Your search resulted in 72 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Survey of conditioning treatment practices in India
1978 - IRG/WP 3127
India has 75.3 million hectares (ie about 24% of total land area) under forests out of which the area of productive forests, from which industrial wood is available, is about 60 million ha. The Task Force on Forest Resources Survey has tentatively estimated that the total growing stock in Indian Forests is 24,000 million cubic metres (m³). The total recorded production of wood in the country is r...
M C Tewari
A note on te seasoning, preservative treatment and suitability of debdaru (Polyalthia longifolia Benth & Hooker.) for poles
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40056
The main work is to determining the suitability of Debdaru (Polyalthia longifolia Benth.) as poles from Government and Village forests are investigated. The poles of Debdaru are easily treatable with CCA preservative by full-cell pressure method, but difficult to dry (air & kiln). Proper quality control must be maintain from procurement to treatment, specially during physical selection & d...
G N M Ilias, M D Rokib-ul-Hafiz
Pretreatment decay in air-seasoning Scots and Corsican pine poles in England
1989 - IRG/WP 1390
British grown Scots and Corsican pine poles were sampled for colonization by basidiomycetes after air-seasoning for 6 to 9, or 16 to 20 months. The amount of infection present in these poles was compared with that in poles which were imported from Finland. After 6 to 9 months seasoning, the British grown pine poles were heavily infected with Peniophora gigantea, Cylindrobasidium evolvens, Stereum ...
A R Zahora, D J Dickinson
Effects of air-seasoning on fungal colonization and wood strength of Douglas fir poles
1987 - IRG/WP 1315
Air seasoning economically reduces the moisture content of Douglas fir poles before pressure treatment with preservatives. Advanced decay in poles in service has resulted when decay fungi (Basidiomycetes) colonized poles during air-seasoning and survived the treatment process. These problems have led to recommendations to severely limit this practice. To determine the role of these fungi in peeled...
J J Morrell, M E Corden, R D Graham, B L Kropp, P Przybylowicz, S M Smith, C A Sexton
The control and pretreatment decay in air seasoning Scots and Corsican pine poles in England
1990 - IRG/WP 1451
Previous work clearly showed that air-seasoned, British grown Scots and Corsican pine poles are subject to serious pretreatment decay. In order to control these infections a range of pretreatments are currently being investigated. One series of treatments is designed not only to control decay but also allow the development of mould and stain fungi in order to achieve the desired increases in poros...
D J Dickinson, A R Zahora, A P Dodson
Encapsulation Systems Combined with DOT Borate Treatments – The Future of Treated Crossties
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40670
Borates have been utilized in wood protection systems for many decades but only recently have been used in North America to treat crossties. This colorless, ordorless and very effective wood protection chemical has the ability to arrest and prevent the colonization of wood by both basidiomycete decay fungi and insects such as beetles and termites while ties are air seasoning or in service. Since ...
S C Kitchens, T L Amburgey
Best handling practices for wood crossties (sleepers)
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40714
Wooden crossties (sleepers) dominate the rail industry in the USA. Most ties are hardwood treated with oil-borne preservatives using pressure treatment. Incipient decay (called ‘stack burn’) commonly develops during the pre-treatment drying process and reduces tie performance and longevity. Practices to minimize stack burn and enhance wooden tie performance are discussed as an aid to non-wood ...
N Irby, J Lloyd, A Taylor, J Watt
Sterilization of Large Timbers during Preservative Treatment: How Quickly We Forget
2020 - IRG/WP 20-40902
Air seasoning is a common method of moisture management in utility poles and is done de facto during pole storage prior to treatment. However, extended air drying prior to treatment encourages fungal attack and can facilitate establishment of decay fungi in poles before a protective preservative barrier is applied. This problem can be mitigated by proper air-seasoning methods coupled with heat ste...
G Presley, J Cappellazzi, M Konkler, K Maguire, R Nelson, J J Morrell
Health aspects concerning the use of bifluorides in wood
1981 - IRG/WP 3173
An attempt has been made to find a correlation between the quantities F¯ and HF present among other ions in an 'Improsol' solution consisting of NH4F.HF and KF.HF, the quantity absorbed by the wood from this after immersion and the toxicological effects of this treated wood when it is used in rooms destined for the residence of people or animals or for the storage of foodstuffs....
H F M Nijman
Borate thermal treatments
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3715
Green, partially seasoned (air-dried, steam conditioned), or kiln-dried southern pine timbers were treated thermally using 15% disodiumoctaborate tetrahydrate solution. After treatment, sections were stored under non-drying conditions to allow for diffusion. Results showed that effective treatment meeting the AWPA minimum retention (0.17 B203 pcf [2.72 kg/m³] in the outer inch) and penetration (2...
H M Barnes, R W Landers, L H Williams
Comparative investigations on the influence of wood seasoning, wood properties and temperature on the toxic values of wood preservatives against Hylotrupes egg larvae
1970 - IRG/WP 28
Comparative tests carried out at three institutes indicated the influence of kiln temperature, position of wood specimens in the cross sectional area and test temperature on the toxic values determined in accordance with DIN 52165 with egg larvae of the house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus L.). The preservatives applied were boric acid in distilled water and g-benzene-hexachloride dissolved i...
G Becker, T Hof, O Wälchli
Exposure monitoring of creosote vapors
1989 - IRG/WP 3511
Creosote oils contain hundreds of compounds. During impregnation and handling of treated wood the main component in the vapors released in air is naphthalene. Other main components are alkyl naphthalenes, indene, phenol and its methyl derivatives, benzothiophene, diphenyl, acenaphthalene and fluorene. In the measurement of creosote vapors, naphthalene can be used as an indicator agent. One of the ...
P Heikkilä, M Loutamo, V Riihimäki, M Romo
The performance of softwood species used as poles in Queensland
1985 - IRG/WP 1253
In Queensland, the conifer Pinus elliottii could provide material suitable for use as poles. Full size pole material has been readily treated with CCA with no significant loss in strength. Seasoning of logs prior to treatment requires particular attention in the wet tropical and sub-tropical regions of Queensland. Experimental and in service field tests have indicated excellent performance of CCA ...
L E Leightley
A short note on the subject of pretreatment decay in wood
1984 - IRG/WP 1245
The paper reviews five national standards for wood utility poles and some literature that concerns the problems of pretreatment decay. Finally it is proposed to form a new sub-group to study that problem....
J A Taylor
Checking of sodium pentachlorophenate fixation in wood
1990 - IRG/WP 3620
In order to estimate the volatilization of sodium pentachlorophenate from treated wood, wood samples treated with pentachlorophenate were analysed after various durations of an EN 73 weathering The results giving no clear evidence of volatilization, treated wood samples were put in a test chamber with precise climatic conditions, the air used in the experiment being analysed. The pentachlorophenat...
M Lamour, H Sageot
Observations on the uptake and penetration of various liquids in clear heartwood and sapwood of Pinus radiata D.Don
1983 - IRG/WP 3224
Volumetric uptake of water (aqueous copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA)) or methanol, applied by bulk hydrostatic pressure to air dried clear heartwood specimens of Pinus radiata D. Don, far exceeds that of a wide variety of polar and non-polar solvents. In air dried sapwood, the volumetric uptake of CCA tends to be less than that achieved for most solvents including methanol. No comprehensive explanation...
J E Barnacle
Volumes and weights of different CCA-C treated wood poles, anchor logs and crossarms of REB at air dry condition
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40073
Researches revealed the unit volumes and weights at air-dry condition (12% MC) of different poles, anchor logs and crossarms species of REB from this world. The softwood products are lighter than hardwood products. Inversely the unit volumes of softwood poles are higher than those of hardwood poles. Red pine (Pinus resinosa), radiata pine (Pinus radiata), blue pine (Pinus wallichiana), fir (Abies ...
A K Lahiry
Preservative treatment of Pinus elliottii
1987 - IRG/WP 3435
The treatment of Pinus elliottii with copper-chrome-arsenic preservative by four alternative seasoning and treatment methods is investigated. Steam conditioning followed by either alternating pressure method (APM) or 'Q' treatment resulted in inadequate preservative penetration. Air drying or high temperature drying followed by the Bethell process resulted in a high standard of t...
P Vinden, L Carter
Fixation of CCA in Pinus sylvestris after kiln-drying
1990 - IRG/WP 3594
Tanalith C Paste is 98% fixed and Tanalith Oxide C is 99% fixed irrespective of whether treated Pinus sylvestris is kiln or air dried. A schedule suitable for kiln drying of CCA treated Pinus sylvestris is described....
P Warburton, J A Cornfield, D A Lewis, D G Anderson
Measurement of VOC emissions from curative treated wood: A new emission test chamber
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-13
A poor indoor air quality (IAQ) is now recognized as a potential factor affecting occupants health. There are three basic strategies to improve IAQ: source control, improvement of the ventilation and use of air cleaners. Usually, the most efficient way to improve IAQ is to eliminate the different pollutant sources or to reduce their emissions. In order to precisely measure emissions from building ...
F Maupetit, O Ramalho, C Yrieix
Remedial treatment of wood attacked by insects
1981 - IRG/WP 3175
A review is presented of remedial treatments against wood-boring insects in wood in service. Preconditions and fundamental principles of insect control are compared with the control of fungal attack and reasons are given for the fact that remedial treatments against insects are more commonly applied than against fungi. With regard to insect control measures with a simultaneous preventive effective...
Dynamics of pressure changes in wood during impregnation
1990 - IRG/WP 3615
Conventional methods of impregnation have to be improved for achieving better penetration of refractory wood species. Basic requirements for an adjustment of treatment schedules are, amoung others, a profound knowledge of the course of pressure changes in the wood during treatment. A new method of pressure measurement was developed which supplies exact and reproducible data. The results show that ...
R D Peek, S Goetsch
Improvement of some technological and biological properties of poplar wood by impregnation with aqueous macromolecular compounds
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3721
Poplars (Populus spp) belong to the most important tree species in afforestation programs of the Netherlands. Due to their rapid growth, the wood quality is usually low. Therefore, studies were performed to elucidate whether some technological properties and the resistance against fungal attack could be improved by impregnation with water-soluble resins. The results showed that swelling and shrink...
R D Peek, H Militz, J J Kettenis
Risk of pulmonary damage as a result of an evaporation of ca. 50 ppb = 42 mg HF, evaporated from wood treated by difluorides
1987 - IRG/WP 3401
In this review of the literature the effects of fluorides and fluorine on man are described, especially the low level effects of inhaled HF on human beings. The term "fluoride" is used as a general term everywhere, where exact differentiation between ionic and moluecular forms or between gaseous and particulate forms is uncertain or unnecessary. The term covers all combined forms of the element, r...
H F M Nijman
Zur Analytik von Pentachlorphenol und Tetrachlorphenol in der Luft und im Urin. [On the analytics of pentachlorophenol and tetrachlorophenolin the air and in urine]
1979 - IRG/WP 3139
Because of its excellent fungicide and insecticide properties PCP has been used for more than three decades in the field of wood preservation. Recently, however, its application has been criticized repeatedly. The motives for criticism were diseases, the origin of which was supposed to be closely connected with the use of pentachlorphenolic wood preservatives. The quantitative evidence of this sub...
A Dahms, W Metzner