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The registration of wood preservatives under the Pesticides Act of 1962 in the Netherlands
1976 - IRG/WP 364
J Van der Kolk


Wood preservation in Kenya
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40191
Current research on wood preservation in Kenya is mainly on the development of biological control of wood-destroying termite species, using mycoinsecticides. The major research institutions include the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), Moi University and the International Centre for Insect Physiology (ICIPE). Training institutions include Forestry Training College, Forest Products Training Institute and Moi University. A number of publications, mostly an biological control of termites, are available and they range from workshop and conference proceedings to theses and journal publications. Wood-destroying termite species include several genera in Macrotermitidae and one drywood termite genus. Wood preservation facilities are available in Kenya, mainly for assorted timber products, sleepers and utility poles. The major preservatives used are CCAs, PCP and Creosote oil. There are still no set standards, specifications and requirements for wood preservatives and little, if any information exists on the marketing aspects of wood preservatives. The yet to be established Industrial Chemicals Act and the recently introduced Environmental Management and Coordination Bill (1999) may be able to handle regulatory, environmental, health and safety aspects of wood preservation in Kenya.
G Ochiel


Pest control products act. An overview of regulation of heavy duty wood preservatives
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-30
The regulation of pesticides in Canada is carried out under the authority of the Pest Control Products Act and Regulations. Products which control, prevent, destroy, mitigate, attract or repel a pest are required to undergo a presale assessment for safety, merit and value. This review will determine whether a product, when used according to label directions, can be used both safely and will be effective for controlling pest(s). Four federal government departments, Health and Welfare Canada, Environment Canada and Agriculture Canada, Natural Resources Canada, are involved in making timely and acceptable regulatory decisions on wood preservation products. Presently wood preservative products represent approximately four percent of the active ingredients contained in registered pesticide products and are registered for use areas such as pressure treatment, sapstain control, millwork and remedial applications. Requests for registration of new products are subjected to a rigorous assessment of health effects (both acute and long term) as well as environmental impact. The number and nature of studies requested is largely dependent upon the manner of intended use. There are several ways in which pesticides are regulated. The first time a product is reviewed it could be registered for up to 5 years. At the end of each five year period, pesticide manufacturers will be asked to renew their license for another 5 years. Periodically, new information or concerns come to the attention of regulatory officials. Depending on the nature of this new information, it may be appropriate to conduct a special review of some aspect of a pesticide registration i.e. the effect of use on fresh water ecosystems. In other cases, it will be appropriate to do a complete reassessment or reevaluation of a pesticide because the nature of the possibility of a risk of harm to humans and the environment. Presently there are approximately 20 pesticide active ingredients (of the total 500) being reevaluated. The canadian reevaluation process has been organized into eight (8) steps: 1. Prioritization; 2. Conffrmation of Priority; 3. Announcement; 4. Identify and Assess Risk(s) and Value(s); 5. Discussion of Facts and Regulatory Options; 6. Consultation with Stakeholders; 7. Make Decision and Inform Interested Parties; 8. Implementation of Decision.
K McCullogh


Why did Japan replace CCA by alternatives?
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50215
Since chromated copper arsenate (CCA) was technically introduced into Japan in 1963, CCA was used for extending service life of various wood commodities, especially sill plates (dodai) in Japanese houses. However, the problem on the disposal of CCA-treated wood waste became public and related industry concern, and questionnaire survey conducted by Japan Wood Preservers’ Industry Association indicated that Japanese treatment plants could not meet the new strict criterion (tolerance limit) of arsenic (<0.1 mg/) in the discharged water in the revise regulation, Water Pollution Prevention Act in 1995. In addition, on the basis f the fact that alternatives to CCA were domestically standardized in 1995 (JUS K 1570, 1995), Japanese wood preserving industry came to a self-imposed decision to restrict the use of CCA. Alternatives actually appeared in the marketplace in 1991, and a drastic increase in their use has been prominent since 1996. They account for over 85% of total amount of wood produced by pressure-impregnation with preservatives.
H Ishida, T Ito, M Yamai, H Matsusaka, K Tsunoda


The registration of wood preservatives in Canada
1977 - IRG/WP 394
The Pest Control Products Act in Canada is a part of Federal Agricultural legislation affecting chemicals for wood protection. Other parts of Federal legislation include Canadian Fisheries Act, Fed. Food and Drug act, Environmental Contaminants Act, Clear Air Act, Navigable Waters Protection Act and the Criminal Code Section 165. Some of the main excerpts from the Pest Control Products Act are as follows: The Pest Control Products Act of November 10, 1972, deals with the Regulations for the pest control products. Pest control products are defined as any product, organism, device, substance or thing that may be used directly or indirectly to control, prevent, destroy, mitigate, attract or repel pests. Such products are classified for domestic use, commercial use or restricted use depending upon toxicological parameters. Control products exempt from the Act are those to control viruses, bacteria, micro-organisms and anthropods, that are subject to the Food and Drugs Act. The Regulations of the Act do not apply to a control product imported into Canada for the importer´s own use, not exceeding one pound by weight, one pint by volume or value $10.
J Rak, J K Shields


Wood preservation in Canada - Regulation and Registration
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-02
The Canadian wood preservation industry is at a critical juncture now as a number of initiatives converge on the industry over the next few years. Issues facing the industry include: Re-evaluation of the conventional wood preservative chemicals - inorganic arsenicals, creosote and pentachlorophenol targeted for July 2001. Delayed registration of new actives as a result of re-evaluation activity and priority. ?Implementation of the Environment Canada "Strategic Options" recommendations for preservative components considered "toxic" under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, including hexavalent chromium, arsenic, PAH contaminated wastes, benzene hexachloride, dioxins and furans. Updating of the Technical Recommendation Documents for the design and operation of wood treating plants (now complete). The backgrounds, implementation, interactions and impacts of these initiatives on the Canadian Wood Preservation Industry are discussed.
P A Cooper


Certification system for treated wood and wood preservative in the relation to regulations in Japan
2018 - RG/WP 18-20639
Certification system about wood protection products in Japan is described to understand the interaction between regulations and certifying organizations. Major regulations are Building Standard Law, Chemical Substances Control Law, Poisonous Deleterious Substances Control Act, Japanese Industrial Standards, and Japanese Agricultural Standard (JAS). Treated wood products are certified with JAS mark according to JAS or with Approved Quality (AQ) mark by Japan Housing and Wood Technology Center. AQ guarantees the quality of newly developed products not specified in JAS that would supplement the JAS system in wood products. Certification process of treated wood products by JAS requires the data and onsite examinations of quality control, quality stability and licenced person of maker factory by the designated organization as a third party. Certification process for AQ consists of the evaluation of product quality according to performance criterion by registered testing organization, the onsite examination of quality control and quality stability in the factory, and complaint procedure. Wood preservatives are certified and registered by Japan Wood Protection Association and/or The Japan Termite Control Association. Certification process of wood preservatives/termiticides requires the examination of safety and efficacy data by the Wood Preservative and Others Investigation Bureau as a third party organization.
K Yamamoto, I Momohara