IRG Documents Database and Compendium

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Theory of Aesthetics – Charm in Furniture and an Aesthetic Evaluation of Bleaching of the Natural Color of Wood through the Application of Experimental Bleaching Process
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30424
This paper consists of mainly three sections: In the first section, brief information is given on the theory of aesthetics as a branch of philosophy, historical progress of the aesthetics theory is summarized within the context of the term “beautiful”, and aesthetic values as well as the color and aesthetic effects of color in preparing the designs are explained. In the second section, relation between the wood and color is discussed from the viewpoint of aesthetic value, and information is given on the proposed method for bleaching the natural color of wood to some degree in order to develop the aesthetic value and increase the existing charm performance. In the third section, the bleaching methods applied for Scotch pine, Oriental beech, and Black poplar by using different hydrogen peroxide recipes for each are introduced, and the results obtained are evaluated from an aesthetic point of view.
I Usta

Formulating aesthetic coatings to prevent carpenter bee infestation
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30438
Our study shows that carpenter bees are getting more and more aggressive in attacking construction wood in the USA and southern parts of Canada, causing more-than-cosmetic damages. We have responded to a number of customers’ requests to identify and eradicate the culprits but the new generations of the bees would attack the same structures again. Therefore, Sansin invested into a project to formulate a decorative coating with a preventive action against carpenter bee infestations. Preliminary tests and results are reported in this paper.
N Vidovic

Aesthetic service life of coated and uncoated wooden cladding - influencing factors and modelling
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20470
Mould growth on exterior coated cladding façades is an undesirable element and will often shorten the aesthetical service life. Mould growth on painted surfaces is influenced by type and concentration of film fungicides, the paint formulation and the wood substrate itself, and wooden cladding may experience exponential fungal deterioration caused by variation in the climatic factors, often within a small limited area. The objective of this study was to gain knowledge about which factors influence surface mould growth on coated and uncoated wooden cladding in an outdoor environment, with a special attention to modified wood substrates. The data are based on evaluation of mould growth coverage on outdoors exposed wood panels consisting of different combinations of wood substrates and surface finishes. Panels were exposed on three locations; Bogesund (Sweden), Birkenes and Sørkedalen (Norway). The panels were monitored up to 4.5 years. The analysis showed that coating typology and exposure time both had highly significant influences on mould growth. Furthermore, wood substrate, temperature and relative humidity had a significant influence on mould growth, but comparatively less than coating typology and exposure time. Siberian larch heartwood, copper-organic preserved Scots pine and Scots pine heartwood performed best among the wood substrates. Heartwood as wood type was less susceptible to mould growth than a mix of sapwood and heartwood wood and pure sapwood. Acetylated Scots pine as wood substrate and Aspen as wood species had lower resistance to mould growth than the other wood substrates and wood species, respectively. The physical surface structure of a paint film also influences the mould growth. A hard model paint was significantly more susceptible than the other model paints. A soft model paint performed best, with the least mould growth coverage. Aureobasidium pullulans (deBary) Arnaud was the dominating fungal species on all the wood substrates.
L Ross Gobakken, O A Høibø

Performance of bio-based building materials – viewpoints from the first year of COST Action FP1303
2015 - IRG/WP 15-20572
Maintaining and expanding the market potential for bio-based building products in indoor and outdoor construction uses remains a key activity for industries in the forestry and biotechnological sector, particularly in Europe. Whilst there are ongoing activities within IRG for collecting and populating a database on performance on wood, the performance data for many other (i.e. non-wood) "environmental friendly" building materials are lacking as well as suitable comprehensive test methodologies to determine their resistance against mould, stain, and decay. The similarity in terms of decay hazard, resulting response on climatic loads and thus performance of different bio-based building materials has not yet been recognised adequately, and in order to overcome this problem within Europe, COST (Cooperation in Science and Technology) established the Action FP1303 entitled “Performance of biobased building materials”, which from 2013-2017 will provide a platform for networking and scientific exchange between different disciplines, such as material sciences, wood technology, biology, biotechnology, building physics and engineering. Through the activities in this Action, there will be a coordinated effort to put the issue of biodegradability of organic building products on the agenda, combined with consumer demands and preferences. These will help define service life prediction and performance models, will consider aesthetical aspects as well as the functionality of building assemblies. These will ultimately contribute to the control and prevention of any imminent threat to use bio-based building materials, which in turn could severely damage a pan-European low carbon building agenda. This paper outlines some of the activities undertaken within the first year of the Action, and describes some of the planned activities in the coming years.
D Jones

Identification of the key factors influencing development of the blue stain fungi
2016 - IRG/WP 16-10872
Service life of wood is more and more frequently affected by aesthetic requirements than functional ones. In order to elucidate various aspects of service life, model house with façade elements made of 22 materials was built on the field test site at Department of Wood Science and Technology in Ljubljana. Colour and fungal disfigurement is among other parameters monitored on this house. In parallel specimens made of the same materials as façade were analysed in laboratory as well. Samples were exposed to blue staining organisms in various standard and non-standard tests. Part of the samples was artificially weathered after blue staining and afterwards exposed to blue staining organisms again. The results of the colour measurements and blue staining test clearly indicate that this type of the laboratory exposure fits the best with the results of the outdoor tests.
D Kržišnik, B Lesar, N Thaler, M Humar

Prediction of service life – does aesthetic matter?
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20618
Building structures should be designed in order to satisfy requirements regarding safety, serviceability, durability and aesthetics, assuring proper structure performance along the entire service life. For that reason it is essential to understand overall deterioration mechanism at levels of element, component, façade and entire building. This work focuses specifically on the façade aesthetical properties, identified here as a frequently neglected aspect within the service life prediction. The main goal is to review various processes that influence material appearance changes. The manuscript presents also a review of suitable analytical techniques appropriate for assessment of material look. State-of-the-art as well as alternative methods for service life prediction are compared. Real case examples are provided to illustrate the typical deterioration patterns. Finally, an attempt to define a role of aesthetic aspects in designing building and practical modelling of its aesthetical service life is proposed.
A Sandak, J Sandak

Aesthetic changes of coated thermally modified wood after artificial weathering
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40819
The thermal modification process affects the chemical configuration of the wood matrix improving some physical properties and durability. In addition, the distinctive dark tones of thermally modified timber increase the economic value of several light-coloured species. However, heat-treatment alters the substrates and it could influence in the application of coating products, necessaries to maintain the surface features in certain end-use sectors. Ash wood (Fraxinus excelsior L.) samples industrially treated at 212 ºC were coated with decorative and industrial coatings. Afterwards, the samples were subjected to accelerated weathering test and estimated the aesthetical response compared to untreated wood. The surface topography was monitored with a 3D scanner and a profilometer, showing slight visual changes although finding dissimilar roughness where irregularities in modified -samples increased with waterborne product but not with UV-curable; remarkable the changes in roughness below 5% in modified samples. The colour changes were calculated by hyperspectral information of the visible range, generating the profile map of L*, a*, b* parameters. The results point out an acceptable photostability of coated thermally modified wood. Heat-treated wood could be an appropriate substrate with similar conditions as unmodified wood; nevertheless the interaction with water-base products could vary depending on the treatment temperature and the layer thickness.
R Herrera, J Sandak, E Robles, J Labidi

UV-curable coatings developed for aesthetic and biological protection of wood outdoors
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40821
To avoid wood greying, dimensional variations, and degradation by biological agents wood is protected with preservation products and coatings when used outdoors. For some wood species used for cladding, a treatment with a preservation product is required, and is frequently additionally protected with a coating. In this study, Mäder Group developed a new UV-curable coating for outdoors applications. The coating was applied on treated and untreated spruce and resistance against Reticulitermes termites, and longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus was determined. In order to mimic outdoor exposure, two types of artificial ageing were applied to coated wood (immersion and artificial weathering) before exposure to the insects. The results demonstrated that all aged coated samples were not attacked by the insects.
C Reynaud, A S Schuller, M Kutnik, L Podgorski

Simulation and visualization of aesthetic performance of bio-based building skin
2018 - IRG/WP 18-20633
Performance of 120 selected façade materials provided by over 30 industrial and academic partners is under evaluation. The experimental data, acquired during BIO4ever project duration are used for development of the numerical models simulating the material degradation in a function of time and exposure. The weather data calculated according to the ASHRAE 2013 database allows numerical simulation of cumulative radiation and temperature on building facades, situated in 6000 locations all over the world. Dedicated algorithms simulating material deterioration by taking into account specific material characteristics, kinetic and intensity of weathering process as well as specific architectonic details are extensively tested and validated. Accurate service life prediction, service life costing and aesthetical performance models of evaluated bio-based building materials are foreseen as the most important deliverables. Software visualizing bio-materials’ performance will be dedicated for investors, architects, construction engineers, professional builders, suppliers and other relevant parties, including also final customers. It will assist architects/customers to select optimal bio-materials assuring satisfactory performance and high aesthetical valour
J Sandak, A Sandak, P Grossi, M Petrillo