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The utilisation and preservation of Eucalyptus globulus agricultural stakes from Portugal
1989 - IRG/WP 3520
This paper reviews the development and utilisation of Tanalith C treated Eucalyptus globulus stakes: particular reference is made to their use in vineyards. The treatment characteristics of commercially available stakes will be described and penetration patterns evaluated.
A Milne e Carmo, D A Lewis, A Lyman


Wood preservation in Kenya
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40191
Current research on wood preservation in Kenya is mainly on the development of biological control of wood-destroying termite species, using mycoinsecticides. The major research institutions include the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), Moi University and the International Centre for Insect Physiology (ICIPE). Training institutions include Forestry Training College, Forest Products Training Institute and Moi University. A number of publications, mostly an biological control of termites, are available and they range from workshop and conference proceedings to theses and journal publications. Wood-destroying termite species include several genera in Macrotermitidae and one drywood termite genus. Wood preservation facilities are available in Kenya, mainly for assorted timber products, sleepers and utility poles. The major preservatives used are CCAs, PCP and Creosote oil. There are still no set standards, specifications and requirements for wood preservatives and little, if any information exists on the marketing aspects of wood preservatives. The yet to be established Industrial Chemicals Act and the recently introduced Environmental Management and Coordination Bill (1999) may be able to handle regulatory, environmental, health and safety aspects of wood preservation in Kenya.
G Ochiel


Phytotoxic effects of preservative treated props for agricultural use
1989 - IRG/WP 3550
The phytotoxic effect due to the use of wood treated with organic preservatives for agricultural purposes was studied. The assays were carried out on plants tutored with props of Pinus sylvestris treated with three different organic wood preservatives. Pre-assays were carried out to observe the reaction on the plants, spreading directly the preservative on different parts of the plant and to the substrate.
D Franco, M V Baonza Merino


Termite Response to Agricultural Fiber Composites: Hemp
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10548
Industrial hemp, Cannabis sativa, is a fiber usable in manufacture of nutritional products, rope, textiles, paper and building products. Due to the illicit recreational uses of Cannabis sativa varieties with high tetrahydrocannabinol content (marijuana), hemp is not grown commercially in the United States. However, it is grown in many other nations, and has been proposed as a replacement for sugarcane and other commodity crops in the United States, including Hawaii. These studies were undertaken to determine the susceptibility of several potential hemp building products to Formosan subterranean termite attack. Although advocates of the fiber sometimes comment on its relative resistance to insects and decay fungi, there is little to no data available to either substantiate or refute these claims. Termite responses to experimental hemp fibreboards (UF or MDI resins), and to a commercial mineralized hemp building material (Isochanvre) were evaluated in laboratory essays. The hemp fibreboards were readily attacked by termites, although the UF resin was relatively toxic to them in comparison to MDI. Termites also readily consumed the mineralized hemp fibers, although mortality was high. Thus, one can conclude that hemp is susceptible to termite attack. Urea formaldehyde resin in fibreboards and silica, lime or boric acid in mineralized hemp were detrimental to termite survival, but still did not prevent significant attack. Preservative or other treatments appear to be required to protect hemp building products from degradation.
J K Grace


Termite response to Agricultural Fiber Composites: Bagasse
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10549
Bagasse, or sugarcane rind, is a fibrous by-product of sugar extraction from sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum L. Bagasse fiber performs similarly to hardwood fiber in composite board products. In laboratory studies, Formosan subterranean termites survived as well on a diet of Bagasse as on Douglas-fir wood. Field tests with a compressed Bagasse panel (produced by heat extrusion) indicated that termites readily penetrated the acrylic/vinyl latex coating on the panel, and tunnelled throughout the interior Bagasse fibers. Treatment of the fibers with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate did not prevent the termite penetration of the panel exterior. Subsequent moisture sorption by the fibers led to rapid swelling and deformation of the panels. A dimensionally stable, high density Bagasse particleboard was also evaluated in laboratory tests. No swelling was noted, although the particleboard was readily penetrated and consumed by Formosan subterranean termites, and mold growth was also noted on the test wafers. In recent years, high-profile Bagasse board production facilities were opened in both Louisiana and Hawaii, only to close shortly thereafter. Bagasse may have more market potential in a value-added, preservative treated product than as a low-end commodity competing with comparable wood products.
J K Grace


Facility for Conducting Field Tests on Coptotermes formosanus at LSU Agricultural Center
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20274
Efforts by Louisiana State University Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and Mississippi State University (MSU) research scientists, to conduct cooperative research on C. formosanus and other wood-related topics, have led to establishing an FST field test site at the LSU Agricultural Center Citrus Research Experiment Station, Port Sulfur, Louisiana. A minimum of 32 termite colonies will be established on this site. Twelve of the 32 termite installations have been established and tests are underway. Testing at this site will include evaluation of the effects of testing methodologies and procedures using both within- and between-colony replications, in-ground tests to evaluate preservatives (stake tests) or termite baits, test structures, above-ground preservative comparative tests and/or building component durability tests, and basic termite biology / behavior / movement studies. In addition, demonstration projects open to the public will be developed. In short, this site will be a one-of-a-kind on the United States mainland. Fees generated by those using the site will be expended to assure continued viability of this facility.
W R Smith, T L Amburgey, G Henderson, D R Ring


Non agricultural biocide directive. Practical proposals of implementation in the case where biocides are wood preservatives
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-24
This project of non-agricultural biocide directive has currently an extremely wide scope of pre-marketing authorization of substances and preparations used in numerous applications, other than agricultural. Elaborated on the 86/414/EEC model of the phytopharmaceutical product directive, the "NAB" draft directive aims to cover situations as different as plant or wood protection: in the case of plants, there is a need of no residue on the support; in the case of wood, there is an aim of 100% active residue on the support to achieve a 10-50 year service life; for the wood preservation sector, where the regulatory and normative background is already strongly documented, there is an evident need of sectorial adaptation. If it seems widely agreed to homologate substances at the EC level, this is not the case for preparations which represent potentially infinite combinations of substances, to take into account the geographical, climatic and biological discrepancies. The proposals made herewith are to start from a european shopping list of sufficiently known substances, classified in terms of dangers, and move for wood preservatives to the new approach EC system requiring compliance with harmonized standards of risk assessment methodology showing a severity equivalent to that of homologation and checking compliance with health and environment quality criteria. In this model, marketing is initiated under the manufacturer's responsability by using the CE marking. The attestation of conformity for safety uses the same scheme as for quality; the non-conformity with the essential requirements proposed involves withdrawal from the market of the biocidal product involved.
G Ozanne


An Update on the Status of Industrial Heavy-Duty Preservatives in Europe
2022 - IRG/WP 22-30762
Creosote has been used for over 150 years for preservation of heavy duty industrial timbers such as railway sleepers, utility poles, and agricultural posts. The regulatory regimes in place today across Europe (eg EU & GB Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR)) require a detailed assessment of the environmental and human health properties of wood preservatives at both the active substance and product levels. Creosote is currently authorised for use in Europe but is now facing further restrictions at the reauthorisation stage which will severely limit its applications. A number of alternatives to the use of creosote treated wood exist in the form of alternative materials such as steel, concrete and polymers / composites. Another alternative is use of wood treated with water-based copper-organic preservatives where service life expectations less than that delivered today by creosote are accepted in some markets. However more recently wood treated products that are designed to deliver a long service life have become available. One such product is Tanasote S40®, which is authorised under the BPR which does not contain creosote and is suitable as a preservative for heavy duty industrial timbers.
S Uphill, H Griffiths, M Giannuzzi, A Hughes