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Bioassays of extracts from scaly ash (Ganophyllum falcatum B1) against the subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt)
1983 - IRG/WP 1206
Scaly ash, Ganophyllum falcatum B1. wood shavings were extracted by methanol, and fractionated with ethyl acetate, diethyl ether and water, and the anti-termitic properties of these materials bioassayed against the subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Laboratory techniques were developed to overcome the problem of limited extractive materials. The results of the various bioassays indicated that the most toxic extractives were cold methanol extract water solubles, and cold methanol insolubles.
J R J French, J P Robinson, J W Creffield

Co-incineration of CCA-treated wood and Municipal Solid Waste in MSWI plant
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-19
The Norwegian Association of Energy Users and Suppliers (Norsk Energi) have carried out incineration tests with addition of 10 % by weight CCA-treated wood waste to municipal solid waste in a MSWI plant. The objective with the test was to determine emissions and composition of bottom ash. The incineration test was done at the Klemetsrud plant in Oslo The main conclusions are: -No significant increase in emission of copper, chromium, arsenic and dioxin -Emission of total heavy metals (incl. copper, chromium and arsenic) is much lower than the limit value in the EU directive on waste incineration. -The dioxin concentration in the flue gas was ¼ of the limit value in the EU directive on waste incineration. -The concentration of heavy metals in bottom ash shows levels far below the threshold value stated in the Norwegian regulations for Hazardous waste. The results from the leaching tests suggest that the bottom ash from the incineration with 10 % CCA-treated wood meets the criteria for depositing on landfills for non-hazardous waste.
D Borgnes, B Rikheim

Durability of heat-treated wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40145
Heat-treated wood from the French process were laboratory tested against decay using agar block test and a modified soil block test. Water absorption, bending strength, lignin content and acid number were also determined to evaluate the effect of heat treatment. Heat treated samples exhibit a higher lignin content and a lower acid number compared to untreated control indicating the degradation of some hemicellulose and extractives compounds. The significant amount of water absorbed during water soaking or exposure to different relative humidity suggest that the heat treatment help in releasing the stress in wood after the removal of hemicellulose and degradation of lignin rather than the reported significant cross link reaction of organic acid and the benzene ring of lignin. Cubes extracted with water or acetone or chloroform and challenged with pure culture of fungus show an appreciable weight loss which confirm the absence of any extractable compounds toxic to decay fungi during the heat treatment. After 12 weeks exposure for laboratory soil block or 6 to 8 weeks for agar block test, significant weight loss was observed. For soil block test, weight loss of 11% was obtained for heat-treated samples exposed to G. trabeum and 46% for P. placenta. About 56% and 54% weight losses were obtained for southern pine control exposed to G. trabeum and P. placenta, respectively. The weight loss of water and acetone extracted heat-treated sample exposed to P. placenta was 49.7% and 53.9%, respectively. Only about 11% and 14.8% weight loss was obtained for water and acetone samples challenged with G. trabeum. The moisture content of tested sample was about 70 ±10% for the un-heated control and 50 ± 10% for heat-treated samples. This treatment may modified the durability from non resistant to moderate/resistant species depending on fungus species as defined in the ASTM 2017 standard. The data from the bending test indicate that such treatment may create a 10 to 50% reduction in MOR and deflection which will limits the use of such wood for structural purposes.
D P Kamdem, A Pizzi, R Guyonnet, A Jermannaud

Long-Term Release of Arsenic, Chromium, and Copper from CCA-Treated Wood and Ash
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50227
In this study, laboratory long-term leaching studies were conducted to characterize the leaching behavior of arsenic, chromium, and copper from CCA-treated wood samples (block, chip, and sawdust) and CCA-wood ash and to determine the rate of release of the metals from the CCA wood products. The leaching solutions were periodically collected and analyzed for the concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and copper. Results of the leaching studies showed that the flux rates of arsenic from CCA-treated wood samples were consistently much higher than those of chromium and copper throughout the 60-day leaching period. Increased leaching time significantly reduced leaching rates of all CCA elements. The particle size of CCA-treated wood used also affected the leaching rates of the elements. Relatively large surface area unit weight of CCA-treated wood allowed more wood available for leaching. In case of CCA wood ash, the rate of chromium release from CCA wood ash specimens was much greater than that of arsenic for the first 12 h flux. However, the steady-state release rate of arsenic from the ash was greater than that of chromium. Much of the chromium was present in the hexavalent form, which is more toxic and mobile than trivalent chromium
Hyunmyung Yoon, Heeseok Kang, Yong-Chul Jang

The effect of woody and non woody plants extractives on microbial resistance of non-durable species
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30392
The effect of Elm (Zelkova carpinifolia), Oak (Quercus castanifolia), Mulberry (Morus alba), Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) as woody plants, Rose (Rosa damascene) and Fumitory (Fumaria sp) as non woody plants extractives on durability of Beech (Fagus orientalis), Maple (Acer insgin), Alder (Alnus subcordata), and Lime (Tilia sp) were studied. First wood species having extractives were cut to small pieces and then were chipped and milled, by using Tappi (T20403-76) standard. Acetone and Methanol solvents were used to extract soluble materials from wood durable species, and their extractives percentage were measured. Also wood specimens of perishable species such as beech measuring 0.5 x 1 x 5 cm were prepared. The fungus (Trametes versicolor) was selected and taken from the forest (Darabkola in Mazandaran state). Solvated extractives were injected into non-durable wood species by negative atmospheric pressure and then treated wood specimens oven dried at 50 o C. Then all treated and untreated wood blocks again oven dried, cooled, sterilized, and exposed to the fungus. Milled wood (with and without extractives) as control specimens were poured into Pyrex tube glasses, oven dried, cooled, weighed, sterilized and also exposed to the fungal attacks. At the end of experiment (after 6 weeks) mycelium were removed from surfaces of exposed wood samples and wood blocks oven dried, cooled, and weighed. Results showed that weight losses of all treated wood species except Lime significantly decreased. Other results indicated that Alder and Lime absorbed solvent more than Beech and Maple. However, solvated extractive of Mulberry significantly was inserted less than other wood extractives.
S M Kazemi, A Hosinzadeh, M B Rezaii

Treatment of Green Logs infested by Exotic Pest: Case Study of the Emerald Ash Borer: Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10628
Invasive alien insect species periodically infest forests in the United States causing the destruction of plant species and decimating populations, resulting in significant economic and ecological losses for areas involved. The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) was first discovered on North American soil in the summer of 2002 near Detroit, Michigan and has since spread to several other Midwestern states and Ontario, Canada, causing the destruction of ash populations. Limitations posed on the circulation of green ash logs and lumber has seriously affected the economic value of ash logs and lumber in affected regions. This study investigated over bark chemicals and non-chemical treatments for sanitization of infested logs to allow free circulation and trade for value added products. Chemical treatments included borate with concentrations ranging from 5% to 16.5% (Boric Acid Equivalent) and Imidacloprid with concentration ranging from 0.005 to 0.02% applied as spray. Non chemical methods included treatments in conventional kiln and microwave at 50°C, 55°C, 60°C and 65°C. Results obtained showed that Imidacloprid treatments concentrations of 0.01% and above were effective at sanitizing infested logs. Borate treatments resulted in significant reduction in insect emergence in indoors rearing conditions but did not achieve full control of the insect infestation. For non-chemical treatments, kiln temperatures of 65ºC were successful for sanitization of infested logs. Microwave treatments were not as effective as conventional heat for controlling insect emergence, and we hypothesized that this was due to the uneven distribution of the heat inside the microwave used in the study. Approaches to improve the microwave treatment are proposed.
P Nzokou, S Tourtellot, D P Kamdem

Morphological and Impregnability Properties of Narrow-Leaved Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) Wood Taken From Plantations with Different Spacings
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40475
Narrow-Leaved Ash, an important hardwood in Turkey, (Fraxinus angustifolia) is one of the fast growing species. In Turkey, several plantations have been established for 40 years. Narrow-Leaved Ash grows very fast and produces 25 (m3/year) mean increment. Except for eucalyptus and poplar, this increment is the highest compared to the other imported fast growing wood species. Until 1980, the spacing on ash plantations was 3x2 m (1666 number/ha) and 3x2.5 m (1333 number/ha). Later, the spacing changed from 3.7x3.7 (730 number/ha) to 4x4 m (625 number/ha). This study investigated the morphological properties and the treatability of woods through chemical impregnation. The wood samples were obtained from narrow-leaved ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) plantations with different spacings. Tangential and radial diameters of earlywood and latewood traces and the fiber length, lumen width, signal wall thickness and rays in per mm2 were measured and determined for wood samples coming from different spacings. The results showed the importance of spacing on wood quality and how to optimize the spacing to produce wood with high quality fiber and high quality impregnability properties based on the demands of the forest industry.
C Güler, H Ibrahim Sahin, S Sen

Resistance of heat treated Ash wood under steam pressure: rot fungi, soil micro-organisms and termites
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40724
Thermal modification processes have been developed to increase the biological durability and dimensional stability of wood. The aim of this paper was to study the influence of ThermoWood® treatment intensity on wood decay resistance improvement against soil-inhabiting micro-organisms, brown/white rots and termite’s exposures. All of the tests were carried out in the laboratory with two different complementary research materials. The main research material consisted of Ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) wood thermally modified at temperatures of 170ºC, 200ºC, 215ºC and 230ºC. The reference materials were untreated Ash, Beech and Pine woods, for each biological test. An agar block test was used to determine the resistance to two brown-rot and two white-rot fungus according to CEN/TS 15083-1 (2005) directives. Durability against soil-inhabiting micro-organisms was determined relating to the CEN/TS 15083-2 (2005) directives, by measuring the Weight Loss, modulus of elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of rupture (MOR) after incubation periods of 24, 32 and 90 weeks. Finally, Reticulitermes santonensis specie was used for the termite’s exposure non choice screening test with a size sample adjustment according to EN 117 (2005) standard directives. Thermal modification increased the biological durability of all samples. However, high thermal modification temperature over 215°C, representing by a wood mass loss (ML %) due to thermal degradation of 20%, was needed to reach resistance against decay comparable with the durability classes of ‘‘durable’’ or ‘‘very durable’’ in the soil bed test. The brown-rot and white-rot tests gave slightly better durability classes than the soil bed test. Whatever heat treatment conditions, thermally modified ash wood was not efficient against termite’s attacks.
K Candelier, S Hannouz, M-F Thévenon, D Guibal, P Gérardin, M Pétrissans, R Collet

Chemical, physical-mechanical characterization and durability of thermally modified beech and ash wood by thermo-vacuum process (Termovuoto)
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40758
The paper illustrates part of the results from the CIP Eco-innovation project “Thermo-vacuum: new process for new generation of thermally modified wood”. The project is part of the 7th Framework Programme for European Research and Technological Development, and thermo-vacuum modified wood is already on the European market. The project was selected by the European Commission, EASME Agency, as "Best of Eco-innovation: project success stories", May 2015, Barcelona. Temovuoto timber is already presented on the European market.
M Jebrane, I Cuccui, O Allegretti, N Terziev