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Rapid leaching test
1991 - IRG/WP 2367
An accelerated test which is suitable for measuring the extent of metal fixation in both chromium and non chromium containing preservatives is described.
J A Cornfield, M Bacon, A Lyman, C Waldie, M R Gayles


The potential for using CuO nanoparticles as a wood preservative
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30569
The potential for using nano-copper particles for wood protection was investigated using mini-agar slant and wood block tests with Gloeophyllum trabeum or Trametes versicolor. Nano-copper was more effective against G. trabeum than T. versicolor, although neither of these fungi would be considered copper tolerant. Nano-copper solutions were stable over a 17 week storage period, but precipitated when subjected to a vacuum or when wood was added to the solution. The results suggest that nano-copper has potential as a wood protectant, but much more research will be required to understand the properties of this material.
I S Weitz, K Knani, M Maoz, C Freitag, J J Morrell


Effect of Nano and Micronized Particles as Wood Preservatives for Termite Control
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30620
Subterranean termites are a major factor in the biodegradation of wood constructor products. In this study the efficacy of wood treated with micronized copper, zinc oxide and their mixture was compared to that of wood treated with soluble amine copper oxide with subterranean termites in a laboratory test. All of the formulations tested were effective in controlling wood degradation by the termites, with the copper being slight more effective than zinc and micronized copper being slightly more effective that amine copper.
M Akhtari, D Nicholas, A Rowlen, M Arefkhani


Effect of Nano and Micronized Particles as Wood Preservatives for Termite Control
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30620
Subterranean termites are a major factor in the biodegradation of wood constructor products. In this study the efficacy of wood treated with micronized copper, zinc oxide and their mixture was compared to that of wood treated with soluble amine copper oxide with subterranean termites in a laboratory test. All of the formulations tested were effective in controlling wood degradation by the termites, with the copper being slight more effective than zinc and micronized copper being slightly more effective that amine copper.
M Akhtari, D Nicholas, A Rowlen, M Arefkhani


Effect of Nano-silver and Nano-copper and Nano-zinc oxide on Paulownia wood exposed to white-rot fungus
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30635
Paulownia is known as a fast growing tree and it can be used in several applications. The present study investigated the effect of Nano-silver and Nano-copper and Nano- zinc oxide on resistance of Paulowina (Paulownia fortunei) wood against the white rot fungus (Coriolus versicolor). Wood specimens with a dry density of 0.37g/cm3 were impregnated with a 400 ppm aqueous suspension of micronized nano-silver and nano-copper with particle sizes ranging from 10 to 80 nm , in a pressure vessel at 2.5 bars for 20 minutes. Treated specimens were inoculated with the fungus and incubated for sixteen weeks at 26˚C with 65% relative humidity in accordance with the EN113 standard. After incubation the mean percentage weight losses of specimens were measured. Percentage weight loss of control samples was much higher than treated ones. Results of the analysis of variance showed that the impregnation of wood with nanosilver, nanocopper and nanozinc oxide significantly increases the decay resistance of Paulownia against this white rot fungus.
M Akhtari, M Ganjipour


Borate Redistribution in Glulam in an Above Ground Field Test
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30652
Researchers have refocused on the use of boratesin the wood protection industry in the last two decades due to their broad spectrum effectiveness against fungi and insects, and favourable environmental characteristics. This study was designed to determine borate distribution in a limited number of samples from a large field test of composites protected by a combination of coating and borate treatment by two processes.The intended application of these products was exterior components of buildings with considerable protection by design, but the test method was designed to be a much more severe exposure. A variety of structural composites had been machined into ɣ-joint test samples, then borate-treated by two methods: a surface-applied penetrating process, and a dip treatment with borate/glycol plus insertion of copper/borate rods.After application of the coating the test samples had been installed in a long-term above-ground outdoor weathering trial at FPInnovations’ Maple Ridge, British Columbia test site. After seven years of exposure, selected glulam beams of black spruce, white spruce, and Douglas-fir samples were destructively sampled and analyzed for borate retention and penetration, with results compared to unexposed material.Results showed that borateshad migrated from the surface of exposed samples to inside the wood, as deep as 50 mm, and in many samples were present in concentrations that would be sufficient to prevent fungal decay.
P I Morris, A Temiz, J Ingram


Buffered Amine Oxide Treatment Systems for Ammonical Copper Wood Preservatives
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40685
Wood is the most versatile, practical and sustainable building material in the world. In modern countries, wood is a well-managed renewable resource that has a small carbon footprint. Wood does suffer from a lack of durability against invasive organisms such as insects and fungi. Steel, aluminum and composites have emerged as viable alternative building materials. These sectors market the deficiencies of wood to better position their products. As these materials continue to take market share away from wood, the need to cost-effectively increase the durability of wood remains an always present target within the forest products industry. The use of chemical treatments to impart fungal and insect resistance into wood has been utilized for over a century. Today, many of these preservatives are delivered into the wood using the same decades-old methods and chemicals. The development of buffered amine oxides treatment systems (known commercially as TRU-CORE® Technology) for use in wood preservation has allowed significant modernization of the application and preservation process. The buffered amine oxides allow for a chemically based infusion process that is capable of delivering key wood protectants completely throughout the wood. This waterbased system imparts a minimal amount of added moisture into the wood during the process, so there is no need to dry after treatment. A short activation period is utilized to achieve full penetration. For larger wood profiles, such as decking members and railroad crossties, the use of pressure/vacuum impregnation accelerates the penetration. The Buffered Amine Oxide Treatment System is in commercial use in the United States, New Zealand and Australia; where numerous programs have been developed for residential and industrial wood products. The most modern buffered amine oxide treatment system was designed to impart ammonical copper based wood preservatives into decking profiles.
R W Clawson Jr


Effect ofNano-Copper Oxide on Decay Resistance of Pistachio Twig-Plastic Composite
2019 - IRG/WP 19-30750
The goal of our study was to investigate the decay resistance of pistachio twig-plastic composite treated with nano-copper oxide against the white rot fungus Trametes versicoloer and the brown rot fungus Coniophora puteana. For this purpose, wood–polypropylene composites (WPCs) containing different loadings of nano-copper oxide, namely 0, 1, 2 and 3 percent (W/W), were made from pistachio (Pistacia vera L) twigs using a batch method. After being subjected to five cycles of boiling/oven-drying, the WPCs, were exposed to the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor (Linneaus) Lloyed (CTB 863 A) and the brown rot fungus Coniophora puteana ( Schumacher ex fries) Karesten (BAM Ebw. 15) in a soil block decay test for three months in accordance with a modified ASTM D1413 test standard. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the WPCs exposed to decay and to study the distribution of nano-copper oxide in the composite. No clear evidence of the sever agglomeration of nano-copper oxide at a loading of 3% (W/W) was obtained using SEM. The results showed that nano-copper oxide enhanced the decay resistance of the composite against the fungi so that the weight loss (WL) due to decay decreased as the loading increased. Noticeable differences in WL due to decay were observed between the fungi for all the composites. The WLs due to decay by the brown rot fungus were higher than those by the white rot fungus. Copper oxalate crystals were detected in the composite containing 3% nano-copper exposed to C. puteana but they were seemed to have been produced in low amounts.
M R M Farahani,S Pourabdollah


Comparative study of the properties of silicate coatings with different mineral pigments (titanium dioxide, iron (III) oxide, copper (II) oxide) on the surface of wood
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40936
Silicate coatings are attractive alternatives to conventional organic-based coatings for wood protection. In this work, silicate coatings were prepared with a potassium silicate binder modified with a methyl siliconate solution, and three types of mineral pigments titanium dioxide, iron (III) oxide and copper (II) oxide. The coatings were applied on beech wood and cured under ambient conditions. The colour, surface roughness, adhesion strength, and resistance to cold liquids of the cured coatings were determined and reactions to fire of the coatings were compared using single flame source tests. The surface of wood was well masked by the coatings and the colour of the coatings was a function of the pigments. The coating layers were rough with arithmetic average roughness values Sa between 3 μm and 5 μm and maximum peak-to-valley height between 45 μm and 48 μm. The adhesion of the coatings was comparable, and sufficiently high (> 3 MPa) for application of the coatings to the surface of wood without a primer. The coatings were not considerably affected by the cold liquids. The single flame source tests showed that coatings containing titanium dioxide and copper (II) oxide reduced the charred area of the wood underneath, while coating with iron (III) oxide increased the charred area compared to the uncoated reference. A pigment such as iron (III) oxide which promotes the formation of char could produce an early layer of char at the surface of wood decreasing the spread of the fire within the wood. Further studies are planned to completely describe the fire behaviour of the coatings and extend the work to other pigments.
A M Cheumani Yona, M Petrič


Preliminary study of the fungicidal and structural variability in copper naphthenates and naphthenic acids
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30114
Copper naphthenates, an oil-borne wood preservative listed by the American Wood-Preservers' Association (AWPA), is manufactured by complexing copper(II) with naphthenic acids. Prior to AWPA listing as a wood preservative, field experiments showed that copper naphthenates generally had good stability and were active against wood-destroying organisms. Recently, however, there have been reports of some copper naphthenate-treated poles rapidly failing. One possible explanation for the varying effectiveness could be that the structure, and resulting biological activity, of the naphthenic acids used to make copper naphthenate may vary. To test this hypothesis several naphthenic acids and copper naphenates were obtained and their fungicidal activity against three wood-destroying fungi measured. In addition, the chemical structure of the naphthenic acids were examined by proton- and carbon- NMR. Different activities were observed, especially against a copper-tolerant fungus. Some apparent correlations were seen between the fungicidal activity and chemical structures for the few samples studied.
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, L L Ingram Jr, T H Fisher


Sequestration of copper ions by the extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) of two wood rotting basidiomycetes
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10533
The radial growth rate of colonies originating from either whole or ECMM-free inocula of Coriolus versicolor was investigated. The presence of ECMM allowed colonies to maintain higher growth rates than those form ECMM-free inocula up to 2 mM CuSO4 in the medium. The ECMM of C. versicolor and G. trabeum was able to reduce the diffusion of copper ions in solution. The ‘raw’ ECMM of both fungi had a greater ability to reduce the diffusion of copper ions than ECMM which had been subject to dialysis to remove soluble, low molecular weight components. The ‘insoluble’ fraction of ECMM for both species was more effective than the ‘soluble’ fraction at reducing the diffusion of copper ions. It is concluded that ECMM confers some protection to hyphae against the toxic effects of copper ions on growth in vivo and that this due to the binding of copper ions to both the polysaccharide and to low molecular weight components of the ECMM
D Vesentini, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy


Influence of different fixation and ageing procedures on the leaching behaviour of copper from selected wood preservatives in laboratory trials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20264
The paper focuses on the role of different parameters, such as fixation, sample size, wood species, and leaching in internationally standardized ageing procedures for wood preservatives from Europe, Japan and the United States. The leaching protocols used were EN 84, JIS K 1571 and AWPA E11 protocols. The wood species were Scots pine, Sugi and Southern Yellow Pine respectively. Three types of commercially important copper-based wood preservatives were used as model formulations, namely copper/copper-HDO, ammoniacal copper/quat and CCA. The most important factors determining the extent of copper leaching in the different lab trials were the sample size (volume/surface ratio) and the fixation conditions prior to leaching. On the other hand, the wood species and the leaching protocol itself were found to have only minor influence on the copper leaching rate in the test methods included in this study.
J Habicht, D Häntzschel, J Wittenzellner


International collaborative laboratory comparison of two wood preservatives against subterranean termites: Third update and first report
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10174
At the 24th annual meeting of IRG in Orlando, USA, in May 1993 an international subterranean termite laboratory bioassay to compare the various preferred termite protocols used by IRG termitologists was initiated. The author was nominated to co-ordinate this comparative laboratory evaluation of two wood preservatives, copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) and copper naphthenate (Cu-Na) against the subterranean termites used as test termites in Australia, France, Japan, Thailand, United Kingdom and the Unites States of America. Solutions of these two wood preservatives were prepared and impregnated into Pinus radiata wood blocks to obtain loading of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kg/m³ respectively. All preservative treatments were carried out at the Division of Forestry and Forest Products in Melbourne. The treated specimens were dispatched to the participating researchers who subjected these specimens to attack by their test termite species, and have now returned the specimens to Melbourne. This paper reports the amount of wood consumed and the mean mass loss (%) on both treated and untreated wood blocks by the termites in the various laboratory bioassays.
J R J French


Types of decay observed in CCA-treated pine posts in horticultural situations in New Zealand
1984 - IRG/WP 1226
The few reported failures of 11-12-year-old horticultural posts in New Zealand in 1982 were caused by brown-rot. A subsequent survey of CCA-treated posts in all the major horticultural areas has revealed decay of many posts. A microscopic examination of these posts has shown decay by brown-rot, white-rot, soft-rot and bacteria. Several types of bacterial decay have been observed.
J A Drysdale, M E Hedley


Modélisation sur maquette du rejet accidentel d'un gaz toxique et inflammable dans l'atmosphere - Emission de type "bouffée d'oxyde d'éthyléne [Water model simulation of toxic and flammable gases in the environment on industrial sites - Puff of ethylen oxide]
1990 - IRG/WP 3576
M Milhe


Electrodialytic remediation of creosote and CCA treated timber wastes
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50190
There is a growing concern about the environmental issue of impregnated timber waste management, since an increase in the amount of waste of treated wood is expected over the next decades. Presently, no well-documented treatment technique is yet available for this type of waste. Alternative options concerning the disposal of treated wood are becoming more attractive to study, especially the ones that may promote its re-use. Inside this approach, the electrodialytic process (ED) seems a promising technique for removal of preservative chemicals from treated wood waste. The method uses a direct electric current and its effects in the matrix as the “cleaning agent”, combining the electrokinetic movement (mainly due to electromigration, but also electro-osmosis and electrophoresis), with the principle of electrodialysis. This work reports results from the application of the electrodialytic process to an out-of-service Portuguese creosote and CCA-treated Pinus pinaster Ait. railway sleeper and pole. The behaviour of the process is described and the main results discussed. The average removal rate, estimated in accordance with prEN 12490, for creosote from treated timber waste was around 40 %.. For CCA treated timber waste, experimental conditions that could optimise the process efficiency (e.g. current density, time) were studied. The highest removal rates obtained until now, in our studies, were 93 % of Cu, 95 % of Cr and 99 % of As for sawdust using 2.5 % oxalic acid (w/w) as the assisting agent. For CCA treated wood waste in the form of chips, the best removal rates obtained until now were 84 % of Cu, 91 % of Cr and 97 % of As.
E P Mateus, A B Ribeiro, L Ottosen


Fungicidal activity of some organic solvents, copper carboxylates and their complexes with 2-aminoethanol
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30136
We evaluated the activity of eight organic solvents against wood - rotting fungus Trametes versicolor in order to choose the most appropriate one for rapid screening tests of some copper(II) carboxylates and their adducts with 2-aminoethanol. Their activity against the selected fungus was classified in the following order: chloroform > N,N-dimethylformamide > acetonitrile > methanol > dimethyl sulfoxide > ethanol > acetone. The non-polar white spirit did not dissolve in the growth medium and the results could not be directly compared with the results for other solvents. As an appropriate solvent for screening of the tested copper(II) carboxylates, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was chosen. Minimal inhibitory concentration against Trametes versicolor of the screened carboxylates was in the concentration range of 1x10-4 to 1x10-3 mol/l. Coordinated amine ligands slightly, and not significantly, decreased fungicidal properties of the tested carboxylates.
M Petric, F Pohleven


Termite resistance of pine wood treated with chromated copper arsenates
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30128
Two four-week, no-choice laboratory tests were performed with CCA-treated southern yellow pine and radiata pine against Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus. CCA retentions as low as 0.05 kg/m3 (0.03 pcf) provided protection from all but light termite attack (rating of 9 on a 10-point visual scale). Similar and consistent light attack on wafers containing retentions as high as 6.4 kg/m3 (0.4 pcf), coupled with complete termite mortality, demonstrates that the mode of action of CCA treatments relies upon toxicity rather than having any repellent effects against termites.
J K Grace


Problems of fixation of CCA-preservatives in palm-wood
1985 - IRG/WP 3338
Palm-wood may be used for posts and poles where it needs proper treatment for long time use. Based on observations by W. Killmann on low CCA-fixation in palm-wood, samples of Jubaea-palm grown in a Greenhouse at Hamburg, have been treated in two different series with a 4% solution of CCA-type B. After 1-16 weeks of storage the blocks were split into sticks of 1-2 mm² and leached. In all series 50% of the chromium and copper content of the individual blocks was leached independent of the time of storage, whereas simultaneously treated pinewood samples showed complete fixation after 4 weeks of storage.
H Willeitner, K Brandt


An investigation of the effects of pre-steaming on the treatment of sawn spruce timber with Celcure A, a copper-chrome-arsenic preservative
1981 - IRG/WP 3150
Difficulties in the treatment of spruce using standard vacuum/pressure techniques with both water-borne and organic solvent preservatives are well known. We have evaluated the influence of steaming on treatability with a waterborne CCA preservative.
C R Coggins


Field Testing of Copper Carboxylate Preservatives
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30322
This paper details our ongoing experience with field testing of copper naphthenate and other copper carboxylate preservative systems. Results from field stake tests at an AWPA Hazard Zone 4 test site are presented. In general, copper carboxylates made with ‘synthetics’ yielded results equivalent to or only slightly lower than systems with straight nap acids or nap acids amended with synthetic neo acid bottoms.
H M Barnes, M G Sanders, T L Amburgey


The leaching of copper, chrome and arsenate from CCA-impregnated poles stored for ten years in running water
1978 - IRG/WP 3122
There is no evidence to indicate that the chromium and copper components are leached from the outermost 5 mm of sapwood in poles impregnated with Boliden K33 and Tanalith C and stored in running water for ten years. The arsenic component, however, seems to be leached out during the first few months to an extent of about 20% of the initial amount. The leaching time is dependent on the preservative used.
F G Evans


A new concept of oxalic acid biosynthesis in physiology of copper-tolerant brown-rot fungi
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10394
Recently, a wide variety of roles of oxalic acid (oxalate) in wood decay systems have been receiving much attention. Copper tolerance of wood-rotting basidiomycetes has been believed to be due to the detoxification of copper wood preservatives by oxalate produced by these fungi. However, biochemical mechanism of oxalate biosynthesis in relation to physiology of wood-rotting fungi has not been elucidated although two oxalate-forming enzymes, oxaloacetase and glyoxylate dehydrogenase, have been studied in our laboratory. Recently, a new role of glyoxylate cycle in oxalate biosynthesis in wood- rotting fungi has been presented, and the cycle commonly occurred to varying extents among the fungi although they were grown on glucose. Enzymatic analyses showed that isocitrate was cleaved by isocitrate lyase in the glyoxylate cycle rather than oxidized by isocitrate dehydrogenase in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and the fungi were found to lack a normal TCA cycle due to the absence of - ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. It is noteworthy that glucose was efficiently converted to oxalate in a theoretical yield of about 80%, accumulating in the culture media of F. palustris. The results further indicate that acetyl-CoA derived from glucose was not completely oxidized to CO2 in TCA cycle but was mainly converted to oxalate with help of the other coupling metabolic cycles, including glyoxylate cycle. Formation of oxalate from several intermediary metabolites using cell-free extracts of F. palustris confirmed that oxalate is also the final product of the metabolic pathway in the in vitro system. Thus, it is proposed as a new concept that most of copper-tolerant brown-rot fungi may acquire the energy by oxidizing glucose to oxalate, i.e. oxalate fermentation expressed in the following equation; Glucose + 5O2 --> 2 Oxalate + 2CO2 + 4H2O.
E Munir, T Hattori, M Shimada


Copper naphthenate performance: A new way to look at old data
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30215
Although copper naphthenate has over a 50-year test history, it is still considered as a "new" preservative in the United States when it is used for utility poles. It has also been extensively used in remedial treatments for poles and has considerable retail or over-the-counter sales. The test history includes a number of different tests and a rationale for evaluating this data and comparing the performance of copper naphthenate to other common pole preservatives is presented. Thus, the efficacy of copper naphthenate can be easily summarized.
C R McIntyre


The biostatic effect of copper on decay of fire retardant-treated mining timber
1991 - IRG/WP 1507
Blocks of Eucalyptus grandis were treated with 20kg/m³ ammonium sulphate as fire retardant and challenged with Coriolus versicolor. Replicates were soil buried. A second set of blocks was treated with retardant and copper at 6.6 kg/m³ (ie 1% w/w), and challenged similarly. After 8 weeks weight losses produced by Coriolus versicolor in untreated, retardant treated and copper supplemented blocks were 45, 25, and 0% respectively, and corresponding weight losses in soil were 27, 25 and 10%. These results, and electronmicroscopical observations, showed conclusively that Eucalyptus grandis treated with fire retardant was rapidly decayed, and that copper inhibited such decay.
G D Shelver, E A Shelver, A A W Baecker


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