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An evaluation method for less termite attack execution on thermal insulation for fundation walls
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20245
According to the results by the real scale Japanese building tests, the termite installation was observed at very little spaces between foundation and insulation. The termite penetration spaces between foundation and insulation on foundation systems in Japanese wooden houses were checked by the way of streaming speed of colored water. Because of difficulty for its execution, the parts of outside angles and reentrant angles in continuous foundation were more sensitive for the termite penetration. Special accessories of thermal insulation for these angles can be effective for lesser termite installation.
K Suzuki, Y Tanaka

IRG Foundation Fund Report
1985 - IRG/WP 5215
B Henningsson, H Friis-Hansen

Japanese wood preserving industry
1990 - IRG/WP 3596
Although a great amount of wood is in use in Japan, a little attention has been paid to the significance and importance of wood preservation. The fact reflects that only less than 0.5% of the total wood consumption is treated with wood preservatives today in the country. Over the 20 years before 1970, the annual volume of preservative treated (pressure treatment) wood was relatively at a stable level of approximately 500,000 m³. After the prominent peak of 709,000 m³ in 1968, 500,000 to 600,000 m³ of wood had been annually treated until 1980. In the 1980's the pace of production of preservative-treated wood gradually declined, down to 400,000 m³ in 1988. As for commodities treated with wood preservatives, poles and sleepers have been remarkably decreasing, and wood foundation sills which newly appeared on the market in the late 1960's became a major item. It is expected that new treated commodities will be accepted among Japanese people to stimulate the activity of wood preserving industry in Japan.
K Tsunoda

The Rubber Ruler: Continuous measurement of dimension changes in wood panels
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20033
A new application for a linear transducer called Rubber Ruler was developed. Rubber Ruler provides a simple and reliable method for continuous monitoring of dimension changes in wood panels. This paper presents the methodology. Results of priliminary experiments designed to simulate the movement in wood panels are also discussed.
Siew K Ho, P Vinden, P Kho

IRG Foundation Fund Report
1984 - IRG/WP 5197
B Henningsson

IRG Foundation Fund Report for 1979
1980 - IRG/WP 97
L Borup, B Henningsson

Experimental real building evaluation of termite attack - Effect of the space between the mat foundation and the thermal insulation
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10374
For evaluating the termite resistance of the real house foundation, specially in the case of thermal insulation systems for foundation walls, thermal insulation which can be attacked by termite, must be evaluate. Because of the difficulty of the water penetration of thermal insulation, the water barrier systems can be protected against termite attacks, in our opinions. The observation on the process of the penetration by termites and ones of a traditional barrier system against termites were evaluate by the real building scale test method.
K Suzuki, K Hagio, Y Tanaka

IRG Fundation Fund Report for 1987
1988 - IRG/WP 5321
B Henningsson, H Friis-Hansen

IRG Foundation Fund Report for the period 1 January to 31 December 1988
1989 - IRG/WP 5344
B Henningsson, H Friis-Hansen

IRG Foundation Fund Report 1976-1978
1979 - IRG/WP 90
L Borup, B Henningsson

IRG Foundation Fund Report for 1985
1986 - IRG/WP 5248
B Henningsson, H Friis-Hansen

Leaching tests - A paper for discussion
1973 - IRG/WP 221
J W W Morgan

IRG Foundation Fund Report 1981
1982 - IRG/WP 5157
L Borup, B Henningsson

IRG Foundation Fund Report for 1986
1987 - IRG/WP 5281
B Henningsson, H Friis-Hansen

IRG Foundation Fund Report for 1981
1981 - IRG/WP 5127
L Borup, B Henningsson

Studies on the infesting behaviour of the Formosan termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and its physical control
1983 - IRG/WP 1174
An outline of termite damage to buildings in Japanese National Railways, wood-infesting behavior, attacked traces in PVC-sheathed cables by termites, detection method of termites and the physical control method of the Formosan termite are given in the present paper.
K Yamano

IRG Foundation Fund Report for 1982
1983 - IRG/WP 5176
L Borup, B Henningsson

A Long-term Observation of Termite Activity in The Nest by Continuous Acoustic Emission (AE) Monitoring
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20280
In order to evaluate the influence of temperature on the termite activity, acoustic emission (AE) monitoring was applied to two nests of Coptotermes formosanus SHIRAKI; a nest in the stem of a standing tree and a nest in the underground of a wooden house, respectively. Temperature change in and around the nests were continuously measured for about one year using thermocouples at four points; the centre of the nest, the periphery of the nest, the environment around the nest, and the underground, respectively. AEs were detected at the centre of nest and underneath the nest sphere by using wave-guides inserted into the nest of the standing tree and at the centre of nest. AEs were also detected at the wooden construction member near the nest in the wooden house. The termites in the nests were periodically stimulated by rotating, drawing and sticking the wave-guides. The temperatures in the both nests varied from 5 to 35 °C during the experiment. The highest and the lowest temperatures were recorded in August and February, respectively. The highest AEs event rate was recorded when the temperature of the nest in the tree was between 30 and 35 °C and when the temperature of the nest under the house was above 25 °C. In winter, when the nest temperature was below 10 °C, no significant numbers of AE were detected. These findings clearly show that AE generation has a close relation to the termite activities, which are influenced by the temperature in the nest.
Y Yanase, Y Fujii, S Okumura, T Yoshimura, Y Imamura

Longterm monitoring of termite activity on multiple feeding sites: a laboratory method intended for the determination of attractant/repellent properties of wood preservatives and baits
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20225
A method is introduced allowing the continuous monitoring of the activity of a small laboratory termite- colony at 8 different feeding sites simultaneously. The test assembly consists of a small central polycarbonate-tube containing a colonie of Reticulitermes santonensis (de Feytaud) beeing connected with 8 external feeding sites by small glass-capillaries. The termites passing through the glass capillaries to and from the feeding sites are interrupting an infrared light-barrier. Each signal from the light-barriers is conditioned and fed to a PC-based signal-recognition-, monitoring- and storage-system. First results show that a colony of 500 individuals of Reticulitermes santonensis (de Feytaud) will need approx. 2 to 3 weeks for establishing a new, full functional hierarchy. A well established Reticulitermes- colony will show 80 to 100 passings per minute to and from the eight feeding sites. The activity of Reticulitermes santonensis (de Feytaud) shows no circadian activity rhythmic.
M Pallaske, E Graf, H Takiuchi

Report on the co-operative leaching tests
1975 - IRG/WP 246
The Work reported here was undertaken at the request of CEN to see (1) whether the standard beaker leaching method under discussion at CEN, and based on the German DIN could be made less labour intensive; and (2) whether the leaching parameters could be expressed in more general terms so that alternative procedures could be used. A co-operative experiment was set up in which the amount of leaching of copper and chromium from treated pine sapwood blocks was studied using modifications of the German DIN procedure whilst keeping certain operational parameters constant.
J W W Morgan

Aspects of leaching
1976 - IRG/WP 267
With respect to Document No: IRG/WP/246, and the recommendation that an economic leaching test can be based on a non-changing volume of water (500 ml/block), I would like to relate our experiences with this suggestion. Following 14 days of continuous immersion in de-ionized water it was found that blocks treated with moderate and above concentrations of a preservative gave no problems, but those blocks either having low chemical treatments or none (controls) produced a very healthy growth of slimy fungi and bacteria. Obviously these micro-organisms could be affecting the wood structure, should you wish to subsequently decay the blocks for biological toxicity evaluation. Also the micro-organisms could be degrading or otherwise modifying the preservative under evaluation. Under the old methods of "beaker leaching", with the water being changed daily, the growth of micro-organisms does not appear to be a problem. Any sugars leaching out into the water are removed within 24 hours and therefore the environment does not support their growth. The proposed method may be acceptable for leaching blocks containing a high retention of preservative (as reported in the paper), but as a method generally applicable to a concentration range of retentions, it does not seem to be acceptable. Obviously toxic agents could be added to the leaching water to prevent the growth of such micro-organisms, but this would have unpredictable effects on the wood-preservative-fungus complex under examination. I feel that this situation should be brought to the attention of the members of the IRG Working Group, since a non-biologist might not be aware of what has happened to his test and therefore present erroneous results.
R S Smith

Enhanced removal of CCA from treated wood by Bacillus licheniformis in continuous culture
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50083
A gram positive, spore-forming bacterium, which was isolated from a 20-year-old Forest Service test plot of CCA-treated 2 x 4's in Madison, WI., demonstrated the ability to release copper, chromium, and arsenic from CCA-treated wood in liquid culture. CCA-treated sawdust was exposed to this organism, which has been presumptively identified as Bacillus licheniformis. Analysis of the sawdust by atomic absorption spectroscopy revealed 80% reduction in copper and 43% reduction in arsenic when the sawdust was exposed to B. licheniformis in a standard mixed culture for 10 d compared to an untreated control. Enhanced release of metals was demonstrated when CCA-treated sawdust was exposed to the bacterium under continuous culture conditions in a chemostat. Steady-state growth of the bacterium under continuous culture conditions released 93% copper, 45% arsenic, and 6% chromium by weight from the sawdust. Exposure of CCA-treated wood to this isolate of B. licheniformis removed significant amounts of copper and arsenic from the wood.
C A Clausen

Decay rates and strength and stiffness loss in foundation beams
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1563
The TNO Centre for Timber Research has executed an extensive research programme into the rate of decay in foundation beams, as a result of lowering of ground water tables. The aim of the research was to develop a method, predicting the decrease in strength and stiffness in beams, due to wood decay during drytime of foundation beams. With the calculated extremes in decay, the damage caused by local settlements of the foundation can be estimated. Though this research deals with untreated timber only, the results yield information which may be used for methods of testing treated timber in ground contact. From 1987 to 1989 literature studies and field inspections have been evaluated, and the most important influencing factors were described. In the following laboratory research the aim was, to quantify the influence of these factors (wood species, dimensions, age, soil wetness, temperature, fluctuation of water) on the decay rate. The rate of decay was measured by mass loss after one year of exposure in a wet but aerated soil, using pine and spruce in different dimensions. For part of the specimens, decrease in strength properties was also measured. Results indicate, that for timber with high moisture contents (over 80%), the decay type is dominated by softrot (95%) and is mainly determined by the surface/volume ratio. The relation between mass loss and loss of strength and stiffness was determined. These results will be used for calculating the deformation of foundation.
P Esser, H S Buitenkamp

Developments in wood preservation
1976 - IRG/WP 366
The purpose of this paper is to comment very briefly upon recent developments in wood preservation so that members of the Working Group have a basic knowledge of the activities in other countries. The last paper was prepared in 1974 and this paper refers to developments since that time. The last edition of this paper was welcomed by members of IRG. Many members wrote to the author to express their interest and to ask for further information but, unfortunately, very few members have contributed Information. As a result this present paper has been prepared largely from information assembled by Penarth Research Centre and its scope is naturally restricted as a result. If this regular paper on recent developments is to be a useful contribution to the work of IRG, it is necessary for all members to contribute their comments regularly so that they can be incorporated briefly in this review. Some members have stated that they have nothing to contribute from their own work but it is equally important that they should report developments by other workers in their own countries, either by submitting a comment themselves or asking the research organisation involved to write direct to the author of this paper.
B A Richardson

Evaluating the Process of ACQ-Treated Woods with TGAand CEM Analysis
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20374
To provide an understanding of the fundamental thermal behaviour and the disposal-end products of ACQ-treated woods, this study is comprised of two categories of examination. The first is related to the use of TGA under different thermal decomposition conditions (nitrogen or air, and 5 or 40 oC/min), and the use of EDX to examine certain residual elements of the char. The second applies the CEM techniques to evaluate the emission gas concentrations of O2 and CO2 concentration, the emission content (CO, SO2, NOx), and the emission gases temperature were measured using a Flue-gas Analyzer from the exit of a 45° flammability testing cabinet as specified in the continuous emission monitoring. The results of the TGA showed that the char of ACQ-treated woods at air atmosphere were less than that at nitrogen, and the pyrolysis temperature for the heating rate of 5 oC/min was lower than that of 40 oC/min, but both them were with the same amount of char. The results of the EDX analysis of ACQ-treated woods obtained that the main element is C (77.89 %), and that the relative proportion of Cu was 2.67 %. The results of CEM indicated that the emission gas temperature of ACQ-treated woods rise rapidly up to about 250 oC and then slowed down in the temperature range of 200 oC shown as a Plateau curve. The concentration of O2 decreased from 20.7 % to about 17 % linearly, and on the contrary the concentration of CO2 increased from 0.2 % to about 2.5%. Both O2 and CO2 then approached the shape of a Plateau curve until the end of the combustion time, as well as had a close relationship during combustion. For the maximum value of the emission content during the combustion, the emission quantity of CO was about 160 ppm. The SO2 emitted gas was zero. The peak for NOx gas was 25 ppm.
Han Chien Lin, Tsang-Chyi Shiah, Jung Ting Tsai

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