Your search resulted in 28 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Animal blood protein as a component of new, non-toxic wood preservatives fixing organic active compounds in wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30312
Application of natural organic compounds and simple physico-chemical treatments in wood conservation has, as its objective, not only its protection against biological agents but, equally importantly, protection of natural environment by gradual abandonment of toxic constituents still applied commonly on a wide scale. The introduction into wood of new, non-toxic impregnation agents manufactured on ...
B Mazela, I Polus
Preliminary study of the fungicidal and structural variability in copper naphthenates and naphthenic acids
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30114
Copper naphthenates, an oil-borne wood preservative listed by the American Wood-Preservers' Association (AWPA), is manufactured by complexing copper(II) with naphthenic acids. Prior to AWPA listing as a wood preservative, field experiments showed that copper naphthenates generally had good stability and were active against wood-destroying organisms. Recently, however, there have been reports ...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, L L Ingram Jr, T H Fisher
Durability of larch (Larix spp.) wood against brown-rot fungi
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10228
Durability of the heartwood of Larix decidua, L. sibirica, L. gmelinii, L. gmelinii var japonica, L. gmelinii var olgensis and L. sibirica x decidua against brown rot fungi Coniophora puteana, Poria placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum was tested according to EN 113 test method. Parallel samples were used to study the amount and composition of wood extractives. The sample trees originated from the re...
H Viitanen, L Paajanen, P Saranpää, P Viitaniemi
Influence of aliphatic acids on spore germination of wood decay fungi
1984 - IRG/WP 2224
Influences of eight saturated fatty acids (C5-C10, C12 and C16) on spores of four isolates of wood decaying basidiomycetes (white rot fungi: Poria tenuis and Trametes hispida; brown rot fungus: Gloeophyllum trabeum [two isolates]) were observed in-vitro. Spore response after 24 hr on malt extract agar containing 10, 10² , or 10³ ppm of each fatty acid included: no effect on normal germination, d...
E L Schmidt
Addendum to Document No: IRG/WP/428
1977 - IRG/WP 437
A J Emery
An investigation into the stability of TBTO in LOSP-treated radiata pine
1987 - IRG/WP 3459
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and reverse phase paper chromatography were used to characterise the organotin compounds found in radiata pine treated with bis (tri-n-butyl) tin oxide (TBTO). Preliminary results indicate that the preservative is remarkably unstable in wood after light organic solvent preservative (LOSP) treatment. Significant decomposition of TBTO occurs in a matter ...
K J Archer, R Meder
Effect of fatty acid removal on treatability of Douglas-fir
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40008
Treatment of Douglas-fir with chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) poses a major challenge. Several hypotheses based on the anatomical aspects as well as chemical reactivity of the preservative formulations with cell wall constituents and deposits have been proposed. Techniques to prevent pit aspiration or slow fixation reactions have, however, not significantly improved treatment. The presence of high...
S Kumar, J J Morrell
The formation of organotin carboxylates in bis(tributyltin) oxide - treated Pinus sylvestris sapwood
1990 - IRG/WP 3618
Tributyltin compounds have been successfully used for many years as wood preservatives, although their chemical nature in timber have not been fully elucidated. This study by 119Sn and 13C NMR spectroscopy has shown that, on impregnation into Pinus sylvestris sapwood, bis(tributyltin) oxide, (Bu3Sn)2O, is rapidly converted to tributyltin carboxylates, Bu3SnOCO·R, via reaction with components of t...
S J Blunden, R Hill
Solvent extraction of CCA-C from out-of-service wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50107
Elimination of CCA from decommissioned wood prior to disposal is a major environmental issue. One approach is to extract CCA from treated wood, then reuse the 'clean' (may contain CCA, but below hazardous level) wood materials for manufacturing wood-based composites. In the present paper, we focus on effective leaching processes, selection of leaching agents and optimum leaching ...
K M F Kazi, P A Cooper
A preliminary comparison of GC, HPLC and ELISA analysis of resin acids in pulp mill effluents
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20120
Resin acids are naturally occurring diterpenoid carboxylic acids present in most Canadian softwoods. There are eight common resin acids that are classified into two groups; the abietanes and the pimaranes. During processing of wood products they can be released into the environment where they are of concern because of their acute toxicity toward fish and other aquatic life. Traditionally resin aci...
A N Serreqi, K Stark, Xiumei Feng, J N Saddler, C Breuil
Influence of carboxylic acids on LEACHING of copper amine based preservatives
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30365
The importance of chromium free preservatives is increasing. Leaching of copper from wood preserved with such solutions is still higher compared to leaching from wood impregnated with copper chromium ones. In order to decrease leaching, different carboxylic acids (octanoic, 2-etilheksanoic, decanoic) were added to copper/amine/boron aqueous solutions. Experiment of leaching of copper from Norway s...
M Humar, P Kalan, F Pohleven
Properties of cellulose degraded by the brown rot fungus, Postia placenta
1988 - IRG/WP 1350
To gain further understanding of the nature of the cellulose depolymerizing agent or agents of brown-rot fungi, brown-rotted cellulose was chemically and physically characterized. Various culture conditions, such as low nitrogen and elevated oxygen levels, did not induce degradation of cellulose by Postia placenta in liquid cultures. Therefore, brown-rotted cellulose for analysis was prepared by a...
T L Highley, R E Ibach, T K Kirk
FTIR characterization of copper ethanolamine - wood interaction
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20154
The interaction of copper ethanolamine (Cu-EA) and wood components was studied by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In Cu-EA treated wood, significant reduction was noticed on the band attributed to carbonyl vibration from carboxylic groups at 1735±5 cm-1 and an increase in band intensity was obtained from carbonyl in carboxylate at 1595±5 cm-1. The same observation was made ...
Jun Zhang, D P Kamdem
Screening of fungal strains for wood extractive degradation
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10254
Fungal strains were screened for their ability to degrade apolar extractives in wood from scots pine. The degradation of total wood extractives by 91 different strains was monitored in stationary batch assays incubated for 6 weeks. The results obtained show that the ability of wood-inhabiting fungi to utilize wood extractives varied greatly, even for different isolates of the same species. Fungal ...
J Dorado, M J Martinez-Inigo, T A van Beek, F W Claassen, J B P A Wijnberg, R Sierra-Alvarez
Feeding stimulants to enhance bait acceptance by Formosan termites
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10055
Four nitrogenous compounds were found to increase feeding by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki in the laboratory. Cardboard disks dipped in urea solutions were consumed significantly more than untreated cardboard disks. Cardboard dipped in 8% urea showed a significant change in weight due to termite feeding over other urea treated cardboards. Examination of 15 amino acids in no choice feeding tests i...
G Henderson, M Kirby, J Chen
Detoxification of salt impregnated wood by organic acids in a pulping process
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50012
The paper descibes a novel method to detoxify pine wood (Pinus silvestris L.) treated with CCB-, CCF- CC-, and Cu-HDO-type salt preservatives. In the process of biological detoxification organic acids produced by strains of Antrodia vaillantii and other brown rot fungi are used for the dissolution of the previously fixed inorganic compounds. These findings are the basis for applying an acid pulpin...
I Stephan, H H Nimz, R D Peek
Copper based wood preservative - A new approach using fixation with resin acids of rosin
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30249
Copper soaps with carboxylic acid groups of resin acids of rosin were shown to be potential long-term wood preservatives. The principle involved is the attachment of copper to the network formed by the inorganic part of the preservative (rosin) through the -COOH groups. The mechanisms of fixation have been studied, and it has been shown that this association could be obtained : (1) by forming the ...
C Roussel, J P Haluk, A Pizzi, M-F Thévenon
The degradation of wood surfaces by dilute acids
1985 - IRG/WP 3326
Thin radial/longitudinal sections(~100 µ) of Corsican Pine (Pinus nigra) and Lime (Tilia vulgaris), were exposed to Sulphuric, Sulphurous, nitric, acetic, and formic acid at 40°C in the pH range 2-6. After about 3 months exposure to Sulphuric, nitric, acetic and formic acid at pH 2.0 Pine lost some 20-25% of its tensile strength. Losses in tensile strength due to sulphurous acid were greater bei...
P D Evans, W B Banks
The fixation of copper in Pinus sylvestris using the sodium salts of two polyhydroxycarboxylic acids
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3706
As part of the research concerned with the development of fixed, copper based preservatives, the salts of polyhydroxycarboxyIic acids, have been used in copper sequestration studies and fixation trials in Pinus sylvestris splinters. Selected compounds have been shown to be effective sequestrants at low concentrations allowing alkaline solutions to be formulated. Leaching trials following a 48 hour...
M Bacon, J A Cornfield
Degradation of resin constituents in various wood species by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10301
In previous studies, the white-rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 was shown to cause extensive degradation of lipophilic extractives (resin) in Scots pine wood. Further research was carried out in order to investigate the ability of Bjerkandera sp. for reducing resinous constituents in various softwood (Douglas fir, larch and spruce) and hardwood species (birch, beech and poplar). The greates...
J Dorado, T A Van Beek, F W Claassen, R Sierra-Alvarez
Water repellency and dimensional stabilIty of wodd treated with waterborne resin acids/TOR
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40364
Wood used in above ground applications such as decking undergoes undesired dimensional changes leading to the lumber warping, cupping, splitting, etc. This is a major concern to consumers but it can be reduced by treating lumber with a water repellent. The ability of resin acids, hydrophobic compounds naturally present in southern yellow pines, was examined as a possible water repellent. A wate...
T P Schultz, D D Nicholas, J Shi
Wood preservation by a mixed anhydride treatment: Using simple models of polymeric wood compounds
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30457
Treatment of wood by a mixed aceto/oleic (or other fatty acid residue) anhydride promoted as a safe and environment friendly wood preservation system has been examined quantitatively by liquid phase 13C NMR and solid phase MAS-DEC (proton decoupling) 13C NMR through all its different stages to determine which reactions occur with simple model compounds of the polymeric constituents of wood. The p...
F Lyon, M-F Thevenon, A Pizzi, G Tondi, A Despres, J Gril, S Rigolet
Microwave-Assisted Organic Acids Extraction of Chromate Copper Arsenate (CCA)-Treated Southern Pine
2010 - IRG/WP 10-50267
The extraction effects of acid concentration, reaction time and temperature in a microwave reactor on recovery of CCA-treated wood were evaluated. Extraction of copper, chromium, and arsenic metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine wood samples with two different organic acids (i.e., acetic acid and oxalic acid) was investigated using a microwave reactor. Oxalic acid was e...
Bin Yu, Chung Y Hse, T F Shupe
Above Ground Field Evaluation and GC-MS Analysis of Naturally Durable Wood Species
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10764
Nine wood species are being evaluated in above ground field studies in Mississippi and Wisconsin. Candidate naturally durable wood (NDW) species are being rated at yearly intervals for resistance to decay, cupping, and checking. Field ratings after 12 months exposure are presented. To date, Paulownia tomentosa (PAW) and southern yellow pine (SYP) are least durable and cedars are the most durable i...
G T Kirker, A B Blodgett, S T Lebow, C A Clausen
Short-term protection of palm wood against moulds and decay fungi by environment-friendly organic acids
2015 - IRG/WP 15-10843
Felled palm trunks are susceptible to fungi as long as their moisture content is above fibre saturation. During this period, it has to be protected against moulds and decay fungi. The study tested environmental-friendly organic acids for their protecting efficiency. Small samples of Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) wood were treated with weak organic acids and subse...
M Bahmani, O Schmidt