simulated wall cavity at the required concentration. The chemical assay indicated that the amount of bifenthrin sampled at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25m along the simulated reticulation system tested (30m) exceeded the manufacturer’s minimum recommendation of ...
J R J French, B M Ahmed, J Thorpe, A Anderson

Correlation between a laboratory bioassay and field trial conducted to determine the termiticidal effectiveness of bifenthrin
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20248
Details are given of a laboratory bioassay and field trial undertaken to determine the termiticidal effectiveness of the synthetic pyrethroid bifenthrin, when impregnated into Pinus radiata D. Don sapwood specimens. Results show a strong correlation between the laboratory and field methods of evaluation. Protection threshold limits obtained were the same for the two test species of termite employe...
J W Creffield, K Watson

Laboratory bioassay on the termiticidal efficacy of two ACQ formulations
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30199
The termiticidal efficacy of two ammoniacal copper quaternary ammonium formulations (ACQ) was evaluated in a laboratory bioassay using two species of subterranean termites, Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt and Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Five retentions (1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 kg/m3 of active ingredient) of each ACQ formulation (MitrexACQ and ACQ97) were assessed in sapwood specimen...
J W Creffield, A F Preston, N Chew

Bioassays of extracts from scaly ash (Ganophyllum falcatum B1) against the subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt)
1983 - IRG/WP 1206
Scaly ash, Ganophyllum falcatum B1. wood shavings were extracted by methanol, and fractionated with ethyl acetate, diethyl ether and water, and the anti-termitic properties of these materials bioassayed against the subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Laboratory techniques were developed to overcome the problem of limited extractive materials. The results of the various bioas...
J R J French, J P Robinson, J W Creffield

The case for non-chemical termite barriers in termite control
1989 - IRG/WP 1381
A brief outline of current non-chemical barriers in subterranean termite control and their use in Australia is presented. Recent use of non-chemical barriers in Hawaii has led to their evaluation in termite control here and elsewhere. In Australia, preliminary laboratory and field experiments have shown similar results to those found against Coptotermes formosanus in Hawaii, namely, Australian Cop...
J R J French

Further thoughts on standard principles of testing termiticides and/or wood preservatives
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1530
At the last annual meeting in Kyoto, Japan, there was a special session devoted to the standard principles of testing termiticides. There was definitely a perceived need by researchers and industry for some guidelines that spell out basic procedures required for any methodology in testing termiticidal formulations anywhere in the world. In the testing of new potential active ingredients, considera...
J R J French

Options for termite management using the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10142
The insect pathogenic hyphomycete fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin is promising as a biological insecticide for many species of subterranean termites. In Australia, a survey of termite mounds and feeding sites using a selective medium showed that this fungus is widespread but rarely causes mortality of termites under natural conditions. One isolate, codenamed FI610, has been se...
R J Milner, J A Staples, M Lenz

A field method for determining the above-ground resistance of wood and wood products to attack by subterranean termite
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20035
A method for determining the above-ground resistance of wood and wood products to subterranean termites in the field is described. Termites are aggregated in 20-litre steel drums, each containing a highly susceptible timber substrate. At the centre of each drum, specimens of the test material under evaluation are sandwiched, using circular sections of wire mesh, between two layers of the substrate...
J W Creffield

The metabolism and comparative elimination of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in termites
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10038
Termites may serve as a potential supplementary food source for fish, poultry and pigs. Waste paper may be used as a source of food in mass rearing the termites. However, paper products and printing inks contain trace levels of toxic xenobiotics e.g. polychlorinatecl biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins. This study examined the ability of Mastotermes darwinensis and Coptotermes acinaciformis to metabolise...
V S Haritos, J R J French, J T Ahokas

Field evaluation of the above-ground susceptibility of Pinus heartwood and untreated or treated sapwood to two species of Australian subterranean termites
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10147
Plantation-grown Pinus elliottii, Pinus caribaea and Pinus radiata specimens containing heartwood and untreated or preservative-treated sapwood were exposed above ground to the subterranean termites Coptotermes acinaciformis or Mastotermes darwiniensis near Sydney (NSW), Brisbane and Townsville (Qld), and Darwin (NT), using a variety of exposure techniques. Heartwood of Pinus elliottii and Pinus c...
M J Kennedy, J W Creffield, R H Eldridge, B C Peters

Laboratory evaluation of the termiticidal effectiveness of TanalithÒ 3485
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10109
The termiticidal effectiveness of the copper azole TANALITH 3485 was evaluated with the benchmark preservative TANALITH C in a laboratory bioassay using two species of subterranean termites, Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt and Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Retentions of TANALITH 3485 tested were 0.15, 0.24, 0.285 and 0.40% m/m Cu and for TANALITH C 0.025, 0.05, 0.08 and 0.095% m/m Cu. Un...
J W Creffield, J A Drysdale, N Chew, N-K Nguyen

Changes in fat and moisture contents, and nitrogen fixation in laboratory maintained termites
1984 - IRG/WP 1242
Orphaned groups of termites of Coptotermes acinaciformis and Mastotermes darwiniensis were maintained in the laboratory for several months on two dietary regimes, and changes in their fat contents, moisture contents and nitrogen fixation rates were examined. There were no significant feed or feed time effects for either species. For Coptotermes acinaciformis, there was a highly significant time ef...
J R J French, P J Robinson, L G Turner, P J Pahl

Standard principles of testing termiticides: A discussion paper
1991 - IRG/WP 1502
Recent restrictions and banning of termiticides such as organochlorines in some countries has focussed attention on the need for new and novel compounds as termiticides. However, this poses problems for both wood preservative manufacturers and termitologists. Test procedures have to be devised to evaluate the new termiticides so that the tests are practical, encourage vigorous termite activity, an...
J R J French

Inter-laboratory comparison of assessment methods for wood preservatives against subterranean termites: Determination of protection threshold limits for CCA
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10317
In 1996, several institutes conducted laboratory bioassays on the efficacy of unleached Pinus radiata specimens treated with copper-chromium-arsenic (CCA) and copper naphthenate (Cu Naph) at retentions of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kg/m3 (total salt for CCA; elemental copper for Cu Naph) against a range of species of subterranean termites (IRG/WP/96-10174). Each participant employed the standard test m...
J W Creffield, M Lenz

Laboratory evaluation of AC 217,300 as a termiticidal dust
1983 - IRG/WP 3247
Laboratory bioassays are described with the amidinohydrazone, AC217,300, a candidate termiticide to replace arsenic trioxide in termite control. When used as a dust and topically applied, AC217,300 was toxic to Coptotermes acinaciformis and Mastotermes darwiniensis. Although arsenic trioxide dust causes faster mortality in Coptotermes acinaciformis than AC217,300 dust, the latter has lower mammali...
J R J French, P J Robinson

Borate Protection and Termites: Variation in Protection Thresholds Explained
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20324
Laboratory and field data reported in the literature are confusing with regard to ‘adequate’ protection thresholds for borate timber preservatives against subterranean termites. The confusion is compounded by differences in termite species, timber species and test methodology. Laboratory data indicate a borate retention of 0.5% mass/mass (m/m) boric acid equivalent (BAE) would cause > 90% t...
B C Peters, C J Fitzgerald

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