Your search resulted in 1130 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
The leaching of copper, chrome and arsenate from CCA-impregnated poles stored for ten years in running water
1978 - IRG/WP 3122
There is no evidence to indicate that the chromium and copper components are leached from the outermost 5 mm of sapwood in poles impregnated with Boliden K33 and Tanalith C and stored in running water for ten years. The arsenic component, however, seems to be leached out during the first few months to an extent of about 20% of the initial amount. The leaching time is dependent on the preservative ...
F G Evans
A laboratory soil-block decay evaluation of plywoods edge-treated with preservatives
1982 - IRG/WP 2174
Preservative-treated plywood used under conditions or severe decay hazard frequently has its original, or cut edges, protected by the application of a field-cut preservative. This study uses a laboratory test method to compare the efficacy of four commercial preservative treatments against two commonly occurring brown-rot fungi. The results are not meant to indicate the service life of such treate...
R S Smith, A Byrne
Effect of treatment process on performance of copper-chrome-arsenate. Part 2: Field stake tests
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40046
Pinus radiata sapwood stakes 20 x 20 x 400 mm³ were treated with CCA Type C using a range of concentrations and three treatment processes; Bethell, Lowry and Rueping. Preservative retention was determined by chemical analysis of treated material. Following fixation stakes were installed in a randomised plot in the Whaka graveyard located on the FRI campus. Stakes were inspected at yearly interval...
M E Hedley, J Anderson, J B Foster, B E Patterson
Preliminary studies on cellulase production by selected Basidiomycetes and the effect of copper-chrome-arsenate on these enzymes
1980 - IRG/WP 1122
The growth of wood-destroying fungi on ligno-cellulosic materials depends on the production of many enzymes, of which probably the most important is the multi component cellulase system. Within this system, at least three different kinds of enzym are believed to be involved in crystalline cellulose decomposition. These are endo-1,4-glucanase, exo-1,4-ß glucanase and ß-glucosidase. Most of the re...
Effectiveness of copper/chromium salts as wood preservatives against Limnoria tripunctata Menzies in laboratory tests
1977 - IRG/WP 431
During the last joint meeting of IRG and COIPM a co-operative programme of tests with copper/chromium salts as wood preservatives against marine borers was discussed and agreed. In this connection the results of a laboratory test in the BAM with Limnoria tripunctata Menzies will be of interest. But as the respective paper is written in German (H. Kühne; G. Becker: Laboratoriumsversuche über die ...
Safe application of copper-chrome-arsenate preservatives
1975 - IRG/WP 377
All wood preservatives contain biologically active substances and must, by design, be in some measure toxic to man. There is nothing fundamentally difficult, however, about using a wood preservative with complete safety. It depends on knowing the risks to health and/or the environment, which the preservative may present, and planning application accordingly. In this paper we examine these and othe...
I N Stalker, P B Cornwell
Relative performance of copper/chrome/boron (CCB) and copper/chrome/arsenate (CCA) in ground contact
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3694
The performance of four retentions each of an oxide CCA formulation and a salt formulation of CCB in radiata pine and European beech was compared after 18 years' field exposure. In radiata pine CCA oxide was more effective (4 failures out of 40) than CCB (9 failures out of 40). However, in European beech CCB was substantially more effective (22 failures) than CCA oxide (all failed). Analy...
M E Hedley
A survey of the incidence of decay in copper-chrome-arsenate treated trellis support posts used in horticulture in New Zealand
1984 - IRG/WP 1225
Copper-chrom-arsenate treated softwood posts used as trellis support structures in 5 major horticultural districts of New Zealand were systematically examined for presence of decay. Principal crops on properties examined were grapes and kiwifruit; a minority of properties grew hops, boysenberries, and dwarf apples. Occurrence and severity of decay were variable within specific age classes of posts...
M E Hedley, J A Drysdale
Effect of treatment process on performance of copper-chrome-arsenate. Part 1: Fungus cellar tests
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40045
Pinus radiata sapwood stakes 20 x 20 x 400 mm³ were treated with CCA Type C using a range of concentrations and three treatment processes; Bethell, Lowry and Rueping. Preservative retention was determined by chemical analysis of treated material. Following fixation, fungus cellar stakelets, 5 x 10 x 180 mm³ were cut from treated material and after leaching were exposed in unsterile soil beds in ...
M E Hedley, J Anderson, J B Foster, B E Patterson
Comparative performance of copper azole and copper-chrome-arsenate treated rubber wood in Australian, Malaysian and New Zealand tests sites
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30213
Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) has been used for non-structural products where appearance is important. It has rarely been used for structural uses where preservative treatment is required. In order to evaluate the in-ground durability of preservative-treated rubberwood, test stakes (20 x 20 x 500 mm3) were treated to four retentions of CCA and copper azole (Tanalith® E) and installed in test si...
J A Drysdale, M E Hedley, E Loh, L T Hong
The micro-distribution of copper/chrome/arsenate in Acer pseudoplatanus and Eucalyptus maculata
1973 - IRG/WP 319
The excellent field performance of copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) treated timber has been accepted for many years. The preservative loadings used in practice have been based on field trial results, backed by service tests. The performance of treated hardwoods in trials and practice indicated that provided the required loading and penetration could be achieved the performance would be good. Recent un...
D J Dickinson
The effects of pH on leaching of copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) from pressure-treated Kenyan-grown Eucalyptus saligna and Acacia mearnsii: Initial findings.
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30298
The effects of pH on leaching of CCA from pressure-treated Kenyan-grown Eucalyptus saligna and Acacia mearnsii were tested under laboratory conditions. Small samples of the two species (100mm x 30mm x 40mm) were smooth sawn from 8-year old trees to represent equal amounts of both sapwood and heartwood, air-dried to 12% moisture content, end-sealed, and pressure-treated at a commercial treatment p...
Above and Below-Ground Copper-Azole and Copper, Chrome Arsenate Depletion from Pinus radiata and Fagus sylvatica at Thirteen New Zealand & Australian Sites
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30460
The objective was to determine the significance of site on preservative depletion from Pinus radiata D. Don and Fagus sylvatica L. 20 x 20 x 500 mm field test stakes treated with a ground contact retention of copper amine plus tebuconazole (CuAz) and copper chrome arsenate (CCA) after approximately 5 years exposure to widely different soil and climate conditions. Site, wood species and their inter...
Can CCA be substituted as reference preservative?
2018 - IRG/WP 18-20641
While field testing of wood protective formulations remains probably the best method to find out the effective preservative concentration, the use of chrome-copper arsenate (CCA) as reference becomes debatable due to environmental and legislative reasons. This emerges from the European standardization bodies who have discussed reference alternatives that can omit the use of CCA. The present debate...
N Terziev, M Jebrane, P Larsson Brelid, N Morsing, P-O Flaete, P Torniainen, J S Kim, G Daniel
An investigation of the effects of pre-steaming on the treatment of sawn spruce timber with Celcure A, a copper-chrome-arsenic preservative
1981 - IRG/WP 3150
Difficulties in the treatment of spruce using standard vacuum/pressure techniques with both water-borne and organic solvent preservatives are well known. We have evaluated the influence of steaming on treatability with a waterborne CCA preservative....
C R Coggins
An introduction to environmental aspects of groundwater arsenic and CCA treated wood poles in Bangladesh
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50081
The environment comprises biosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere. Therefore, environmental science is a multi-disciplinary study, includes life sciences, physical sciences, chemical sciences, geology, geography, meteorology, forestry, agriculture, soil science, hydrology, ecology, public health, engineering etc. Tremendous industrial and mining activities, deforestation and population ...
A K Lahiry
X-ray analysis of selected anatomical structures in copper/chrome/arsenic treated wood
1973 - IRG/WP 320
Application of analytical electron microscopy to problems in wood preservation has been very limited. Indeed, less than ten workers appear to have published their results using the technique, and of these' only two papers deal with energy dispersion procedures in the scanning electron microscope; the others employ the more familiar wavelength dispersive methods of the electron probe....
Performance of chromated copper arsenate-treated aspen fence posts installed in Forintek's Eastern test plot from 1951 to 1963
1984 - IRG/WP 3272
Aspen poplar fence posts were pressure treated by the full cell process using three formulations of copper chrome arsenate wood preservative. A total of one hundred and fifty nine of the posts were installed in service in Forintek's Chalk River post plot from 1951 to 1962. During the 1982 general inspection of the post plot all 159 posts were still in service. A groundline inspection was ...
C D Ralph
A study of salt imbalances observed in recycled copper/chrome/arsenic preservative solutions in commercial practice
1987 - IRG/WP 3461
The study reported monitored tank solutions, sludge and other by-products using a standard CCA solution, when recycled. This recycling of the CCA solution is quite usual in between any commercial treatment schedules. Salt imbalances were observed and the possible reasons for such phenomena were studied. The paper discusses the procedure followed, the method of sampling the liquid after the charge ...
V R Sonti, S Sonti, B Chatterjee
Treatability of Siberian larch and spruce with chromated copper arsenate
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40060
Heartwood of Siberian larch (Larix gmelini) and spruce (Picea jezoensis) was pressure treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) Type B using a full cell process. Larch heartwood was somewhat difficult to treat than the spruce, although both species did not meet a minimum requirements of penetration and retention specified by the American Wood Preservers' Association (AWPA) for difficul...
Gyu-Hyeok Kim, Woo-Gue Jee, Jae-Jin Kim
Fungi associated with groundline soft rot decay in copper/chrome/arsenic treated heartwood utility poles of Malaysian hardwoods
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1567
Copper-chrome-arsenic treated heartwood from Malaysian hardwood utility poles in service for 8-23 y at two localities in the wet tropical Peninsula Malaysia were surveyed for soft rot in the ground-contact region. Soft rot decay was detected in all the poles. Isolation studies indicated the ability of a variety of microfungi and basidiomycetes to colonize treated heartwood. Most isolates exhibited...
A H H Wong, R B Pearce, S C Watkinson
Retention and distribution of copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) in pressurised sap-displaced UK grown spruce and pine
1986 - IRG/WP 3366
Increment cores were taken from UK grown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var. maritima Ait), Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong) Carr), and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst) distribution poles treated by pressurised sap-displacement using a 1.8% copper, chrome, arsenic (CCA) solution. Each increment core was sectioned radially and the copper, chrome, and arsenic ...
P D Evans, G M Smith, B King
The volatilization of arsenic on burning copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) treated wood
1978 - IRG/WP 3111
Small scale burning experiments are described involving copper-chrome-arsenic treated wood. Approximately 20 per cent of the arsenic was volatilised when the wood was burned in air but 60 per cent when burned in an oxygen-enriched atmosphere, this increase is attributed to an increase in combustion temperature. Although a small increase in arsenic evolution was found with an increased concentratio...
A-J Dobbs, C Grant
A Soil Bed Test of the Effect of CCA Penetration on the Performance of Hem-fir Plywood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30332
An accelerated decay test was set up to compare the performance of CCA-treated Western hemlock/amabilis fir plywood treated to meet the preserved wood foundation (PWF) retention standard with various patterns of preservative penetration. Short lengths of treated plywood and comparable untreated material were installed in a soil bed. After eleven years of exposure, the CCA treatments were all sou...
P I Morris, J K Ingram