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Preventing fungal attack of freshly sawn lumber using cinnamon extracts
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30432
The potential for using cinnamon oil as an anti-mold and stain compound was investigated on ponderosa pine sapwood. Cinnamon oil was highly effective when used in ethanol, but its activity declined when it was mixed with only water. Attempts to enhance water solubility with surfactants improved solution stability, but had no apparent effect on biological activity. Further studies with other co-solvents are planned
Shujun Li, C Freitag, J J Morrell


Antifungal activity of plant derived extracts against G. trabeum
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30433
While synthetic chemicals have provided excellent protection to woods used in adverse environments, the general public remains interested in naturally derived wood protectants. There are diverse arrays of possible candidates, but many of these compounds are not readily water soluble and efforts to render them soluble often reduce biological activity. In this report, we describe efforts to enhance water solubility of various plant extracts, while retaining activity against Gloeophyllum trabeum, a common wood decay fungus. The results suggest that polyvinylpyrrolidones have potential as co-solvents for many plant extracts.
M Maoz, I Weitz, M Blumenfeld, C Freitag, J J Morrell


Effect of cinnamon oil and clove oil against major fungi identified from surface of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis)
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30446
Antifungal activities of cinnamon oil and clove oil at ratio 1:1 and pure against major fungi found on surface of rubberwood (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Penicillium sp.) were investigated using the broth dilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the combined cinnamon and clove oils for these test moulds was determined to be 80 µL/mL which were less than or equal to the MIC of the pure oils. Antifungal activity of the combined cinnamon and clove oils at the MIC was further examined on rubberwood. It was found that all moulds on rubberwood were completely inhibited for at least 12 weeks under the storage condition at 30°C and 100%RH.
Narumol Matan, Nirundorn Matan


Potential synergy between natural product extracts for limiting fungal decay
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30495
Natural products often exhibit tremendous potential for inhibiting various microorganisms when they are tested in petri dish tests, but perform poorly when tested in vivo. The failures can often be attributed to a lack of broad spectrum activity against the range of organisms present in a natural environment. One method for overcoming this challenge is to use extracts from a number of sources with potentially different ranges of activity. In this report, we describe tests to assess the efficacy of an extra of an herbaceous Inula viscosa, either alone or in combination with cinnamon oil, thymol, or carvacol against selected wood inhabiting organisms. Inula viscosa had little effect on weight loss, but reducing the I. viscosa level and adding smaller amounts of the other extracts did appear to produce some synergy. However, further testing will be required to more clearly delineate the effects of the various extracts on fungal activity.
M Maoz, C Freitag, J J Morrell