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Migration of Metals from Douglas-fir Lumber Treated with ACZA or Pentachlorophenol Using Best Management Practices: Preliminary Tests
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-4
The potential for migration of preservative components from ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA) and pentachlorophenol treated Douglas-fir lumber in non-soil contact exposure was assessed in a simulated rainfall device. Metal levels from ACZA treated wood were elevated for the first 30 minutes of rainfall and then declined sharply. Repeated cycles of rainfall led to declines in initial metal losses suggesting that surface metals were gradually depleted from the wood. Penta losses were also initially high, but then declined at rates related to rainfall level. The results suggest that preservative losses from treated wood in above ground exposures can be predicted.
J J Morrell, Hua Chen, J Simonsen


Metal Migration from Douglas-fir Poles Treated with Ammoniacal Copper Zinc Arsenate According to Best Management Practices
2010 - IRG/WP 10-50272
The potential for migration of metal components from ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate treated (ACZA) poles was examined using pole sections treated using Best Management Practices. Copper and zinc levels were highest in runoff collected following the first rainfall events, then declined. Copper and zinc levels in runoff averaged 20 ppm and 5 pm respectively. The metal levels were then used to predict the amount of metal loss when poles were stacked in different configurations that altered exposed surface area. Tight stacking reduced total metal losses, although metal levels would still rise well above background within 150 mm of the surface beneath the poles if no dilution occurred into the surrounding soil. The results illustrate the potential for managing poles to reduce metal losses in storage.
J J Morrell, C S Love, C Freitag


Effect of damage to polyurea coatings on metal losses from ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate treated Douglas-fir pile sections
2019 - IRG/WP 19-40867
Metal-based preservatives remain the most widely used treatments for protecting wood in soil or water contact. While these treatments are highly effective, one drawback is a tendency for small amounts of metal to migrate into the surrounding environment. The greatest risk in this regard is copper because many organisms are highly sensitive to this metal. While post treatment practices can reduce migration risk, even these small amounts can be problematic in some applications. Coatings have long been used to prolong the useful life of various products and could be useful for preservative treated products used in aquatic applications. We assessed the potential for a polyurea coating to reduce the potential for preservative migration in saltwater immersion, then progressively damaged the coating to expose increasing percentages of formerly coated wood. The polyurea coating completely eliminated metal losses from the wood. Removing increasing amounts of polyurea resulted in increases in metal losses over time. My results demonstrate that coatings can largely eliminate the risk of preservative migration, but they must be maintained to avoid excessive metal migration.
M J Konkler, J J Morrell


Management of the wood and additives wastes in the wood processing industries: Problematics and technical answers review
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50073
Management pathways for pure wood subproducts are well known and used; but as soon as additives like preservatives, glues, varnishes or coatings are present within the wood wastes, their disposal or valorization becomes more tricky. The different kinds of mixed wood wastes of the wood processing industries, from the sawmill to the furniture manufacture, are identified herewith and their diversity is examined. These wastes can be classified according to their danger characteristics, taking into account the type of additives, their concentration, their availability for the environment, the physical state of the waste. Different disposal pathways are then considered. Combustion, with the possibility of energetic valorization seems the best answer for a major part of these wastes. But this is only possible if good combustion conditions are defined, so that no harmful products are emitted. Moreover, these conditions must be affordable on the technical and economical point of view. Then, some wastes cannot be burned in such a simple way, and need a larger approach, which is presented in this document.
S Mouras, G Labat, G Deroubaix


Water-based wood preservatives for curative treatement of insect-infested spruce constructions
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30171
On laying down sanitation measures for wooden constructions infested by wood boring insects, we must take into account static risks for the construction - and, thus, for the security of the user - as well as risks for humans and environment due to the chemical preservative compounds of the treated wood. Analyses on many roof constructions made with spruce (Picea abies L.) have revealed that Hylotrupes bajulus L. and Anobium punctatum De Geer have not the significance given to them for decennies. That often allows to replace solvant-based with water-based wood preservatives in old buildings, for the protection of humans and environment. Therefore, a method has been developed in Switzerland for testing wood preservatives with delayed curative efficacy against the house longhorn beetle. Like the European Anobium Standard EN 370 this method intends to prevent the emergence of Hylotrupes beetles. Laboratory tests with diverse water-based wood preservatives available on the market in Switzerland have shown that particularly boron and benzoylphenylurea derivatives containing products get a sufficient penetration in the wood and prevent the emergence of the beetles.
E Graf, P Manser, B Lanz


Preservative-treated wood as a component in the recovered wood stream in Europe – A quantitative and qualitative review
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50218
Wood preservatives have been used for the protection of timber products in the European market in appreciable quantities for about 100 years. Between the 1960s up to the present day this usage has been particularly noticeable. The aim of this paper is to present quantitative and qualitative data on the volumes of preservative treated wood placed on the market in the UK and Sweden and to evaluate the expected quantities of preservative treated wood coming out of service and into the ‘recovered’ wood stream in the future. Data are presented from a case-study in the UK on CCA (copper, chromium, arsenic) treated timber and projections on likely amounts of this entering the recovery stream up to 2061. It is estimated that in the UK in 2001 approximately 62,000m3 of CCA-treated wood required disposal and that this could rise to about 870,000m3 by 2061. The proportion of CCA-treated timber in all post consumer waste wood in the UK is predicted to rise from about 0.9% in 2001, to about 12.3% in 2061 representing a substantial component of the post-consumer wood stream. In Sweden statistics have been compiled for production of preservative treated wood for many years. The preservatives used for waterborne treatments have also changed significantly over the last 10 years from a dominant role for CCA to alternative, As-free systems. It is estimated that preservative treated wood will represent on average about 5% of the recovered wood flow in Sweden over the next 25-30 years and that this will represent an appearance of about 8000 tonnes of As, 7000 tonnes of Cu and 6500 tonnes of Cr. These data and the possible disposal options for CCA and similar treated wood are considered in a life-cycle thinking context.
R J Murphy, P Mc Quillan, J Jermer, R-D Peek


Some biological observations on the management of preservativion experiments with submerged timber in the marine environment
1976 - IRG/WP 421 E
P Deschamps


Trends in environmental management in industry. Implications for wood preservation activities
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-34
J A De Larderel


The use, approval and waste management of industrial wood preservatives. A preliminary report
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50033
The structure on the wood preservation through the world is heterogenous. Environmental legislation, approval policy and application practices differ in each geographical region and in individual countries. This preliminary report gives a rough estimation of the production of treated timber, the use of wood preservatives and a bief summary of environmental status of wood impregnation in selected countries.
A J Nurmi


Disposal of treated wood - Canada
1990 - IRG/WP 3563
It is estimated that treated wood removed from service each year in Canada contains about 16,000 tonnes of creosote, 1000 tonnes of pentachlorophenol and 245 tonnes of CCA or ACA. The amount of CCA treated wood for disposal is expected to increase more than ten-fold by the year 2020. At present, most treated wood is disposed of in landfills, burned (creosote only) or recycled as other products. Other approaches to reduction, reuse, recycling and disposal are discussed.
P A Cooper


Survey of conditioning treatment practices in India
1978 - IRG/WP 3127
India has 75.3 million hectares (ie about 24% of total land area) under forests out of which the area of productive forests, from which industrial wood is available, is about 60 million ha. The Task Force on Forest Resources Survey has tentatively estimated that the total growing stock in Indian Forests is 24,000 million cubic metres (m³). The total recorded production of wood in the country is roughly estimated as 25 million m³ annually of which approximately 10 million m³ is demanded by various industries and the remaining is used as fuel. India, with developing economy needs very large resources of timbers for diverse purposes. There is already shortage of timber in the country for various wood based industries and it is expected this will progressively increase with the rapid pace of industrialisation. However, suitable measures are being taken to bridge the gap between demand and supply. The entire 10 m³ of industrial wood requires some sort of protection against wood-destroying agencies. Timber awaiting conversion during storage needs prophylactic treatment while for use as poles, fence posts, sleepers, building material, in cooling towers, boats, ships, in mines, in sea-water, etc., timber should be adequately treated with suitable wood preservatives to obtain satisfactory service life. Both heart and sapwood of non-durable species and only sapwood of durable species need protection against wood-destroying agencies. Wood Preservation on scientific and modern lines was introduced in India by Sir Ralph Pearson of the Indian Forest Service in the year 1908. In India, the first wood preservation plant was established at Bally in Howrah in 1854. Of the total timber extracted in India, only a very small proportion, estimated at about 5% is treated. This amounts to 0.45-0.50 million m³ of wood per annum. The total annual capacity of 140 preservation units, existing in the country at present, is estimated at 0.43 million m³ on single shift basis. IS: 401-1967 (Indian Standard - Code of Practice for Preservation of Timber) covers types of preservatives, their brief descriptions, methods of treatment, and the type and choice of treatment for different species of timber for a number of uses. This standard includes only such preservatives and methods of treatment which have given satisfactory results under Indian condition of service. According to this standard, whatever process of treatment is adopted, timber for treatment should be sound and should be dried to an appropriate moisture content (generally not more than 15% for open tank and 25% for pressure processes). All the wood working etc should be done prior to treatment. In case of timbers, specially some conifers having non-durable heartwood which is refractory to treatment, when treating thick members like railway sleepers, beams, piles, etc, incision of all the surfaces, other than the ends, to a depth of 12-20 mm is necessary.
M C Tewari


Framework document for an international code of good practices for wood preservation and wood protection (anti-sapstain) facilities
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3683
At the Kyoto meeting, the Health & Safety committee agreed to form a task force to prepare a global plan for writing a code of good practices (Code) for wood protection and preservation facilities (Doc. No. IRG/WP/3681). The Canadian document had been presented to the IRG group earlier (Doc. No. IRG/WP/3447) and similar documents were solicited from other countries for preparing a framework document to assist in the task. Documents were received from Germany, France, UK, and Sweden. These documents provided information on similar efforts toward establishing a Code in those countries. The guiding principles for preparing the Code will be to reduce or eliminate the releases of preservative/anti-sapstain chemicals in the environment and to minimize the workers' exposure to these chemicals for their health and safety. The recommended practices should be based on the current knowledge of existing technology and the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the chemicals. Cooperation of all stakeholders, that is, industry, chemical supliers, regulatory bodies, workers, and other interest groups, in the preparation and approval of the Code should be sought to increase its credibility, usefulness, and effeness. It is proposed to develop a model Code which can be adopted in whole or with modifications in any country, reflecting the site-specific conditions, legislation, and the state of technological sophistication in the industry. The work to date has been conducted ad hoc with the cooperation of Dr. Peek (Germany), Monsieur Ozanne (France), and Dr. Chris Coggins (UK), and the authors acknowledge their assistance in supplying the documents. Based on the available information, it is suggested that the enclosed table of contents be used in the preparation of the framework document for the Code. A task force will be formed to prepare and present the final Code at the next meeting.
V N P Mathur, G Das


Cleaner prodiction and the wood preserving industry
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-29
H Carr-Harris, C R Coggins


Restriction for use and waste management for pressure treated wood - The current situation in Norway
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50175
The Norwegian Environmental Authorities have this winter sent out a draft on restrictions in production and use of heavy metals in preservative treated timber. If it is passed, it will lead to drastic changes in the use of preservatives in Norway from this autumn. The environmental authorities and the preservative industry are both at present discussing waste management for CCA and creosote treated wood.
F G Evans


Introduction to keynote: Perspective in urban termite biology and management in Southeast Asia
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10786
This keynote lecture will provide a perspective on the pest status of termites in Southeast Asia, the damages they cause to the urban structures, important biological and behavioural characteristics, detection methods and the various management strategies available.
Chow-Yang Lee


Wood preservation in Kenya
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40191
Current research on wood preservation in Kenya is mainly on the development of biological control of wood-destroying termite species, using mycoinsecticides. The major research institutions include the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI), Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), Moi University and the International Centre for Insect Physiology (ICIPE). Training institutions include Forestry Training College, Forest Products Training Institute and Moi University. A number of publications, mostly an biological control of termites, are available and they range from workshop and conference proceedings to theses and journal publications. Wood-destroying termite species include several genera in Macrotermitidae and one drywood termite genus. Wood preservation facilities are available in Kenya, mainly for assorted timber products, sleepers and utility poles. The major preservatives used are CCAs, PCP and Creosote oil. There are still no set standards, specifications and requirements for wood preservatives and little, if any information exists on the marketing aspects of wood preservatives. The yet to be established Industrial Chemicals Act and the recently introduced Environmental Management and Coordination Bill (1999) may be able to handle regulatory, environmental, health and safety aspects of wood preservation in Kenya.
G Ochiel


Generic code of good practices for wood protection facilities. Part 1: Wood protection (antisapstain) facilities
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50003
In general, the potential of high toxicity (aquatic and human) of wood protection (antisapstain) chemicals dictates the need to protect the environment and humans from its harmful effects. This document is a compendium of recommendations for the design and operating practices of wood protection facilities. The suggested recommendations focus on achieving the objectives of protecting the environment and workers in a wood protection facility from harmful exposure to wood protection chemicals.
G Das, V N P Mathur


Waste management of wood products in life cycle assessment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50154
Within the framework of the European project LIFE SYS WOOD (contractnr. FAIR CT95-7026) TNO has performed a study on the waste management of wood demolition waste for inclusion in Life Cycle Assessment. In LIFE SYS WOOD one of the main aims was to develop a consistent LCA methodology for wood products. LCA case studies have been performed by partners on wood as raw material, glulam contructions, OSB and plywood roof constructions, window frames, a CCA-treated fence and multi-layer parquet flooring. For the relevant European countries involved contributions to this study of all research partners (EMPA, Imperial College, NTI, Traetek and VTT) have been included, on the composition of the wood waste, on the state of the art of waste management techniques and regulations, and the estimated mix of waste treatment options. The approach in consistently handling final waste management of wood products in LCA and some results are summarised in this paper. For several wood products it has been concluded, that the waste stage has a very significant impact on the LCA results.
P Esser, P Eggels, A Voss


The first two years of an area wide management program for the Formosan subterranean termite in the French Quarter, New Orleans, Louisiana
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10357
The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus, is a serious pest in several parts of the world and is the most destructive insect in Louisiana. The density of the Formosan subterranean termite in the French Quarter, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA is very high. A large area pilot test for area wide management of this insect was begun in 1998 in the French Quarter to reduce densities of termites and demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach of treating all properties in a large area using area wide management. The pilot test is a cooperative effort between the LSU Agricultural Center, USDA-Agricultural Research Service and New Orleans Mosquito and Termite Control Board. All but four of 323 properties in a contiguous 15 block area in the French Quarter were treated using commercially available baits or non repellent termiticides selected by property owners and applied by professional pest control operators. Properties were inspected for conducive conditions and proper treatment after treatments were made. Data on termite activity were collected using glue boards for alates and in ground monitors for foraging activity. Alates were sampled two to three times weekly during the flight season (May through July 15) in both 1998 and 1999 using glue boards hung near lamps on street lights. Monthly monitoring of foraging activity began in January, 1999 to determine the number of stations with termites and amount of wood consumed. Reductions in densities of alates between years were not found; probably as a result of the limited time treatments had been in place. The percentage of in ground monitoring stations with termites was lower in the treated zone than outside the treated zone after September 1999. Continued treatment and monitoring are required to determine the extent of and the long term effects of the area wide management program.
D R Ring, A L Morgan, W D Woodson, A R Lax, X P Hu, E D Freytag, L Mao


Survey of maintenance management of a residence
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10405
The following points were clarified from the responses to the questionnaire. Termite damage was most common in the bathroom, washroom, and entrance, in that order. Termite damage was most commonly found beneath floors, followed by floor surfaces, and inside walls, in that order. Damage in framing was minimal. Damage in all structural components was most common in the Kyushu region, with the most significant difference with other regions being the higher frequency of damage in framing. Damage beneath floors was common in all regions. It is thought that the differences in the extent of damage between regions is due the difference in the types of termite prevalent in each region; 37% of respondents operating in regions infested with both Coptotermites formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus reported damage in framing, whereas only 9% of respondents operating in regions infested with only Reticulitermes speratus reported framing damage. In the Kyushu region, more than 60% of respondents reported damage in framing, indicating considerable variation in the site of damage between regions. Termite damage to thermal insulation was reported by 77% of respondents, with such damage occurring throughout the country. Damage reported to be most common in expanded polystyrene insulation, however damage to other types was also reported and it is apparent that all types of thermal insulation are subject to termite damage. The number of houses designed for energy efficiency through the use of high thermal efficiency insulation and airtight construction is expected to increase, and in order to extend the life of housing under these conditions in terms of termite damage, it is desirable that procedures for maintenance management be investigated for each region to ensure that thermal insulation is of the appropriate type, and is appropriately installed, to minimize termite damage.
Y Yamaguchi, M Azuma, Y Hikita, K Nishimoto


Canadian code of good practices - Recommendations for design and operation of wood preservation facilities
1990 - IRG/WP 3582
The rationale and procedures for the development of a set of recommendations for design and operation of wood preservation facilities in Canada are discussed. Multi stake holders involvement in problem identification, problem assessment, state of the art knowledge database, implementation and periodic assessment procedures are important considerations for the successful development of a Code of Good Practices for wood preservation facilities.
V N P Mathur, G Das


Risk reduction from curative treatments, restoration and maintenance of building and individual housing - simple precautions that make the difference
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-15
This document explores the potentialities of risk reduction, from activities of remediation in construction, developped at small scale by professionals or individuals on targets like moulds, rots, termites and other wood destroying insects, with products distributed for professional or do-it-yourself purposes. At the first stage, an inventory of the type / interest of products / processes is carried out, with the identification of the sequences, including the fate of wastes and the resulting exposure for the compartments of interest. For health aspects, a crude practical evaluation of the exposure of direct receptors, operators, and indirect ones, inhabitants and the public in the vicinity, to the pathologies and their remediation, seems possible. This exercise aims to provide the users of products with the minimum set of tools and criteria of direct exposure assessment, prior to their use, based on available documentation, regulation and warnings. The best case occurs with the access to material safety data sheets and the corresponding labelling. Per default, they take available products from the shelf (approved for marketing or restricted use, doses, conditions of application), with the support of suppliers and local requirements. Regular training is one way of progress, the obligation of result with procedures adapted to the site of the building and its own exposure, another route of improvement. As works in this field are often non typical, there is still room for the optimisation of individual options, based on experience, to locate the necessary dose and performance at the right place. Description and examples are provided.
G Ozanne


Traitement des matériaux lignocellulosiques en présence des composés halogénés (Risques toxiques des produits de combustion)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-17
From the point of view of the combustion products toxicity, the highest environmental hazard comes from the combustion of materials creating toxic products such as dioxins and dilbenzofurans. 95% of these are formed during incineration of different materials. The aromatics result essentially from the products of paper industry and from wood treatment. Formation of halogenated products during the combustion of materials on the wood basis (papers, cartons, packing materials, wood treated, et c.) in the presence of halogenated compounds (PVC, PVDC, halogenated salts) is very complex. From the point of view of the toxic products formation, there is necessary to examine not only the influence of the polymer structure and the structure of halogenated compounds, but also oxygen concentration, temperature, ions, radicals and another components present in the flame. For the formation of chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans is essential that the polymer is able to generate the compounds with benzoic character as the intermediates. The examples of such precursors can be phenol formaldehyde polycondensates, various types of wood products, some polyesters and epoxy resins, but also polyvinyl chloride and polyvinliden chloride, combustion products of whose are aromatic structures.
I Surina, M Slimak, S Vodny, A Périchaud, K Balog


A status report on code of good practices
1991 - IRG/WP 3679
Code of Good Practices - Anti Sapstain documents, presented to IRG meetings in the past, are the basic documents for health and safety of the workers and the environment in Canada. The BC Ministry of Environnment has now issued regulations in the area of effluent discharge. While Pentachlorophenols (PCP) are not used by the industry, the documents are still used as a guideline document for the other anti sapstain chemicals. New chemicals suppliers are adhering to the same format in preparing similar documents, for example, Kop-Cote has issued a Code of Good Practices document on the use of NP-1. In Eastern Canada, Environment Canada and the Atlantic Provinces have now set up a task group to develop a chemical management guidance document for the regional wood protection industry. In the near future, it is expected that a generic code of good practices will be developed based on the chemical management guidance document. The generic code shall be used by all anti sapstain facilities in Canada, irrespective of the chemical used. Code of Good Practices - Wood Preservation documents were published and reported to IRG in earlier meetings. An assessment of effectiveness and use of these documents is nearly complete. Forestry Canada will support other federal departments in setting up a task force to update these documents in 1992. Through a contract, a video has been prepared to increase the awareness among the plant personnel on the Code of Good Practices for oil-borne preservatives. We expect that the IRG Health and Safety Committee will create a dialogue among all the members from different countries so as to increase the awareness of health and safety of workers in the wood preservation industry and the safety of the environment. Information should be exchanged regarding the actual studies, proposed plan etc., so that all can benefit from the work done by others, rather than duplicating the work already done by somebody else. The Committee should set up a task group to prepare a global plan for writing a Code of Good Practices for wood protection and preservation facilities.
V N P Mathur, G Das


Feasibility study for a dedicated pressure treated wood waste management system
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-22
For the creosote treated wood coming out of service, it has been estimated an amount of 200 000 t per year for the next twenty years, and 100 000 t per year afterwards. With a limited number of actors, mainly SNCF (as producer and as user), no importations, and available energy recovery options, it appears possible for setting a dedicated wood waste management system, if the SNCF agrees to. For the CCA treated wood, the amount of it coming out of service will increase and will be much more important, reaching about 400 000 t per year. For setting a voluntary dedicated waste management system might be much more difficult, because the importation is very important (about 50%), the margin of product low and the actors and users are numerous. Over the answer of the question on the feasibility for setting a dedicated pressure treated wood waste management system, this study must allow also define the priority actions to improve the pressure treated wood waste management.
C Cornillier, I Buda, E Heisel, G Labat


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