IRG Documents Database and Compendium

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Wood in concrete. Summary of discussion at IRG 14, Surfers Paradise, Australia
1984 - IRG/WP 3264
The performance of untreated and preservative treated wood when placed in direct contact with concrete was considered in a discussion session at IRG 14. While published reports in this area are scarce, research is in progress internationally and a variety of practices are currently available to minimize any additional hazard posed by contact with concrete. This report summarizes the points raised ...
R J Murphy

Life cycle analysis of utility poles. A Swiss case study
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-05
Use of preservative-treated wood products faces increasing public and political pressure because of environmental concerns regarding the chemicals used to protect the wood. However, critics usually focus only on one single aspect of the whole life cycle of treated wood products, disregarding other environmental effects of timber utilization. To evaluate the ecological consequences of wooden utilit...
T Künniger, K Richter

A review of environmental emissions from building and construction materials in comparison with preserved wood
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-11
A review of the public domain literature concerning emissions to the environment from materials which are used in the construction of buildings (e.g. Concrete, Asphalt, Galvanised Steel), in comparison with preserved wood, and a review of the approaches taken by the construction sector in assessing the risk from environmental emissions, in comparison with the approaches taken by the wood preservat...
E F Baines

Comparative life cycle assessment of Swiss railroad sleepers
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50117
The results of an environmental LCA carried out on railway sleepers made of prestressed concrete, sectional steel and creosote impregnated beech as used on main lines of Switzerland's railways are presented. All extractions from and insertions into the environment which were connected with the manufacture, use and disposal of the different types of sleeper were inventoried and assessed, i...
T Künniger, K Richter

The practice of using concrete on wood piling for marine use in Thailand
1982 - IRG/WP 492
The practice of using concrete on wooden poles has been carried on in Thailand for a long time in pile-houses and pier constructions which have been situated in, or partly in the sea. In such instances, the hewed round and/or square-sawn heartwood poles of naturally durable timber species have been coated with concrete of about 5 to 10 cm or more in thickness, and to about 100 cm above the highest...
B Anuwongse

Prevention of Termite Tubing Over Non-Wood Construction Materials Using Glycol Borate
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30358
Glycol borates have been demonstrated to prevent termite tubing and attack of wood materials and are extensively used as termite preventative applications in new construction in the USA. This study evaluated the ability of such systems to prevent Formosan subterranean termite tubing over non-wood materials. Concrete was selected as a common inert construction material and tests were carried out ...
W R Smith, J D Lloyd

Alkaline building materials and controlled moisture conditions as causes for dry rot Serpula lacrymans growing only in houses
1985 - IRG/WP 1272
Dry rot Serpula lacrymans ( Fr.) S.F. Gray is commonly found in houses, though never with certainly in nature, like other wood destroying fungi which grow both indoors and outdoors. In investigating series of dry rot instances it was shown that this fungus is always found in covered places, close to a moisture source, the distance being from 0 a maximum of 600 cm. Owing to the dry rot has been abl...
J Bech-Andersen

Environmental consequences of various materials in utility poles - A life cycle analysis
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3726
A model for environmental life cycle analysis, LCA, has been created to compare environmental impact from transmission poles, made alternatively of concrete, steel, aluminium and pine wood treated with CCA type B or creosote. The main pollution sources and energy use are included in the LCA. One pole size, 12 meters long, is presented in the study, a so called "45 kV" pole. Poles of different mate...
M Erlandsson, K Ödeen, M-L Edlund

The effect of concrete embedment on CCA treated hardwood and softwood timbers
1985 - IRG/WP 3340
Small size stakes of Eucalyptus maculata and Pinus elliottii were treated with CCA to various retentions and embedded in concrete collars containing varying amounts of a fungicide additive. During the 30 month trial period stakes were removed after 12, 18, 24 and 30 months and assessed for residual strength. Stakes which showed significant strength reductions were microscopically examined for the ...
L E Leightley, G A Willoughby

Estudio comparativo entre postes de Eucalyptus saligna Smith, Pinus caribaea Morelet (pino macho) y Hormigón
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40436
As consequence of the Energy Revolution and the amplification of the communication networks, Cuba carries out significant expenditures of foreign currencies in the import of public service posts. It is presented in this work a synthesis of the current problem in Cuba of the public service posts (PSP), since as answer to the stocks of improvement of the national Electric System, the demand of this ...
C Sosa Suárez, I D Velázquez Viera, K Manzanares Ayala

Re-use of casting timber
2011 - IRG/WP 11-50283
Re-use of casting timber could be a way of saving timber resources, particularly in countries where most timber for construction purposes has to be imported. The objective of the present study was to investigate residual concrete on casting timber re-used five times. Moulds were made of sections of Norway spruce, untreated and treated with a casting oil and a wax formulation applied by a vacuum-pr...
I Johansson, S Breyne, H Egnell, J Jermer

Conclusions and Summary Report Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Marine Pilings
2013 - IRG/WP 13-50298
The Treated Wood Council has completed a quantitative evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with the national production, use, and disposition of treated wood, concrete, galvanized steel, and plastic marine piles using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodologies and following ISO 14044 standards. The results for treated wood piles are significant. • Less Energy & Resource Use: Tre...
AquAeTer, Inc.

Conclusions and Summary Report on an Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Utility Poles
2013 - IRG/WP 13-50299
The Treated Wood Council has completed a quantitative evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with the national production, use, and disposition of pentachlorophenol-treated wood, concrete, galvanized steel, and fiber-reinforced composite utility poles using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodologies and following ISO 14044 standards. The results for treated wood poles are significant. ...
AquAeTer, Inc.

Compatibility of Acetylated Wood and Wet Concrete
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40673
One of the newer commercial technologies to provide stability and durability to wood and wood composites is the process of acetylation (the reaction of acetic anhydride with wood). Wood is often used in contact with concrete, although only a very limited amount of species are suitable for this type of application because of durability issues. From this perspective durability class 1 timber such ...
R Rowell, C Lankveld, J Alexander

Solid Timber Bridges – Latest Developments
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40788
The technology of gluing in wood construction has evolved considerably in recent years. This has been shown especially in timber bridges that Glulam is now the main building material. A further development is the so-called block gluing, which provides a good basis for supporting structures. Numerous bridges, especially in central Europe, appeal by unique design and monolithic and solid construction. These structures base on two main developments: block lamination of glulam and the composite of timber and concrete to one structural system.
F Miebach

Aiming for eco-friendly log production and wooden construction!
2021 - IRG/WP 21-50365
In order to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to zero by 2050 in the fields of forest and forest products, it is necessary to promote appropriate management and renewal of planted forests, and development of wooden building materials and the wooden construction of mid-to-high-rise buildings with lower GHG emissions. Unless we also try to reduce the environmental loads other than GHG for such d...
N Hattori