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Influence of different fixation and ageing procedures on the leaching behaviour of copper from selected wood preservatives in laboratory trials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20264
The paper focuses on the role of different parameters, such as fixation, sample size, wood species, and leaching in internationally standardized ageing procedures for wood preservatives from Europe, Japan and the United States. The leaching protocols used were EN 84, JIS K 1571 and AWPA E11 protocols. The wood species were Scots pine, Sugi and Southern Yellow Pine respectively. Three types of commercially important copper-based wood preservatives were used as model formulations, namely copper/copper-HDO, ammoniacal copper/quat and CCA. The most important factors determining the extent of copper leaching in the different lab trials were the sample size (volume/surface ratio) and the fixation conditions prior to leaching. On the other hand, the wood species and the leaching protocol itself were found to have only minor influence on the copper leaching rate in the test methods included in this study.
J Habicht, D Häntzschel, J Wittenzellner


Detection of feeding behaviour of termites using AE monitoring
1991 - IRG/WP 1514
Using acoustic emission (AE) monitoring, the feeding activity of the termite inhabiting a wood specimen was investigated. The amplitude and the rate of AE from the specimen of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was larger than that of Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe. The AE event rate was higher in the specimen with soldiers than without soldiers. The AE event rate decreased according to the resistance of wood specimens against termite attack.
Y Imamura, M Tokoro, M Owada, Y Fujii, M Noguchi


Über den Nagekäfer Oligomerus ptilinoides (Wollaston), Col., Anobiidae: Verbreitung und Einschleppung, Bestimmung, Lebens- beziehungen und Befallsmerkmale mit Vergleichen zu Nicobium
1980 - IRG/WP 1102
Oligomerus ptilinoides occurs in the Mediterranian and Black-sea area, in North-Africa and Asia minor as an important pest causing severe damage to dry wood. By travelling, by the immigration of people from south to north, and by accidental introductions the species tends to establish itself north of the Alps. Severe damage has recently been observed in two museums. An account is given of aspects of taxonomy, the pattern of attack compared with that of Nicobium hirtum and Nicobium castaneum, of the anatomy of the larvae, on symbiosis, and on behavioural features of the beetles.
S Cymorek


Monographic cards for wood-destroying fungi. [Fiches monographiques pour les champignons lignivores]
1970 - IRG/WP I 5B
C Jacquiot


Acoustic communication between Microcerotermes crassus Snyder
1982 - IRG/WP 1158
An unusual acoustic communication within a nest of Microcerotermes crassus SNYDER is reported. The signals produced by the termites are described and possible reasons for this behavior are considered.
U Kny


Feeding preference behaviour of Crytopermes cynocephalus Light and Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren on twenty-eight tropical timbers
1985 - IRG/WP 1251
A study on the feeding preference behaviour of a dry-wood termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light and a subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren on 28 species of tropical timbers has been conducted. The weight-loss of individual timber and the mortality of termite was·recorded after 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days of exposure. The results reveal that there are only five species among 28 species of wood which are completely repellent to both the dry-wood termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus and the subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus. These five wood species are Dalbergia latifolia, Eusideroxylon zwageri, Intsia bijuga, Lagerstromia speciosa and Tectona grandis. There are eight wood species which are repellent to Cryptotermes cynocephalus and seven wood species which are repellent to Coptotermes curvignathus. There are also only seven wood species which are completely arrestant or highly arrestant to both species of termite. Agathis alba and Mangifera indica are classified as highly arrestant to both the dry-wood and the subterranean termites. Other species are classified between moderately repellent to highly arrestant.
Nana Supriana


Studies on the infestation behaviour of the powder-post beetle Lyctus brunneus (Steph.) and its physical control in the wood yards of the Caspian forests of Iran
1985 - IRG/WP 1271
Lyctus brunneus (Steph.) is a pest which has not been previously thoroughly studied in Iran. It severely attacks Iranian hardwoods, especially those used in wooden houses and that have not been treated. Research work was necessary to determine the natural resistance of the most important timber species in Iran against this insect.
P Niloufari


Studies on the infesting behaviour of the Formosan termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and its physical control
1983 - IRG/WP 1174
An outline of termite damage to buildings in Japanese National Railways, wood-infesting behavior, attacked traces in PVC-sheathed cables by termites, detection method of termites and the physical control method of the Formosan termite are given in the present paper.
K Yamano


Treatment behaviour of fresh and inservice catamaran logs
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30255
Catamaran is a conventional fishing craft fabricated by lashing 4 - 6 shaped logs of soft timber together. Over 73,000 of these craft fabricated out of 165,000 m3 of wood are in use along the vast east coast of India. Each craft lasts for 5-7 years. Over 15,000 m3 of timber is required annually for repairs and replacements of the craft. Such huge demand exerts enormous pressure on the resources. It is apt, therefore, to extend the practice of wood preservation to the catamaran sector and conserve the precious raw material. In order to achieve this objective, our Institute took up technology demonstrations way back in 1968. However, because of illiteracy and socio-economic constraints of the traditional fishermen, the efforts did not catch up well. Under these circumstances, as a renewed measure of propagation, treatment of 3 each of fresh as well as inservice catamarans was taken up some time ago. The results of pressure impregnation of these six catamarans made of Albizia falcataria timber with copper-chrome- arsenic (CCA) preservative were analyzed to understand the preservative absorption of the constituent logs. The study revealed that there was no significant variation in the total quantity of chemical absorbed among the fresh as well as inservice catamarans that served for three different periods prior to treatment . However, significant difference was noticed between all the fresh catamarans clubbed as one group and the inservice craft as another group. The CCA absorption ranged from 13.52 to 15.30 kg.m-3 averaging at 14.60 kg.m-3 in the fresh craft and 18.65 to 22.10 kg.m-3 averaging at 20.42 kg.m-3 in the inservice catamarans. Also, each constituent log of the six catamarans differed in its chemical content from the other. The analysis proved that it is possible to treat the inservice catamarans and achieve good preservative retentions.
V Kuppusamy, M V Rao, M Balaji, K S Rao


Sex pheromone of the male house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10100
Since 1990 studies have been conducted with respect to the chemical communication of the house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). The structure of glands located in the prothorax of the beetles was examined with light and scanning electron microscopy. The analyses of different extracts from beetles resulted in the finding and identification (GC-, GC/MS-, and HR-GC/MS-studies) of specific substances derived from the prothoracal glands: (3R)-3-hydroxy-2-hexanone, (2R,3S)-2,3-hexanediol and (2R,3R)-2,3hexanediol. In wind tunnel experiments, unmated female beetles were attracted over a distance of 1m by males, headspace extracts of males, the 3 major components of the glands as well as by the synthetic blends of the components. Thus, the bioassays revealed the initiation of premating behaviour by emission of a long-range sex pheromone from the male prothoracal glands. The pheromone functions as activator, attractant and possibly aphrodisiac for unmated females. Further studies are conducted with respect to disturbance and prevention of mating behaviour of Hylotrupes bajulus in the attics of houses by using pheromone traps.
U Noldt, R Fettköther, F Schröder, H Meyer, K Dettner, W Francke, W A König


Differential behaviour of wood rotters at water repellent Rubberwood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10386
Rubberwood samples treated with different concentration of aqueous solution of chromic acid has induced significant increase in water repellency and attains dimensional stability. Though water repellency and dimensional stability was achieved by treatment, the fungal invasion could not be completely controlled. Differential level of decay of brown and white rot in wood treated with water repellent compound is observed. Wood shows complete protection from white rot but failed to prevent the invasion of brown rot in water repellent rubber wood. These treatments were found to be very effective even at a low concentration of 2.5% in protecting decay due to white rots as compared to brown rot. Effectiveness of these treatments against white rot may be attributed to formation of lignin-chromic acid complex.
H C Nagaveni, S S Chauhan, K S Rao


The influence of formulation on the behaviour of LOSP's during industrial impregnation of spruce
1986 - IRG/WP 3387
Evidence is presented that the comparative behaviour of two LOSP formulations during impregnation treatment of spruce cannot be predicted purely on the basis of their physical characteristics (viscosity, surface tension and contact angle) nor on the extent of their 'passive' penetration into pine sapwood.
L D A Saunders, D M Zuvencko


A behaviour of CCA penetration of fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) at different ramp times and constant vacuum/pressure applications
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40346
A behaviour of CCA penetration of Bornmulleriana fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) at different ramp times and constant vacuum/pressure applications was illustrated for the main flow directions by the experimental pictures.
I Usta, R Despot, M Hasan


Incorporating insect behaviour in standard tests of wood preservatives - A possible way to reduce pesticide loadings
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20190
The application of wood preservatives to protect timber against insect infestation is common practice world wide. The effectiveness of wood protecting insecticides is usually determined in various standard tests. Depending on the target pest species and the test method, larvae of different developmental stages and sizes or adult insects are exposed artificially to the insecticide-treated commodity by placing them into or on to the material. The achieved mortality usually rates the effectiveness of the tested insecticide. Detailed observations have shown, that a lot of insecticides already show repellent effects to ovipositing females, or have ovicidal effects at much lower quantities necessary for larval kill. Furthermore, if the natural chain of behavioral steps in the insect, which lead to an infestation, are correctly analyzed, an interference and manipulation of the behavior should prevent or at least minimize the risk of an infestation and thus the needs for wood preservatives. Examples for successful manipulation of mating and host finding behavior are presented in this paper, using the old house borer Hylotrupes bajulus L., as a model: In the general biology of the old house borer, males emerge slightly before females and attract the later with a sex pheromone from the future breeding site. Experiments in the laboratory and semi field situations have shown, that pine wood, offered in no-choice bioassays, was most attractive to males, more than any other given alternative. Virgin females neither accepted pine nor the alternatives. Only the presence of males on pine wood increased its attractiveness to virgin females. Females of H. bajulus, when mated, readily deposit their eggs on any material (natural or artificial) if a suitable crack is presented. However, they hesitate to deposit eggs on timber treated with certain preservatives even in no choice situations. Additionally, it was found, that certain modern insecticides show ovicidal effects, preventing the larvae from hatching, rather than larvicidal effects. The observed host selection and mating behavior, together with general considerations of energy budgeting in insects suggests, that males rather than females of the old house borer most likely select new breeding sites. Interfering with host selection biology might therefore enable alternative control strategies against this destructive pest of structural timber. These strategies include: reducing the attractiveness of breeding sites for males, repelling host seeking males, trapping mate seeking virgin females, etc. Furthermore, ovicidal effects of wood preservatives are not yet considered in standard test. More detailed knowledge of the general behavior of wood boring insects will permit new ways to preserve timber without or with reduced amounts of pesticides. The effectiveness of behavior modifying chemicals can not be evaluated in existing standard test methods. An alternative test set up is presented in this paper.
H Hertel, R Plarre


Environmental behaviour of treated wood in (semi-)permanent contact with fresh or seawater
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-20
This study presents a strategy for the environmental toxicity evaluation of treated wood towards the aquatic compartment, using non target water organisms toxicity tests. A lixiviation process is applied on wood (Pinus sylvestris) treated with several wood preservatives formulations. The lixiviation process is carried out in the laboratory with ultrapure water or synthetic seawater. After chemical analysis for the pesticides migration, the leachates are evaluated for their ecotoxicity. For freshwater, the standard ecotoxicological tests on the luminescence bacteria Vibrio fisheri, the microcrustacean Daphnia magna and the green unicellular algae Raphidocelis subcapitata are used. For seawater, marine tests using organisms such as the microcrustacean Artemia salina and the marine alga Phaeodactylum tricornutum are performed. Then, complementary methods for the detection of mutagenic components (genotoxicity) are applied on wood leachates in order to complete the evaluation. The same chemical treatment is therefore evaluated on fresh and seawater through this laboratory methodology applied to treated wood.
P Marchal, C Martin


A contribution to the adsorption/desorption behaviour of zinc-hexa-fluoro-silicate in different soils
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50056
The estimation of a possible endangering of the groundwater through wood preservatives and thereof deriving measures for the avoidance of secondary damages require among others exact knowledge concerning the behaviour of wood preservative compounds in the soil matrix. Adsorption and desorption behaviour were determined at four soils of different characteristics, which were brought in contact with aqueous solutions of zinc-hexa-fluoro-silicate. For the respective experiments four concentrations were prepared containing 10, 50, 100 and 250 ppm zinc ions. Water of p.a. quality served as reference. As to be expected the soils in question behaved different: the adsorption of inserted ions increased with increasing clay content of the soil. On the other hand significant differences exist also with respect to the adsorption behaviour of the zinc cation in relation to the hexa-fluoro-silicate anion. Within the concentration interval investigated, the same soil adsorbed approximately the same proportional zinc quantity. However, when increasing the hexa-fluoro-silicate-ion concentration a proportional decrease concerning the degree of adsorption was observed. The results show that it is not possible to conclude from partial results achieved with individual preservative compounds to the overall system "wood preservative"-soil and that further investigations are necessary for an inclusive description of the problem.
E Melcher, R-D Peek


The growth and behaviour of Australian isolates of dry rot fungi, mainly Serpula lacrymans (Schum. ex Fr.) S.F. Gray. A comparision with the world literature
1983 - IRG/WP 1190
In Australia Serpula lacrymans occupies a rather unique environment, being restricted to growth within basal regions of buildings containing masonry. Its rate of timber attack in these situations appears to be far faster than that experienced in other parts of the world. Therefore the question arises as to how Australian isolates (particularly 16508 which has become a "standard" test fungus for soil jar tests carried out in recent years in this laboratory) compared with other isolates. This paper reports data on growth rates, decay rates and wood moisture contents. Though one isolate shows temperature effects on growth which are inconsistent with Serpula lacrymans, the others do conform to Serpula lacrymans in terms of the effect of different growth media, optimal growth temperatures, rates of growth, haploid versus diploid decay rates, moisture contents of decaying wood and survival after exposure to unfavourable conditions.
J D Thornton, O Collett


Behaviour of some selective Indian species towards treatment with solvent based water repellent preservative
1984 - IRG/WP 3309
This paper discusses a solvent based preservative using PCP and a water repellent for preserving three species of timber commonly used in India for the manufacture of doors and windows. It examines the method of treatment to achieve desired levels of penetration and retention of the preservative-cum-water repellent, and tests made on these timbers to examine the success of the processing methods against the controls. The treatment outlined seems to be most encouraging for this purpose.
V R Sonti, B Chatterjee


Effects of drying processes on termite feeding behaviour against Japanese larch wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10390
We investigated the effects of current drying schedules for larch lumbers on the termite feedings. Thermal analyses were also conducted to investigate degradation of wood components. Choice feeding tests showed specimens dried under high-temperature schedules were evidently susceptible against termite attacks. These schedules produced the feeding-attractants, which were suggested by the TGA results compared to the control samples. The results of this study indicated that the acceleration of termite feeding is taken place even under comparatively lower temperature than that of our previous researches.
S Doi, Y Kurimoto, H Takiuchi, M Aoyama


Respiratory response of the wood boring teredinid, Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages) to copper stress
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10528
Wood boring teredinid molluscs engulf most of the wooden particles scrapped by them while actively boring into wood, obtaining nourishment for their metabolic activities. In order to protect the wooden structures from the biodeteriorating activity of such organisms, the wood is treated with different chemical formulations to prolong their service life. Copper chrome arsenic (CCA) is one such wood preservative chemical offering excellent protection to wood under marine conditions. Field observations with CCA treated test stakes as well as actual wooden structures have, however, shown that they are not free from wood borer attack after considerable service life. The successful settlement and growth of these organisms are a reflection of their metabolic ability under such adverse chemical stress conditions. As copper and arsenic are known to be metabolic inhibitors, a study was undertaken to investigate the respiratory behaviour of Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages), the most virulent teredinid wood borer at Visakhapatnam harbour, East Coast of India. As a first step, experiments were conducted on this aspect under copper stress. The results show that in situ oxygen consumption of the animal under normal conditions was found to range from 0.8 – 5.6 μl.mg-1.hr-1 averaging 2.43 μl.mg-1.hr-1. Under acute toxicity of 0.5 ppm copper, the oxygen demand was observed to fall almost to half the normal levels (0.4 – 3.5 μl.mg-1.hr-1), but showed a gradual increase subsequently during the next 24 hours. However, when the stress was continued for 96 hours, the oxygen uptake gradually decreased again to 0.2 – 2.1 μl.mg-1. hr-1.
V Kuppusamy, M Balaji, M V Rao, K S Rao


Ecotoxicological behaviour of leachates from superficially treated timber as an approach for a test strategy of environmental risk assessment in wood preservation
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-09
At present for wood preservatives, which in Germany are subject to the quality mark of the RAL-Gütegemeinschaft Holzschutzmittel, health and safety as well as environmental aspects are evaluated by official authorities, as BgVV (Federal Institute for Consumer Health Protection and Veterinary Medicine) and the UBA (Federal Environmental Agency). From the environmental point of view to day there are additional requirements concerning the environmental behaviour of RAL-preservatives for timber used in hazard class 3. Information on the ecotoxicity of preservatives and ingredients as well as on the effect of losses from treated timber is requested in general. There is a lack of generally approved and harmonized test procedures in this field of wood preservation assessment. Therefore, a first test model was developed in accordance with the German federal environmental agency. This test procedure follows existing standards on efficacy of wood preservatives such as EN 84 and ecotoxicological testing of chemicals. Otherwise, it takes into account practical aspects of the application of wood preservatives. Ecotoxicological studies using fish, daphnids, green algae and luminescent bacteria as bioindicators were conducted with a range of formulations based on modern biocides. The ecotoxicity of leachates from treated timber is compared with the acute ecotoxicity of the formulations themselves. It becomes obvious, that a clear differentiation must be made between the effects of the formulations and the timber treated with them. In all trophic stages tested, it was shown, that enormous safety factors are existing for properly treated timber. It is possible to use the described test model for an environmental assessment with regard to the European Biocidal Products Directive. If ecotoxicological studies of a wood preservative are in accordance with the designed test model, additional ecotoxicological tests on the product or environmentally relevant components of it can be avoided or justifiably confined to a minimum.
H W Wegen, U J Lucks


A comparison of the migration behaviour in soil of different waterborne wood preservatives and their leachates
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50091
Lysimeter tests were carried out on water-soluble wood preservatives and on wood preservative components leached out of impregnated wood. The purpose of these tests was to determine the extent to which the migration behaviour of environmentally relevant ions in the soil is influenced under comparable conditions. The results clearly show that the groundwater is especially at risk when wood preservatives are allowed to penetrate the soil unhindered (worst case). Anions, such as chromates for example, are a particular risk as they are scarcely adsorbed by the ground matrix and can therefore enter the groundwater supply very quickly. On the other hand, copper, for example, is adsorbed so firmly by the soil that only negligible concentrations are found in the eluate. Its risk to the groundwater can therefore be ruled out. The lysimeters were filled with leachates containing preservatives from treated wood. The copper, zinc, chromium and fluorine ions were mainly analysed in the top layers of soil, thus indicating that in practice "only" regional soil contamination is to be expected. On the other hand, the concentrations of these ions found in the eluate are of the size if those which occur naturally, as was expected. The following ranging can be concluded for the tested water-soluble wood preservatives and their leachates containing preservatives from treated wood with regard to a possible risk to soil water or groundwater: wood preservative >> impregnated wood (wood preservative not yet fixed) > impregnated wood (wood preservative fixed).
E Melcher, R-D Peek


Non-destructive detection of the presence and behaviour patterns of wood-destroying insects
1988 - IRG/WP 2302
An apparatus, designed for the automatic recognition of the presence and of specific behaviour patterns of wood-boring insects, is introduced. From a wood sample, a mixture of noise and action induced substratum vibrations is picked up, amplified, filtered and translated into a sequence of computer-readable numbers which are passed to a microcomputer-based signal-pattern-recognition. If an incoming signal-pattern matches one of a behaviour-specific reference-pattern, the corresponding behaviour is transferred to the systems output. This technique is suitable for a fast, reliable and non-destructive recognition of infestation as well as for a quick valuation of new insecticides in screening by dosis-time-efficacy.
M Pallaske


Färbeverfahren zur Unterscheidung von Holzzonen mit unterschiedlichem Absorptionsvermögen, insbesondere bei Fichtenholz (Picea abies Karst.). [Staining method for distinguishing zones of wood with different absorption behaviour, particularly in spruce (Picea abies Karst.)]
1980 - IRG/WP 3163
A simple regressive staining method for crosscut wood surfaces is described. Phloroglucinol-hydrochloric acid serves as stain; flowing water and a solution of sodium carbonate are used for development and fixation of a picture showing the differences of absorption. Hydrophobic zones and, contrary to this, zones with a high water content can also be shown. Comparing green spruce wood before and during drying, the formation of a "secondary heart" became visible. The staining method is useful for solving practical questions and for tests with spruce. It is applicable to other wood species if these show similar differences in absorption.
S Cymorek


Growth of the copper tolerant brown rot fungus Antrodia vaillantii on different substrates
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10121
In recent years the copper tolerant brown rot fungus Antrodia vaillantii caused severe damages on impregnated wood in ground contact. The pattern of decay gave the impression that impregnated wood was even more severely attacked than unimpregnated. To investigate this question more closely laboratory tests were carried out. In a "choice test" Antrodia vaillantii grew preferably towards CC-impregnated wood. Furthermore, when adding nutrients to the specimens, the mass loss of impregnated wood significantly increased, while the nutrients did not affect the mass loss of the unimpregnated wood. In addition, the temperature tolerance of the fungi increased slightly when growing on impregnated wood. It could also be shown that Antrodia vaillantii reacts with an increased production of oxalic acid to the presence of a CC preservative.
H Leithoff, I Stephan, M-T Lenz, R-D Peek


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