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Theory of Aesthetics – Charm in Furniture and an Aesthetic Evaluation of Bleaching of the Natural Color of Wood through the Application of Experimental Bleaching Process
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30424
This paper consists of mainly three sections: In the first section, brief information is given on the theory of aesthetics as a branch of philosophy, historical progress of the aesthetics theory is summarized within the context of the term “beautiful”, and aesthetic values as well as the color and aesthetic effects of color in preparing the designs are explained. In the second section, relation between the wood and color is discussed from the viewpoint of aesthetic value, and information is given on the proposed method for bleaching the natural color of wood to some degree in order to develop the aesthetic value and increase the existing charm performance. In the third section, the bleaching methods applied for Scotch pine, Oriental beech, and Black poplar by using different hydrogen peroxide recipes for each are introduced, and the results obtained are evaluated from an aesthetic point of view.
I Usta

The effect of brighteners on wood surface aesthetics – exploring the use of various organo-phosphonates based precursors
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30441
Freshly cut hardwood lumber such as white oak, red oak, beech, or redwood are rich in mineral stain (mostly iron and calcium), which provides a strong discoloration of the wood surface significantly influencing the aesthetic of the wood surface and strongly affecting the cost of this lumber. The influence of mineral stain on soft wood discoloration (Southern Yellow Pine, Douglas fir, etc.) is less significant mostly due to the lower mineral content. Special treatments of wood surface with the so-called brightener could significantly improve the aspect of the wood, maintaining the clean aspect for a wood surface. Various types of wood species and commercially available phosphate-based precursors (inorganic-phosphoric acids or salts and organic-phosphonic acids or phosphonates) were considered in this study. The wood chemical modifications leading to a bright wood surface is explored and explained. The effect of various brighteners and the presence of corrosion inhibitors on the overall corrosion for an antisapstian treatment are being investigated. Models or standard possible reactions are being studied for better understanding the observed phosphate-mineral interaction/structure. The chemicals formed during the treatment using various brightener and most probably responsible for the brightening effect were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX). These findings are important and used for developing better wood brighteners utilized in antisapstain chemical treatment.
R Craciun, P Mitchell

A fast and economic method to produce grey wooden surfaces for decking and cladding: preliminary results
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40474
Uncoated wood is commonly used in France for cladding and decking to minimise maintenance. However wood surfaces progressively turn grey due to exposure to sunlight and water. This grey colour develops after several months depending on the wood species and the exposure: in the northern hemisphere surfaces facing south and west are most exposed and turn grey more rapidly than those facing north and east. The result is unfortunate differences in the appearance of the building which obviously is not appreciated by the end-users and which leads to a negative image of the wood material. As a consequence of this some architects would like to have grey wood right from the beginning of the construction. Producing grey wood using artificial weathering devices or natural weathering exposure is possible but too expensive and too long. In this project the idea is to develop a non-film forming coating whose colour is similar to the grey appearance produced by the natural weathering. This coating must be durable enough just to allow a soft transition between its own degradation and the development of the grey colour produced by the natural weathering.
L Podgorski, V Georges, I Garmendia, B Sánchez Sarachu

Acceptance levels of surface disfigurement - tolerance to defects of coated wood
2015 - IRG/WP 15-20564
Service life planning (PSL) has become an important issue in performance based building and substantial progress has been made in recent years. The role of predicting the aesthetical service life of wooden building components has been underestimated for quite long time but is recently attracting more and more notice. It is influenced by numerous factors such as discoloration, fading, flaking, cracking, and in extreme deformation due to interior rot. However, still the acceptance of such superficial disfigurement is subjected to the subjective sensation of consumers and end-users. This study aimed on evaluating different ‘technically defined’ limit states of weathered coated wood surfaces with respect to the acceptance of users. Therefore different groups of users were addressed in the frame of a survey as well as two different commodity groups were looked at separately, i.e. wooden window joinery and claddings. A remarkably high percentage of respondents ranked color and gloss related deficiencies as high as technical defects of the coating and recommended maintenance measures even when the coating was still fully intact. Technical characteristics such as the formation of cracks and flaking need to be considered separately from optical and aesthetical parameters for the definition of acceptance levels of coating disfigurements and defects. Limit states need to get defined specifically for different building components since acceptance varied significantly as shown exemplarily in this study between windows and cladding boards. For service life planning the overruling role of the subjective sensation of the user necessitates careful consideration.
C Brischke, P Kaudewitz

UV-curable coatings developed for aesthetic and biological protection of wood outdoors
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40821
To avoid wood greying, dimensional variations, and degradation by biological agents wood is protected with preservation products and coatings when used outdoors. For some wood species used for cladding, a treatment with a preservation product is required, and is frequently additionally protected with a coating. In this study, Mäder Group developed a new UV-curable coating for outdoors applications. The coating was applied on treated and untreated spruce and resistance against Reticulitermes termites, and longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus was determined. In order to mimic outdoor exposure, two types of artificial ageing were applied to coated wood (immersion and artificial weathering) before exposure to the insects. The results demonstrated that all aged coated samples were not attacked by the insects.
C Reynaud, A S Schuller, M Kutnik, L Podgorski

Simulation and visualization of aesthetic performance of bio-based building skin
2018 - IRG/WP 18-20633
Performance of 120 selected façade materials provided by over 30 industrial and academic partners is under evaluation. The experimental data, acquired during BIO4ever project duration are used for development of the numerical models simulating the material degradation in a function of time and exposure. The weather data calculated according to the ASHRAE 2013 database allows numerical simulation of cumulative radiation and temperature on building facades, situated in 6000 locations all over the world. Dedicated algorithms simulating material deterioration by taking into account specific material characteristics, kinetic and intensity of weathering process as well as specific architectonic details are extensively tested and validated. Accurate service life prediction, service life costing and aesthetical performance models of evaluated bio-based building materials are foreseen as the most important deliverables. Software visualizing bio-materials’ performance will be dedicated for investors, architects, construction engineers, professional builders, suppliers and other relevant parties, including also final customers. It will assist architects/customers to select optimal bio-materials assuring satisfactory performance and high aesthetical valour
J Sandak, A Sandak, P Grossi, M Petrillo

Wood protection techniques and natural weathering: their effect on aesthetics and preference of people
2019 - IRG/WP 19-50351
Current research successfully contributes to improving wood protection techniques. However, the vast majority of research on preventing degradation of wood ignores a critical aspect of making successful products and processes – user selection of materials, which may largely depend on the aesthetical qualities. Wood treatments change the tactile and visual properties of wood substantially and they are further altered by weathering. No matter how useful the wood treatment is, people will be reluctant to select materials they do not find appealing. For this reason, many valuable wood protection techniques may find it hard to reach their full potential on the market. To confront this challenge, we must carefully analyse how the visual and tactile qualities of treated (and weathered) wood influence human preference and material selection. To investigate this, we prepared 30 wood samples from several species that are either untreated or treated. As a first step, we assessed several sensory (i.e., colour CIE L*a*b*, gloss) and evaluative (e.g., naturalness) attributes of the materials. After this, we conducted a study in two phases. In the first phase, we presented all 30 samples simultaneously to 25 participants and asked them to choose their favourite five materials to be used as an outdoor table top surface based on their combined tactile and visual inspection (and rank these five favourite materials from most to least favourite). From the initial group of 30 materials, we selected the 10 wood samples that received the highest rankings. These 10 samples were then ranked from the most to least favourite by a new group of 50 participants. Following this, we carried out both phases once again with yet another two groups of participants (another 75 persons), except here, we used the naturally weathered versions of the initial 30 wood samples. The results demonstrate how preference and selection of wood vary with treatment types, species, weathering, and sensory and evaluative properties. As such, they can guide future research in creating and adapting materials and treatment techniques in line with human preference. With this, effective materials and treatments can become more widespread and thus ensure long-term protection of wood as well as economic and environmental sustainability.
D Lipovac, M D Burnard, A Sandak, J Sandak