Your search resulted in 185 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
An example of media response to perceived environmental problems with CCA-treated wood
1990 - IRG/WP 3564
A recent study suggested that CCA-treated wood exposed to acidic precipitation could lose significant amounts of copper chromium and arsenic resulting in loss of efficacy and possible environmental contamination. The study received wide newspaper and radio coverage in Canada, thereby heightening public concern about CCA use. Subsequent studies in our laboratory confirmed that the high losses were ...
P A Cooper
A Green and Novel Technology for Recovering Copper and Wood from Treated Waste - Part I
2015 - IRG/WP 15-50309
Preservative treatment of wood extends its service life. The US consumes about 70 million pounds of copper and produces about 7 billion board feet of treated wood annually. Burning and reusing CCA and copper treated wood wastes are disallowed by US EPA due to health and environmental concerns. Millions of pounds of copper and wood are disposed by landfill annually. The objective of this study was...
A Green and Novel Technology for Recovering Copper and Wood from Treated Wood Waste – Part II: Optimization, copper metal recovery, and process design
2017 - IRG/WP 17-50326
The US consumes 70 million pounds of copper and produces 580 million cubic feet treated wood annually. The EPA disallows burning and reusing treated wood waste due to health/environmental concerns. Vast quantities of copper and wood are landfilled. Two safe and low cost extraction systems, citric acid and ammonium citrate, were identified in Part I of this study. In Part II of the study, effects o...
S Chen, R Patel
Polyesterification of wood using sorbitol and citric acid under aqueous conditions
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40851
The aim of this research is to determine if the polyesterification of sorbitol and citric acid in wood has a future potential as a wood modification process. Pine wood was impregnated with an aqueous solution containing citric acid and sorbitol and was thereafter cured at 103, or 140°C for 18 hours. The dimensional stability and leaching resistance were studied for both modification temperatures....
E Larnøy, A Karaca, L R Gobakken, C A S Hill
Water interactions in wood polyesterified with sorbitol and citric acid
2020 - IRG/WP 20-40888
Polyesterifcation of wood with sorbitol and citric acid seems to be a promising chemical wood modification technique that is both low-cost and produced from bio-based chemicals. An interesting aspect of the modification is the interaction of water with the polyesterified wood since the relationship with moisture appears to be unique compared to other wood modification systems. This communication p...
G Beck, A Treu, E Larnøy
A summary of decay performance with citric acid and sorbitol modification
2020 - IRG/WP 20-40898
Application of wood-based products as construction materials is one piece of the big puzzle to mitigate climate change. Wood is susceptible to biological deterioration. Environmentally motivated legislation is making the use of biocides less attractive from a commercial perspective. Ideally, a wood modification technology should be of low cost, water based and make use of thermal curing. This rese...
G Alfredsen, E Larnøy, G Beck, J Biørnstad, L R Gobakken, C A S Hill, A Treu
Macro biological degradation of wood treated with sorbitol and citric acid – first results from marine environment and termite exposure
2020 - IRG/WP 20-40901
Most European wood species are rapidly and severely degraded in termite-infested areas and the marine environment. There is a need for new solutions, especially in the marine environment, since we lack wood preservatives approved for marine applications in Europe. Several wood modification systems show high resistance against both marine borers and subterranean termites. However, the existing comm...
A Treu, L Nunes, E Larnøy
Durability against fungal decay of sorbitol and citric acid (SorCA) modified wood
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40928
Most European-grown wood species are susceptible to biological degradation, specifically, they suffer from a poor resistance against wood-destroying fungi. Therefore, prior to outdoor exposure, wood has to be treated either by applying a protective coating on its surface or by full-volume impregnation with antifungal chemicals. However, due to environmental and health concerns, the most frequently...
K Kurkowiak, L Emmerich, H Militz
CIOL®-protection of wood – an update
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40932
Most commercial wood species from the northern European region are of low natural durability. Products from these wood species for outside applications need therefore protection to increase their service life. This protection should be free of biocides, come from renewable resource, have great performance and hold a low consumer price. A mixture of water, sorbitol and citric acid has the potential...
A Treu, E Larnøy, J Biørnstad
Synergistic effect of boron on Streptomyces rimosus metabolites in preventing conidial germination of sapstain and mold fungi
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1565
We evaluated the synergistic effect of boron (4% BAE solution of Tim-Bor or 4% boric acid) on Streptomyces rimosus metabolites in preventing spore germination of sapstain and mold fungi using plate bioassay, Southern yellow pine and sweetgum block tests, and green pine log sections: sapstain -- Ceratocystis coerulescens, Ceratocystis minor, and Aureobasidum pullulans; mold fungi -- Aspergillus nig...
S C Croan, T L Highley
A new concept of oxalic acid biosynthesis in physiology of copper-tolerant brown-rot fungi
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10394
Recently, a wide variety of roles of oxalic acid (oxalate) in wood decay systems have been receiving much attention. Copper tolerance of wood-rotting basidiomycetes has been believed to be due to the detoxification of copper wood preservatives by oxalate produced by these fungi. However, biochemical mechanism of oxalate biosynthesis in relation to physiology of wood-rotting fungi has not been eluc...
E Munir, T Hattori, M Shimada
Response of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Coptotermes formosanus) to Cellulose Insulation Treated with Boric Acid in Choice and No-Choice Tests.
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10532
The tunneling ability of the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki through a cellulose insulation material containing11.1% boric acid was tested in choice and no-choice bioassays. We examined tunneling behavior and mortality of termites exposed to treated and untreated insulation material in miniature simulated wall voids. In a choice test termites tunneled through untreat...
M E Mankowski, J K Grace
Boron treatments for the preservation of wood - A review of efficacy data for fungi and termites
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30037
Boron treatments have been used for many decades for protection of timber from biological attack and also as a fire retardant treatment. In recent years there has been an increased interest in boron treatments as an option for protection of structural timbers' e.g. timber framing used in termite risk areas. This paper reviews efficacy data for both fungi and termites relevant to this end-...
J A Drysdale
Preliminary results of investigations on screening test of chemical compounds suitable for the preservation of lignocellulosic materials against biodeterioration
1976 - IRG/WP 262
This paper investigates the possibilities of reducing the time needed for the determination of the effectiveness of chemical compounds from the point of view of their eventual application to lignocellulosic materials for preservation against decay and soft-rot....
K Lutomski, S S Neyman
Patent on the use of tannic acid and ferric chloride against marine borers, etc
1982 - IRG/WP 495
R Mitchell, T D Sleeter
The influence of boric acid on respiratory quotients and methane production of subterranean termites
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10136
The toxicity of boron compounds to subterranean termites (Reticulitermes lucifugus) was studied by analysing changes in the levels of oxygen uptake respiratory quotients and methane production. Termites were fed with filter paper treated at different levels of boric acid, the RQ was evaluated by constant volume manometry and the methane production by gas chromatography. Results are discussed in re...
L Nunes, D J Dickinson
Comparative investigations on the influence of wood seasoning, wood properties and temperature on the toxic values of wood preservatives against Hylotrupes egg larvae
1970 - IRG/WP 28
Comparative tests carried out at three institutes indicated the influence of kiln temperature, position of wood specimens in the cross sectional area and test temperature on the toxic values determined in accordance with DIN 52165 with egg larvae of the house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus L.). The preservatives applied were boric acid in distilled water and g-benzene-hexachloride dissolved i...
G Becker, T Hof, O Wälchli
Options for accelerated boron treatment: A practical review of alternatives
1985 - IRG/WP 3329
Boron wood preservatives are almost exclusively applied by momentary immersion and block diffusion storage. Alternative techniques are described which can be used to accelerate boron treatment. Diffusion coefficients have been derived to define the acceleration of diffusion with increasing temperature. Schedules are described for pressure impregnation of green timber, involving steam conditioning,...
P Vinden, T Fenton, K Nasheri
Movement of boron from fused boron rods implanted in Southern pine, Douglas fir, red oak, and white oak timbers
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30061
This paper reports the distribution of boron from fused boron rods installed into six-inch (15.2 cm) square timbers of Douglas-fir, Southern Pine, red oak and white oak exposed aboveground. The composition and size of rods was: sodium borate and sodium borate-copper oxide (8.5 x 100 mm²); sodium borate-copper, sodium borate and boric oxide-copper oxide (12 x 76 mm²). The boric acid equivalent wa...
T L Highley, L Ferge
A new approach to the maintenance problems of wooden railway sleepers
1986 - IRG/WP 3392
The microenvironment of wooden railway sleepers is being investigated to assess their condition to determine the necessary treatment, repair and replacement criteria. The research work involves the development of an integrity tester to determine the condition of sleepers, a remedial treatment of sleepers by selective application of boric acid and a synthetic repair system....
W Beauford, P I Morris.
Diffusion treatment plants (Latin America - Africa)
1974 - IRG/WP 333
B N Prasad
A field test with Benzotar, an industrial residue, as a wood preservative
1985 - IRG/WP 3349
Benzotar, a residue of production of benzoic acid, was tested in field as a wood preservative. Results, after 6.5 years of exposure, showed that this product presents properties that improve the performance of wood in ground contact. This paper describes these results and presents a discussion an some aspects of its potential utilization in Brazil....
S Milano, L R Silva
CCA fixation experiments. Part 2
1989 - IRG/WP 3505
CCA fixation in wood was measured by both squeezing solution from treated wood that had not been dried and analyzing the solution for copper, chromium and arsenic, as well as using a chromotropic acid test to detect the presence of chromium VI. Both methods provide useful information on the CCA fixation process and illustrate that chromium VI disappears as CCA becomes fixed within wood....
W S McNamara
Testing of alkylammonium compounds
1981 - IRG/WP 2152
Following laboratory soil block tests which showed that Bardac 20 possessed a fungicidal threshold similar to that of chromated copper arsenate, treated ponderosa pine sapwood stakes were installed in a field test site near Vancouver, Canada. Two years after installation all the stakes show signs of fungal degradation. Seven stakes have been removed from the test due to total loss of strength afte...
J N R Ruddick
In-situ pressure injection for preservation of rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis Muel Arg.)
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3688
Rubber wood is widely used for the manufacture of furniture, doors for housing and packing cases. However in an untreated condition it is highley susceptible to sapstain and decay fungi and borers. Its utility gets considerably reduced if the wood is not treated well in time. Preservative treatment has to be given within the period of felling and transport to prevent not only loss of structural pr...
H S Ananthapadmanabha, V R Sivaramakrishnan