Your search resulted in 536 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
A Green and Novel Technology for Recovering Copper and Wood from Treated Waste - Part I
2015 - IRG/WP 15-50309
Preservative treatment of wood extends its service life. The US consumes about 70 million pounds of copper and produces about 7 billion board feet of treated wood annually. Burning and reusing CCA and copper treated wood wastes are disallowed by US EPA due to health and environmental concerns. Millions of pounds of copper and wood are disposed by landfill annually. The objective of this study was...
Oxalic acid production of fifteen brown-rot fungi in copper citrate- treated southern yellow pine
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10388
Non-arsenical copper-based wood preservatives have grown in number since the 1980's as a response to environmental concerns posed by arsenicals. Interest in copper tolerant decay fungi has increased accordingly. Oxalic acid (OA) production by brown-rot fungi has been proposed as one mechanism of copper tolerance. Fifteen brown-rot fungi representing the genera Postia, Wolfiporia, Serpula,...
F Green III, C A Clausen
Fungicidal activity of some new water borne copper octanoate based formulations
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30198
Four new water borne formulations for preservation of wood were prepared: the composition of Cu(II) octanoate, 2-aminoethanol (ethanolamine) and water; the composition of complex of Cu(II) octanoate with nicotinamide, 2-aminoethanol and water; the one of Cu(II) octanoate, organic boron complex, 2-aminoethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide and water and finally, the mixture of Cu(II) octanoate, diazene, 2-am...
M Petric, M Pavlic, F Pohleven, P Segedin, B Kozlevcar, S Polanc, B Stefane, R Lenarsic
Serpula lacrymans, The Dry Rot Fungus and its Tolerance towards Copper-based Wood Preservatives
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10555
Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a suspicion about tolerance toward cop...
A C Steenkjær Hastrup, F Green III, C A Clausen, B Jensen
A comparison of the leaching resistance of diammine-copper complexes and copper carbonate precipitated in wood
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30158
Previous studies have shown that during treatment of wood with ammoniacal copper solutions, both simple copper precipitates and diammine-copper complexes are formed. The objective of the present study is to determine the relative importance of both forms of copper, on such aspects as preservative leachability and biological performance. In the current experiment, the leachability of copper carbona...
Xiao Jiang, J N R Ruddick
Performance of Paraserianthus falcataria treated with ACZA, ACQ, CC or CCA and exposed in Krishnapatnam harbour, India
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30382
Paraserianthus falcataria (=Albizia falcataria) treated to two retentions with ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA), ammoniacal copper quaternary (ACQ), ammoniacal copper citrate (CC) and chromated copper arsenate (CCA) was assessed over 34 months in a tropical marine waters at Krishnapatnam harbour on the east coast of India. ACZA treatment showed comparatively better resistance than CCA, ACQ a...
B Tarakanadha, K S Rao, J J Morrell
Efficacy of copper:propiconazole and copper:citrate systems in ground contact exposure at a site with copper tolerant fungi
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30305
Southern yellow pine (SYP) sapwood field stakes were treated with copper alone (ammoniacal copper carbonate, ACC) at four levels, or three levels of copper (1.6, 3.2, or 6.4 kgm-3, as CuO), air-dried, then re-treated with propiconazole in a light organic solvent at 0.07, 0.3, or 0.7 kgm-3 retentions. In a separate study, SYP field stakes were treated with three levels of ACC to give 6.7, 13.4 or ...
D D Nicholas, T Schultz
Dimensional stabilization and decay resistance of wood treated with brown-rotted lignin and copper sulfate
1990 - IRG/WP 3608
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential usefulness of brown-rotted lignin (BRL) as a dimensional stabilization and copper complexing agent for wood treatment. For dimensional stabilization, aqueous solutions of the lignin extract were combined with either copper sulfate, glyoxal or other additives. Anti-shrink efficiency (ASE) values as high as 42% were obtained with wood treated...
L Jin, D D Nicholas, T Schultz
Laboratory Evaluation and Field Trial of Chlorothalonil and Copper-based Preservatives and Leaching Performance of Copper in Copper Treated Wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30279
Soil block test and field trial of some Chinese plantation wood species pine and poplar treated with chlorothalonil formulations and copper-based preservatives such as ACQ-B and copper citrate (CC) were conducted. The results of soil block test indicated that chlorothalonil formulations and ACQ-B as well as CC are very effective for controlling the 2 fungi species Corious versicolor and Poria plac...
Mingliang Jiang, Ping Wang, Chungen Piao, Zhaobang Li, Quan Lu, Lei Liu
Biological test, AAS and EPR study of copper monoethanolamine complex with quaternary ammonium compounds as a wood preservative
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30321
Experiments were carried out on the wood preservative with a strong fungicidal activity based on Cu(II) carbonate, 2-aminoethanol (monoethanolamine) and quaternary ammonium compound (QAC). The object of the performed investigations was sapwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) treated with Cu-EA-QAC formulation. Mycological investigations were carried out according to EN 113 and EN 84 standards....
B Mazela, I Polus, S K Hoffmann, J Goslar
Formation and Structure of Metal Azole Complexes
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30469
Divalent copper and zinc complexes with metal:azole ratio 1:2 were readily formed at room temperature with the fungicides tebuconazole and propiconazole. The structure of copper and zinc tebuconazole acetate and zinc cis-propiconazole chloride were examined by X-ray crystallography. In copper tebuconazole acetate, the copper atom lies on a crystallographic inversion centre and is coordinated to tw...
P D Evans, K J Schmalzl, C M Forsyth, G D Fallon, S Schmid, B Bendixen, S Heimdal
Mold-resistance Effect of Bamboo Wood Treated with CCC-organic Complexes
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30514
Mold resistant effect of CCA, ACQ, CuAz, CCC and the compound of CCC and propiconazole were researched on bamboo wood of Phyllostachys pubescens were reported in this paper. Results showed that all of the test fungicides could protect bamboo wood better from Penicillam citrinum than from Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus niger. The complex of CCC and propiconazole had the best resisting effect on...
Sun Fangli, Yang Le, Chen Anliang, Bao Binfu, Li Qiao
Termite resistance of copper-based preservative supplemented aspen strandboards
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30594
Termite resistance of aspen strandboards treated with various copper-based preservative systems was evaluated in field exposure tests. Five copper-based chemicals or zinc borate were blended into aspen furnish at three retention levels prior to pressing. Tebuconazole or 4,5-dichloro-2-N-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOI) were added as co-biocides to selected copper-based treatments. Sections from...
J J Morrell, C Vidrine, A Preston, L Jin
A Green and Novel Technology for Recovering Copper and Wood from Treated Wood Waste – Part II: Optimization, copper metal recovery, and process design
2017 - IRG/WP 17-50326
The US consumes 70 million pounds of copper and produces 580 million cubic feet treated wood annually. The EPA disallows burning and reusing treated wood waste due to health/environmental concerns. Vast quantities of copper and wood are landfilled. Two safe and low cost extraction systems, citric acid and ammonium citrate, were identified in Part I of this study. In Part II of the study, effects o...
S Chen, R Patel
Preliminary study of the fungicidal and structural variability in copper naphthenates and naphthenic acids
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30114
Copper naphthenates, an oil-borne wood preservative listed by the American Wood-Preservers' Association (AWPA), is manufactured by complexing copper(II) with naphthenic acids. Prior to AWPA listing as a wood preservative, field experiments showed that copper naphthenates generally had good stability and were active against wood-destroying organisms. Recently, however, there have been reports ...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, L L Ingram Jr, T H Fisher
Sequestration of copper ions by the extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) of two wood rotting basidiomycetes
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10533
The radial growth rate of colonies originating from either whole or ECMM-free inocula of Coriolus versicolor was investigated. The presence of ECMM allowed colonies to maintain higher growth rates than those form ECMM-free inocula up to 2 mM CuSO4 in the medium. The ECMM of C. versicolor and G. trabeum was able to reduce the diffusion of copper ions in solution. The ‘raw’ ECMM of both fungi ha...
D Vesentini, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy
Influence of different fixation and ageing procedures on the leaching behaviour of copper from selected wood preservatives in laboratory trials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20264
The paper focuses on the role of different parameters, such as fixation, sample size, wood species, and leaching in internationally standardized ageing procedures for wood preservatives from Europe, Japan and the United States. The leaching protocols used were EN 84, JIS K 1571 and AWPA E11 protocols. The wood species were Scots pine, Sugi and Southern Yellow Pine respectively. Three types of com...
J Habicht, D Häntzschel, J Wittenzellner
International collaborative laboratory comparison of two wood preservatives against subterranean termites: Third update and first report
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10174
At the 24th annual meeting of IRG in Orlando, USA, in May 1993 an international subterranean termite laboratory bioassay to compare the various preferred termite protocols used by IRG termitologists was initiated. The author was nominated to co-ordinate this comparative laboratory evaluation of two wood preservatives, copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) and copper naphthenate (Cu-Na) against the subterran...
J R J French
Types of decay observed in CCA-treated pine posts in horticultural situations in New Zealand
1984 - IRG/WP 1226
The few reported failures of 11-12-year-old horticultural posts in New Zealand in 1982 were caused by brown-rot. A subsequent survey of CCA-treated posts in all the major horticultural areas has revealed decay of many posts. A microscopic examination of these posts has shown decay by brown-rot, white-rot, soft-rot and bacteria. Several types of bacterial decay have been observed....
J A Drysdale, M E Hedley
An investigation of the effects of pre-steaming on the treatment of sawn spruce timber with Celcure A, a copper-chrome-arsenic preservative
1981 - IRG/WP 3150
Difficulties in the treatment of spruce using standard vacuum/pressure techniques with both water-borne and organic solvent preservatives are well known. We have evaluated the influence of steaming on treatability with a waterborne CCA preservative....
C R Coggins
Electrodialytic remediation of creosote and CCA treated timber wastes
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50190
There is a growing concern about the environmental issue of impregnated timber waste management, since an increase in the amount of waste of treated wood is expected over the next decades. Presently, no well-documented treatment technique is yet available for this type of waste. Alternative options concerning the disposal of treated wood are becoming more attractive to study, especially the ones ...
E P Mateus, A B Ribeiro, L Ottosen
Fungicidal activity of some organic solvents, copper carboxylates and their complexes with 2-aminoethanol
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30136
We evaluated the activity of eight organic solvents against wood - rotting fungus Trametes versicolor in order to choose the most appropriate one for rapid screening tests of some copper(II) carboxylates and their adducts with 2-aminoethanol. Their activity against the selected fungus was classified in the following order: chloroform > N,N-dimethylformamide > acetonitrile > methanol > ...
M Petric, F Pohleven
Termite resistance of pine wood treated with chromated copper arsenates
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30128
Two four-week, no-choice laboratory tests were performed with CCA-treated southern yellow pine and radiata pine against Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus. CCA retentions as low as 0.05 kg/m3 (0.03 pcf) provided protection from all but light termite attack (rating of 9 on a 10-point visual scale). Similar and consistent light attack on wafers containing retentions as high as 6....
J K Grace
Problems of fixation of CCA-preservatives in palm-wood
1985 - IRG/WP 3338
Palm-wood may be used for posts and poles where it needs proper treatment for long time use. Based on observations by W. Killmann on low CCA-fixation in palm-wood, samples of Jubaea-palm grown in a Greenhouse at Hamburg, have been treated in two different series with a 4% solution of CCA-type B. After 1-16 weeks of storage the blocks were split into sticks of 1-2 mm² and leached. In all series 50...
H Willeitner, K Brandt
Field Testing of Copper Carboxylate Preservatives
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30322
This paper details our ongoing experience with field testing of copper naphthenate and other copper carboxylate preservative systems. Results from field stake tests at an AWPA Hazard Zone 4 test site are presented. In general, copper carboxylates made with ‘synthetics’ yielded results equivalent to or only slightly lower than systems with straight nap acids or nap acids amended with syntheti...
H M Barnes, M G Sanders, T L Amburgey