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Albumin borate: A new non-toxic, wide-spectrum, long-term wood preservative
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30167
Boron, widely recognized for its broad range of activity towards both fungi and insects and for its low mammalian toxicity, can not provide long term protection to treated timber due to its high leachability. Boron, in the form of boric acid, can be partially fixed to timber by the formation of an association with egg albumin, which is insolubilized by heat-induced coagulation. Chemical investigations on fixation mechanisms of boric acid by egg albumin indicated that both acid-base salt formation occurs, as well as the formation of boric acid-albumin complexes, depending on the boric acid/protein ratio. In treated timber, a chance in protein conformation in presence of boric acid, has been shown by scanning electron microscopy. These mechanisms, partly reversible, while greatly retarding its leaching, leave small amounts of boron free to exercice its activity when needed. Boron leaching as a function of time, appears to tend to an equilibrium value, which one differs in the case of an albumin coagulum alone from what is obtained by leaching treated wood samples. Accelerated biolocical tests using such treated timber have shown that albumin borate used as wood preservative has effectiveness against wood decay, and have durability performances comparable to those obtained with CCA.
M-F Thévenon, A Pizzi, J-P Haluk


Chemical reactions involved in furfurylation of solid wood - An investigation by ATR-IR spectroscopy
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40347
Wood modification with furfuryl alcohol (FA) has gained renewed interest during the last five to ten years because of advances in process technology and because of increased focus on the environmental hazards of traditional wood impregnation. The reaction mechanisms involved in the furfurylation process are not yet understood in detail. In the work presented here, the chemical reactions and their end products in the wood cell wall were studied using Attenuated Total Reflection InfraRed spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and knowledge from molecular modelling. Evidence of a polymeric structure of FA in the cell wall was found, but bonding between wood constituents and FA or a FA-polymer could not be verified. Because of many overlapping absorbance peaks in the IR region, wood and FA absorbance bands are difficult to assign without support from extensive molecular modelling. Further modelling is needed to fully understand the possible reactions between wood and FA.
T Mark Venås, L Garbrecht Thygesen, S Barsberg


The Chelator Mediated Fenton System in the Brown Rot Fungi: Details of the Mechanism, and Reasons Why it has Been Ineffective as a Biomimetic Treatment in some Biomass Applications – a Review
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10828
The chelator-mediated Fenton (CMF) reaction requires the action of two types of chelating compounds. The first chelator, oxalate, solubilizes and then sequesters iron, and the second chelator reduces iron. Iron reduction must be controlled near the fungal hyphae to prevent damaging Fenton chemistry from occurring in that location. Similarly, iron reduction must be promoted within the wood/plant cell wall to promote Fenton chemistry in the proximity of the target lignocellulose. The mechanism for that control is reviewed in this paper. Both neat Fenton and the CMF have been examined by researchers seeking to exploit this relatively simple mechanism for biomass conversion and lignocellulose pretreatment systems. This paper reviews why some of that research has not produced useful depolymerization reactions and why excess amounts of reagents have been required. The application of Fenton treatments requires that the reactive oxygen species produced in the reaction be generated within a nanometer of the target substrate (lignocellulose), and for this to occur in biomass treatments using Fenton or CMF systems, iron must first be allowed to bind to the substrate to allow the reactions to proceed within nanoscale proximity to lignocellulose. Further, excess iron in solution and in interstitial space must be removed as this “free” iron will react preferentially with chelators and peroxide preventing appropriate targeted action on lignocellulose.
B S Goodell, M Nakamura, J Jellison


Biological screening assays of wood samples treated with creosote plus chemical additives exposed to Limnoria tripunctata
1980 - IRG/WP 408
Laboratory methods for exposure of treated wood coupons to Limnoria tripunctata are described. Chemical additions to creosote were screened using this method. Three pesticides, Endrin, Kepone, and Malathion proved particularly effective. The addition of varying percentages of naphthalene to creosote using several treatment methods are currently being assayed. Results to date show that the coupons treated by the empty cell method have better performance than those prepared by the toluene dilution method. The naphthalene coupons treated by the full cell method show no attack after six months' exposure.
B R Richards, D A Webb


The effect of certain wood extractives on the growth of marine micro-organisms
1977 - IRG/WP 438
S E J Furtado, E B G Jones, J D Bultman


Results of chemical analyses in the field of wood preservation in the Bundesanstalt für Materialprüfung
1973 - IRG/WP 321
The results of qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses of wood preservatives are often the basis for evaluating the various works in the field of wood preservation. In the past 10 to 15 years a number of such works was carried out in the Bundesanstalt fur Materialprüfung, Berlin-Dahlem, dealing with the identification and effectiveness of wood preservatives and with methods of wood preservation. Fundamental realisations were made which will be summarised below. It seems advisable to differentiate between inorganic and organic chemical wood preservatives and methods of analyses. These are two distinct fields which differ also with regard to the analytical techniques applied.
H J Petrowitz


The decay resistance of chemically modified aspen composites to the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quelet
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40122
Chemical modification of Aspen wood (Populus tremula L.) in the form of solid wood, veneers and sawdust was undertaken by a two step procedure consisting of esterification with maleic anhydride (MA) and subsequent oligoesterification with MA and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) or allyl glycidyl ether (AGE). Modified wood was thermoplastic and was thermally formed by hot-pressing to produce veneer or solid wood samples with smooth glossy surfaces, while plastic-like wafers were obtained by hotpressing modified sawdust. Chemical modification alone was shown to enhance the biological resistance of Aspen to decay by Coriolus versicolor. In addition, hot-pressing enhanced decay resistance of both unmodified wood and esterified wood veneer samples, although no improvement was found by hot pressing oligoesterified wood. The most effective treatment for the improvement of decay resistance was chemical modification of the sawdust in conjunction with hot-pressing. A microscopic examination of chemically modified and control samples following exposure to the fungus showed more extensive colonisation and decay in untreated, unpressed samples.
M C Timar, A J Pitman, M D Mihai


Chemical compounds from Eperua falcata and Eperua grandiflora heartwood and their biological activities against wood destroying fungus (Coriolus versicolor)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30373
The chemistry analysis of the compounds present in dichloromethane and ethanolic fraction as well as bioassays enables to understand the durability differences of Eperua falcata and Eperua grandiflora. The principal distinction between these two species is the acidic subfraction of diterpenoic extract, which is antifungic in Eperua falcata when tested in in-vitro conditions. This study also enables to show that ethanolic fraction plays an important role in the mechanism of natural durability. It also reports the first isolation of cativic acid in Eperua falcata wood.
N Amusant, C Moretti, B Richard, E Prost, J M Nuzillard, M-F Thévenon


Protocol for evaluation and approving new wood preservative
1985 - IRG/WP 2159
M E Hedley, J A Butcher


Di-sodium fluorophosphate, a new fluorine containing, water-borne wood preservative
1986 - IRG/WP 3373
The physical, chemical properties of Di-sodiumfluorophosphate (Na2PO3F) are compared with those of a trade-mark SF-salt. The opposition of biological activity and toxicological data showed that Di-sodiumfluorophosphate may be a suitable alternative to SF-salts ( based on MgSiF6).
D Seepe, W Metzner


Discussion of diiodomethyl p-tolyl sulfone (Amical® 48) as a fungicide for wood preservatio
1987 - IRG/WP 3425
The effectiveness of diiodomethyl-p-tolyl sulfone (Amical® 48) as a fungicide for preservation of wood is supported by a discussion of results from the literature and current research programs.
J M Stamm, K J Littel, F M H Casati, M B Friedman


Preliminary results of investigations on screening test of chemical compounds suitable for the preservation of lignocellulosic materials against biodeterioration
1976 - IRG/WP 262
This paper investigates the possibilities of reducing the time needed for the determination of the effectiveness of chemical compounds from the point of view of their eventual application to lignocellulosic materials for preservation against decay and soft-rot.
K Lutomski, S S Neyman


The influence of crystalline and amorphous cellulose on extracellular hydrogen peroxide production by brown-rot fungi
1991 - IRG/WP 1482
The production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been suggested to play a key role in the degradation of wood by wood-rotting fungi. The production of extracellular hydrogen peroxide was studied by a quantitative method which detects the oxidation of the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) by H2O2 and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in liquid culture medium. The carbon sources used were crystalline and amorphous cellulose. Two brown-rotters, Serpula lacrymans and Poria placenta, were able to produce clearly detectable amounts of extracellular hydrogen peroxide in liquid medium which contained crystalline cellulose as carbon source. No detectable H2O2 was produced in conditions where amorphous medium was used as carbon source. This result suggests that the conformational structure of the substrate may induce H2O2 production by brown-rot fungi.
A-C Ritschkoff, L Viikari


Contribution to study of the degradation caused in Pinus spp. poles used in field test
1989 - IRG/WP 1417
The study of the degradation produced by soil natural microflora on wood in contact with it in the field, has been going on for several years now. Our contribution to this aim in the present work has dealt with the possible relationship of the microorganisms in the soil. The microscopic visualization of wood colonization by the microorganisms, and the chemical analysis of the degraded wood compared with the undergraded.
M T De Troya, A Garcia, M J Pozuelo, A M Navarrete, A Cabanas


Efficacy of anhydrides as wood protection chemicals - II. Performance against soft rot fungi
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30174
Pine sapwood modified with various anhydrides and with butyl isocyanate was tested for its resistance to soft rot decay. Small stakes were exposed for 20 months in unsterile soil in a fungal cellar test. Wood modified with butyl isocyanate performed better than any of the anhydrides tested, with a threshold level of protection (less than 3% weight loss) at 12% weight percent gain (WPG). Stakes acetylated to 15% WPG did not give complete protection against soft rot. Stakes modified with alkenyl succinic anhydride showed increasing resistance to soft rot with WPG up to about 10% WPG, above which no further improvements were evident. Succinic anhydride and phthalic anhydride treated stakes showed little or no noticeable protection.
S C Forster, M D C Hale, G R Williams


Electron microscopic detection and chemical analysis of three-lamellar structures in wood-destroying fungi
1984 - IRG/WP 1240
In the course of transmission electron microscopical investigations of pine wood decay by various brown- and white-rot fungi extracellular three-lamellar structures (TLS) formed by the fungi were found in specimens stained with ruthenium red. These structures occured in the lumen of the wood cell surrounding the hypha at the outermost layer of the fungal cell wall. In the course of the investigations these structures were also detected in fungi cultivated with glucose on a rotary shaker, where they showed forms similar to tubuli and vesicles. The three-lamellar structures formed by the white-rot fungus Sporotrichum pulverulentum, which were contained in the outermost cell wall layer, were isolated by disintegration of the fungal pellet and subsequent digestion of the fungal cell wall by snail enzyme. It was found that these structures are resistant to the enzymatic digestion and are composed of 80 to 90% carbohydrates, mainly consisting of glucose monomeres, 5 to 10% proteins, containing 5 fractions with molecular weights between 30000 and 200000, and finally 5 to 10% lipids which do not contain any phospholipid.
R Foisner, K Messner, H Stachelberger, M Röhr


United States Federal Committee on Wood Protection
1971 - IRG/WP 43
A C Jewett


Collaborative soft rot tests: Results of analyses of soil samples
1976 - IRG/WP 263
C R Levy


Biological and chemical observation on the early fungal colonization of TBTO treated Swedish redwood stakes
1984 - IRG/WP 3311
Data on the early fungal colonization of Swedish redwood stakes, impregnated with 1% TBT0 / 0.5% dieldrin solution, both by double vacuum impregnation and immersion processes are presented. Results of chemical analyses of wood samples from the outer 1 mm of separate painted and unpainted stakes, exposed over the same twelve month period, are also discussed.
R Hill, A H Chapman, A Samuel, K Manners, G Morton


Interaction mechanisms of F/Cr/As/B type preservative and wood
1981 - IRG/WP 3183
The paper reports results of investigations on the fixation of the components of a F/Cr/As/B preservative in wood and its lignin and cellulosic components.
N Ermush, I Andersone


Chlorodioxines dans le pentachlorophénol
1975 - IRG/WP 346
H Alliot


Tebuconazole - Efficiacy, toxicity, physical properties
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30093
An overview ahout the physical properties and toxicology of tebuconazole as well as an update of efficacy data of this triazole are given.
H-U Buschhaus


Nitrogen content of soils at field sites
1981 - IRG/WP 1133
Nine participants in the Collaborative Field Experiment submitted samples for nitrogen analysis to this laboratory as requested by Leightley (IRG/WP/3162). These arrived in a variety of conditions e.g. wet, dried, sterilised and unsterilised and sometimes spent a considerable time in transit. Soils varied in cellular fraction organic matter content, some were obviously sieved prior to postage while others contained significant quantities of large vegetative detritus. Samples were also taken at different times of the year and seasonal and climatic factors may have influenced the values subsequently obtained by analysis.
B King, G Mowe


Decay patterns observed in butylene oxide modified ponderosa pine attacked by Fomitopsis pinicola
1983 - IRG/WP 1183
Small blocks of ponderosa pine chemically modified by butylene oxide to three different weight percent gains (WPG) were decayed for 2 months with the brown rot fungus Fomitopsis pinicola. Wood substance loss and the type of decay pattern recognised were fairly similar both for control and blocks treated to 8 and 15 WPG. No difference in attack was observed between radial or tangential walls in latewood tracheids. Microscopical examination of undecayed wood blocks treated to 23.7 WPG revealed numerous cracks in both the middle lamella regions of radial walls and in cell corners of latewood tracheids. The fungus had gained entry to the cracks, possibly via bordered pits and rays. Attack started from the cracks and progressed along the middle lamella and towards the cell lumen.
T Nilsson, R M Rowell


Chemical investigation of 23-year-old CDDC treated southern yellow pine
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30141
The effect of 23 years exterior exposure on CDDC treated southern yellow pine was evaluated by the application of solid state analytical instrumentation. Analytical methods including environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM),energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) were used to study CDDC treated wood. The results of this study support modification of CDDC in treated wood with time. Data from ICP and AAS analysis indicated that about 60% of copper and 81% of SDDC are removed from the 1/8"shell of the below ground portion of the stakes after 23 year field exposure. The molar ratio of SDDC to copper for freshly treated southern yellow pine is 2 while it is reduced to 1 after 23 years field exposure. ESEM micrographs and EDXA data confirm the presence of solids rich in copper and sulfur similar to that of CDDC in freshly treated samples. XRD patterns suggest some modifications in the CDDC solids remaining in wood after 23 years.
D P Kamdem, C R McIntyre


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