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Growth of two selected sapstain fungi and one mould on chitosan amended nutrient medium
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10466
In vitro studies were undertaken to investigate the effect of chitosan on growth of Leptographium procerum, Sphaeropsis sapinea and Trichoderma harzianum. Chitosan was tested at three molecular weight (MW) ranges and different concentrations formulated as either a powdered suspension or as a solution. The results generally showed that low MW chitosan produced a greater inhibitory effect on growt...
C Chittenden, R N Wakeling, B Kreber

In vitro studies on the effect of chitosan on mycelial growth and spore germination of decay fungi, moulds and staining fungi
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10507
The effect of solubilised, low molecular weight chitosan on established mycelial growth of a range of decay fungi, moulds and staining fungi was investigated using nutrient medium amended with different concentrations of chitosan that ranged from 0.1 to 0.4% weight per volume (%w/v). Also, spore germination of Trichoderma harzianum and Leptographium procerum was examined on chitosan amended nutrie...
C Chittenden, B Kreber, N McDowell, T Singh

Remediation of CCA-treated wood by chitin and chitosan
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50229
Chitin and chitosan are naturally abundant biopolymers which are interest of to research concerning the sorption of metal ions since the amine and hydroxyl groups on their chemical structures act as chelation sites for metal ions. This study evaluated the removal of copper, chromium, and arsenic elements from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood via biosorption by chitin and chitosan. Expo...
S N Kartal, Y Imamura

Chitosan for wood protection - state of the art
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30378
The aim of this paper was to give a state of the art description of chitosan as a wood protecting agent. Chitosan is a metal free natural compound derived from crustacean shells and is under evaluation as an environmentally benign wood protecting agent. Information from journals states that chitosan may act both fungistatically and at higher concentrations, as fungitoxic, but the mode of action is...
M Eikenes, G Alfredsen, E Larnøy, H Militz, B Kreber, C Chittenden

Solution stability and Mechanical properties of Chitosan treated Pine
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30377
During the last years the research on chitosan as a wood preservative has been enhanced. Up to now, most of the research has been applied to the anti-fungal properties of chitosan, and no research was conducted on the solution stability of chitosan solutions in repeated trials by impregnation of wood, or on the mechanical properties of chitosan-treated wood. In this paper, the stability of high- a...
E Larnøy, M Eikenes, H Militz

The effect of chitosan on the growth and physiology of two wood inhabiting fungi
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10590
The effect of chitosan on the wood inhabiting fungi Sphaeropsis sapinea and Trichoderma harzianum was evaluated at cellular level. Increasing concentrations of chitosan caused an increase in the amount of peroxide in cultures of S. sapinea, which was accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in superoxide. The same effect was not observed in T. harzianum. The growth of both fungi was inhibited when h...
D Vesentini, T Singh

Effect of chitosan on the morphology and ultrastructure of two wood inhabiting fungi
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10606
An investigation was undertaken to compare the antifungal effects caused by chitosan against two selected wood degrading fungi Sphaeropsis sapinea and Trichoderma harzianum on their growth, morphological and ultra-structural characteristics, using differential interference microscopy, epifluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The effect of chitosan on fungal morphology was ...
T Singh, A P Singh, G Daniel

Efficacy of chitosan in combination with GRAS (Generally Recognised As Safe) compounds as a potential wood preservative
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30414
In vitro studies were undertaken to evaluate the synergy between chitosan and selected GRAS (Generally Recognised As Safe) compounds against two sapstain fungi Sphaeropsis sapinea and Leptographium procerum. Bioassays performed on nutrient medium suggested that some of the GRAS compounds tested including sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and ascorbic acid had a synergistic effect when combined w...
C Chittenden, K Thämelt, T Singh

In vitro evaluation of an integrated approach using Trichoderma harzianum and chitosan for the control of sapstain
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10659
In vitro assays were undertaken to evaluate the control of two sapstain fungi, Leptographium procerum and Sphaeropsis sapinea by a combination of chitosan or chitosan oligomer (CODP-14) and a naturally mutated strain of Trichoderma harzianum. Spore germination and hyphal growth of the test fungi were assessed on media amended with chitosan or chitosan oligomer with and without T. harzianum using ...
C Chittenden, T Singh

Antifungal activity of different molecular weights of a biopolymer chitosan against wood decay fungi
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30456
In recent years chitosan has been investigated as a natural polymer for wood preservation against fungal decay. From an environmental point of view, chitosan seems to possess a potential approaches as wood protecting agent. In this study, three different molecular weights of chitosan compounds (with approximately the same degree of deacetylation 83 ± 2 %) were evaluated as in vitro and in vivo as...
A S O Mohareb, M E I Badawy

Mold-resistance Effect of Bamboo Wood Treated with CCC-organic Complexes
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30514
Mold resistant effect of CCA, ACQ, CuAz, CCC and the compound of CCC and propiconazole were researched on bamboo wood of Phyllostachys pubescens were reported in this paper. Results showed that all of the test fungicides could protect bamboo wood better from Penicillam citrinum than from Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus niger. The complex of CCC and propiconazole had the best resisting effect on...
Sun Fangli, Yang Le, Chen Anliang, Bao Binfu, Li Qiao

Characterisation and evaluation of various chitosan oligomers, and decay resistance
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30562
Chitosan, a polymer of D-glucosamine, is known for its antimicrobial activity. However, the physicochemical properties of chitosan depend upon three principal factors, i.e. source of raw material, molecular weight and degree of deacetylation. Here, we report synthesis and characterization of chitosan oligomers prepared by deaminative depolymerization of chitosan (s) obtained from Sigma Aldrich and...
I Hussain, C Chittenden, T Singh

Novel microscopic approaches to visualise chitosan within impregnated wood
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20485
Chitosan, a deacetylated product of an abundant naturally occurring biopolymer chitin, has been used in a range of applications, particularly in food and health areas, as an antimicrobial agent. In the work reported here Pinus radiata wood was impregnated with chitosan as an environmentally compatible organic biocide. It is important to understand micro-distribution of bioprotectants in impregnate...
A Singh, T Singh

Analysis of hindgut bacterial phyla frequency and diversity in subterranean termites exposed to chitosan-treated wood
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10882
The termite hindgut contains a microbial community that symbiotically aids in digestion of lignocellulosic materials. For better understanding of the dynamics of the bacteria-termite relationship, a species survey of bacterial hindgut microbes in subterranean termites (Reticulitermes flavipes: Kollar) collected from Louisville, Mississippi was performed after exposure to chitosan-treated and contr...
O Raji, J D Tang, T Telmadarrehei, D Jeremic

Evaluation of the efficacy of silver nanoparticles and chitosan oligomer composites as poplar wood protective treatments against termites
2023 - IRG/WP 23-40963
Populus × euramericana ‘I-214’ (poplar) is a fast-growing species widely distributed throughout the world, and in the Castile-Leon region of Spain it accounts for more than 50% of all plantations. Its wood is becoming increasingly appreciated, yet its low durability against xylophagous agents —termites being one of the most aggressive and destructive in warm climates— continues to be a li...
E Spavento, M T Troya, M Casado-Sanz, J Martín-Gil, P Matín-Ramos, L Robertson, L Acuña-Rello

Time-lapse evaluation of Aureobasidium pullulans growth on selected lignin derivatives and chitosan
2024 - IRG/WP 24-11032
Wood, often referred to as the “building material of the 21st century”, has gained recognition as an attractive alternative to several traditional building solutions. To enlarge the application of wood, several properties including biotic and abiotic degradation resistance need to be improved. Consequently, new solutions are available on the market that ensure expected properties and functiona...
Gubensek, F Poohphajai, A Tosic, K Butina Ogorelek, W Pajerski, A Cernosa, V Hribljan, A Sandak