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Durability of energy efficient wooden buildings: a building physical point of view
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40812
The drive for more energy efficient and sustainable buildings resulted in an increased popularity of wooden buildings, even in countries with a masonry tradition. Often guidelines and prescriptions then are copied from other countries. Different climatic boundary conditions and tradition of finishing, though, do require different moisture tolerance criteria. This is clearly the case for water vapo...
S Roels, J Langmans


Health aspects concerning the use of bifluorides in wood
1981 - IRG/WP 3173
An attempt has been made to find a correlation between the quantities F¯ and HF present among other ions in an 'Improsol' solution consisting of NH4F.HF and KF.HF, the quantity absorbed by the wood from this after immersion and the toxicological effects of this treated wood when it is used in rooms destined for the residence of people or animals or for the storage of foodstuffs....
H F M Nijman


Borate thermal treatments
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3715
Green, partially seasoned (air-dried, steam conditioned), or kiln-dried southern pine timbers were treated thermally using 15% disodiumoctaborate tetrahydrate solution. After treatment, sections were stored under non-drying conditions to allow for diffusion. Results showed that effective treatment meeting the AWPA minimum retention (0.17 B203 pcf [2.72 kg/m³] in the outer inch) and penetration (2...
H M Barnes, R W Landers, L H Williams


Survey of conditioning treatment practices in India
1978 - IRG/WP 3127
India has 75.3 million hectares (ie about 24% of total land area) under forests out of which the area of productive forests, from which industrial wood is available, is about 60 million ha. The Task Force on Forest Resources Survey has tentatively estimated that the total growing stock in Indian Forests is 24,000 million cubic metres (m³). The total recorded production of wood in the country is r...
M C Tewari


Checking of sodium pentachlorophenate fixation in wood
1990 - IRG/WP 3620
In order to estimate the volatilization of sodium pentachlorophenate from treated wood, wood samples treated with pentachlorophenate were analysed after various durations of an EN 73 weathering The results giving no clear evidence of volatilization, treated wood samples were put in a test chamber with precise climatic conditions, the air used in the experiment being analysed. The pentachlorophenat...
M Lamour, H Sageot


Preservative treatment of Pinus elliottii
1987 - IRG/WP 3435
The treatment of Pinus elliottii with copper-chrome-arsenic preservative by four alternative seasoning and treatment methods is investigated. Steam conditioning followed by either alternating pressure method (APM) or 'Q' treatment resulted in inadequate preservative penetration. Air drying or high temperature drying followed by the Bethell process resulted in a high standard of t...
P Vinden, L Carter


Fixation of CCA in Pinus sylvestris after kiln-drying
1990 - IRG/WP 3594
Tanalith C Paste is 98% fixed and Tanalith Oxide C is 99% fixed irrespective of whether treated Pinus sylvestris is kiln or air dried. A schedule suitable for kiln drying of CCA treated Pinus sylvestris is described....
P Warburton, J A Cornfield, D A Lewis, D G Anderson


Exposure monitoring of creosote vapors
1989 - IRG/WP 3511
Creosote oils contain hundreds of compounds. During impregnation and handling of treated wood the main component in the vapors released in air is naphthalene. Other main components are alkyl naphthalenes, indene, phenol and its methyl derivatives, benzothiophene, diphenyl, acenaphthalene and fluorene. In the measurement of creosote vapors, naphthalene can be used as an indicator agent. One of the ...
P Heikkilä, M Loutamo, V Riihimäki, M Romo


Measurement of VOC emissions from curative treated wood: A new emission test chamber
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-13
A poor indoor air quality (IAQ) is now recognized as a potential factor affecting occupants health. There are three basic strategies to improve IAQ: source control, improvement of the ventilation and use of air cleaners. Usually, the most efficient way to improve IAQ is to eliminate the different pollutant sources or to reduce their emissions. In order to precisely measure emissions from building ...
F Maupetit, O Ramalho, C Yrieix


Observations on the uptake and penetration of various liquids in clear heartwood and sapwood of Pinus radiata D.Don
1983 - IRG/WP 3224
Volumetric uptake of water (aqueous copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA)) or methanol, applied by bulk hydrostatic pressure to air dried clear heartwood specimens of Pinus radiata D. Don, far exceeds that of a wide variety of polar and non-polar solvents. In air dried sapwood, the volumetric uptake of CCA tends to be less than that achieved for most solvents including methanol. No comprehensive explanation...
J E Barnacle


Volumes and weights of different CCA-C treated wood poles, anchor logs and crossarms of REB at air dry condition
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40073
Researches revealed the unit volumes and weights at air-dry condition (12% MC) of different poles, anchor logs and crossarms species of REB from this world. The softwood products are lighter than hardwood products. Inversely the unit volumes of softwood poles are higher than those of hardwood poles. Red pine (Pinus resinosa), radiata pine (Pinus radiata), blue pine (Pinus wallichiana), fir (Abies ...
A K Lahiry


Remedial treatment of wood attacked by insects
1981 - IRG/WP 3175
A review is presented of remedial treatments against wood-boring insects in wood in service. Preconditions and fundamental principles of insect control are compared with the control of fungal attack and reasons are given for the fact that remedial treatments against insects are more commonly applied than against fungi. With regard to insect control measures with a simultaneous preventive effective...
H Kühne


Dynamics of pressure changes in wood during impregnation
1990 - IRG/WP 3615
Conventional methods of impregnation have to be improved for achieving better penetration of refractory wood species. Basic requirements for an adjustment of treatment schedules are, amoung others, a profound knowledge of the course of pressure changes in the wood during treatment. A new method of pressure measurement was developed which supplies exact and reproducible data. The results show that ...
R D Peek, S Goetsch


Improvement of some technological and biological properties of poplar wood by impregnation with aqueous macromolecular compounds
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3721
Poplars (Populus spp) belong to the most important tree species in afforestation programs of the Netherlands. Due to their rapid growth, the wood quality is usually low. Therefore, studies were performed to elucidate whether some technological properties and the resistance against fungal attack could be improved by impregnation with water-soluble resins. The results showed that swelling and shrink...
R D Peek, H Militz, J J Kettenis


Risk of pulmonary damage as a result of an evaporation of ca. 50 ppb = 42 mg HF, evaporated from wood treated by difluorides
1987 - IRG/WP 3401
In this review of the literature the effects of fluorides and fluorine on man are described, especially the low level effects of inhaled HF on human beings. The term "fluoride" is used as a general term everywhere, where exact differentiation between ionic and moluecular forms or between gaseous and particulate forms is uncertain or unnecessary. The term covers all combined forms of the element, r...
H F M Nijman


Zur Analytik von Pentachlorphenol und Tetrachlorphenol in der Luft und im Urin. [On the analytics of pentachlorophenol and tetrachlorophenolin the air and in urine]
1979 - IRG/WP 3139
Because of its excellent fungicide and insecticide properties PCP has been used for more than three decades in the field of wood preservation. Recently, however, its application has been criticized repeatedly. The motives for criticism were diseases, the origin of which was supposed to be closely connected with the use of pentachlorphenolic wood preservatives. The quantitative evidence of this sub...
A Dahms, W Metzner


Risk assessment of energetic valorization of treated wood - wooden recycling
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50072
The most useful method for the valorization of wood wastes and wooden wastes is energetic valorization. In France the percentage of wood treated by antisaptain products is around 30%. Currently with the growing regulation, there is a need for cleaner methods and technology to allow sustainable valorization. The preservatives concerned are common organochlorine compounds (NaPCP) less used nowadays ...
G Deroubaix, P Marchal, G Labat


A field test with anti-sapstain chemicals on sawn pine timber stored and seasoned under different conditions
1984 - IRG/WP 3245
Newly sawn timber of European redwood (Pinus sylvestris L.) was dip treated in four different anti-sapstain chemicals. The protectife effect against sapstain, mould and decay was examined after 10 weeks' and 10 months' storage in open and closed stacks. The results showed that the performance of individual chemicals was different in open and close stacks, although the wood as wel...
D J Dickinson, B Henningsson


A comparison of effectiveness of three waterborne preservatives against decay fungi in underground mines- An appraisal
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30366
To understand the effectiveness of waterborne preservatives and to explore the behaviour of roof supporting poles after pressure treatment, an experiment was conducted and thorough investigation was carried out during the last decade in the underground mines. Prior to commencement of the experiment, a survey was conducted at different depths in underground mines and collected decayed wood samples ...
P Narayanappa


A note on te seasoning, preservative treatment and suitability of debdaru (Polyalthia longifolia Benth & Hooker.) for poles
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40056
The main work is to determining the suitability of Debdaru (Polyalthia longifolia Benth.) as poles from Government and Village forests are investigated. The poles of Debdaru are easily treatable with CCA preservative by full-cell pressure method, but difficult to dry (air & kiln). Proper quality control must be maintain from procurement to treatment, specially during physical selection & d...
G N M Ilias, M D Rokib-ul-Hafiz


Kiln drying of poles as a means of solving the problems of pre-treatment decay in poles
1985 - IRG/WP 1263
The concept that pre-treatment decay can cause wide variation in the treatability of wood and especially wood poles has caused much discussion and debate in wood preservation circles. Yet it seem only logical that if decay has effected the strength characteristics of the wood and caused a differential moisture content in the wood the treatment of the end product will be highly variable and the lon...
J A Taylor


The wood-attacking insects in wooden houses of an old open air museum in southern Finland
1989 - IRG/WP 1409
Harmful insects of wood in a open-air museum were investigated in 1985-1988 by order of the National Board of Antiquities and Historical Monuments of Finland in nine old log houses. Many thousands of insects and altogether 1073 anobiids (Coleoptera, Anobidae) were obtained by window and light traps. The most common Anobiidae-species were Hadrobregmus confusus (Kraatz) 60.3%, Hadrobregmus pertinax ...
H Viitanen, M Pulkkinen


The effect of pretreatments on the impregnation of air-dried sawn Belgian spruce
1988 - IRG/WP 3490
In general the impregnation of airdried spruce results in a variable treatment and limited penetration. This is the result of pit aspiration that occurs during drying of the spruce sapwood and heartwood. Spruce timber is becoming of greater importance in Belgium and hence research for better treatment of this vulnerable wood species is needed. Squared airdried timber of different dimensions were e...
J Van Acker, M Stevens


The effect of preservative distribution in small blocks of Pinus sylvestris on the toxicity of tributyltin oxide to Reticulitermes santonensis Feytaud
1971 - IRG/WP 206
Small blocks of Pinus sylvestris (50x25x15 mm³) were treated by a full-cell method with various concentrations of tributyltin oxide in benzene. Replicate blocks were then freeze dried, rapidly air dried or slowly air dried and exposed to surface attack by the subterranean moistwood termite Reticulitermes santonensis Feytaud. At all concentrations it was found that the freeze-dried blocks were mor...
M P Levi, D N R Smith


Efficacy of Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride (DDAC), Disodium Octaborate Tetrahydrate (DOT), and Chlorothalonil (CTL) against Common Mold Fungi
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30338
The fungitoxic properties of four fungicides, alone and in combination, against four different mold fungi commonly associated with indoor air quality problems were evaluated on two different wood species and sheetrock. The fungicides were chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) (CTL) in a 40.4% aqueous dispersion, disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) in two different forms - a ...
J A Micales-Glaeser, J D Lloyd, T L Woods


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