Your search resulted in 597 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Bioassays for rapid assessment of heavy metal toxicity in seawater
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50112
In evaluating the effect of CCA leachate on the establishment of fouling communities on wood exposed in the sea, three organisms were assessed as biological indicators of heavy metal toxicity. These were two macroalgae, Fucus serratus and Undaria pinnatifida. and the motile protist thraustochytrid, Schizochytrium aggregatum. The choice of these organisms for the tests carried out was based on the ...
C J Brown, R L Fletcher, R A Eaton
Assessment of the toxicity of some copper-, zinc- and boron-based wood preservatives to the cellar fungus Coniophora cerebella Schröet
1974 - IRG/WP 242
This article reports the use of a method based on the determination of the probability of the protection of timber against destruction by fungi. By converting the probability values to probit values and plotting them as a function of the amount of preservative retained in the timber, curves of the toxic effect are obtained, enabling any timber protection probability to be assessed....
V N Sozonova, D A Belenkov
Copper linoleate: A new low toxcity wide spectrum, heavy duty wood preservative
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30082
Copper linoleate, a "fixed" copper soap has been developed and evaluated in South Africa over a 30-year period. The initial product, an organic solvent based preservative has been tested in pine poles against termites and fungi. Results indiate that the product has performed well against existing heavy duty wood preservatives such as CCA and creosote in long term field trials (30 years). The paper...
D Conradie, P Turner, W E Conradie, A J Pendlebury, T Pizzi
Influence of acidification on decay processes of CCB treated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10514
The phenomenon of copper tolerance by brown rot fungal strains has been known for a long period but the complete mechanism of copper tolerance by these fungi is not understood yet. Copper tolerance has previously been linked to oxalic acid excreted by copper tolerant brown rot fungal strains. This acid reacts with copper in the wood to form an insoluble and therefore less toxic copper oxalate. The...
M Humar, S A Amartey, M Šentjurc, F Pohleven
On the use of probit analysis for assessing the toxicity of wood preservatives
1974 - IRG/WP 244
To elucidate the general character of the action of the toxic material on the fungus, it is sufficient to carry out preservative tests using the previously described procedure, but in doing so, it is necessary somewhat to change the number of specimens and their arrangement in jars. Five concentrations of toxic material are tested simultaneously. For the testing of one preservative ten jars should...
D A Belenkov
Progress report on "Studies on the effect of salinity on the growth and mortality of teredinids"
1976 - IRG/WP 418
An open flow aquarium was constructed at Forest Products Research Centre in 1972 in order to study the effect of salinity on the growth and mortality of teredinids. To determine the reliability of results obtained during salinity experiments, the growth rate of teredinids in the aquarium were compared with the growth rate of the same species living under natural conditions in the harbour in 1973. ...
S M Rayner
The influence of cement and calcium compounds on the performance of CCA preservatives
1983 - IRG/WP 3221
The influence of cement and calcium compounds on the durability of untreated and CCA treated wood is considered. Calcium compounds were found to reduce the toxicity of a CCA preservative to a soft rot fungus at copper to calcium ratios of 1:1 and 1:10 using a cellulose filter paper technique. Further studies are outlined and some possible mechanisms by which cement and calcium compounds may affect...
R J Murphy
Laboratory Studies on Copper Availability in Wood Treated with Soluble Amine Copper and Micronized Copper Systems
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30489
A laboratory method has been employed to investigate the level of soluble copper in wood treated with various copper-based preservative systems, such as micronized copper (particulate copper) and amine copper solutions. This report describes the methodology and preliminary results on determination of the soluble copper in the treating solutions and the treated wood by these systems, as well as th...
L Jin, P Walcheski, A Preston
Laboratory study of toxicity or tolerance of CCA preservative and heavy metal constituents copper, chromium and arsenic to Malaysian tropical fungi
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30579
CCA preservative and its constituent heavy metal tolerance and toxicity to 3 Malaysian isolates Phialophora fastigiata (soft rot fungus), Paecilomyces variotii (mould fungus) and an unidentified white rot Basidiomycete, was investigated by the modified ‘Strange-Smith’ agar-well-plate technique with 1.6% CCA concentration and the malt-agar-plate bioassay technique with a range of CCA and consti...
A H H Wong, T Mark Venås, N Morsing, C C L Tan, P K F Chong
Effect of damage to polyurea coatings on metal losses from ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate treated Douglas-fir pile sections
2019 - IRG/WP 19-40867
Metal-based preservatives remain the most widely used treatments for protecting wood in soil or water contact. While these treatments are highly effective, one drawback is a tendency for small amounts of metal to migrate into the surrounding environment. The greatest risk in this regard is copper because many organisms are highly sensitive to this metal. While post treatment practices can reduce ...
M J Konkler, J J Morrell
Preliminary study of the fungicidal and structural variability in copper naphthenates and naphthenic acids
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30114
Copper naphthenates, an oil-borne wood preservative listed by the American Wood-Preservers' Association (AWPA), is manufactured by complexing copper(II) with naphthenic acids. Prior to AWPA listing as a wood preservative, field experiments showed that copper naphthenates generally had good stability and were active against wood-destroying organisms. Recently, however, there have been reports ...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, L L Ingram Jr, T H Fisher
Sequestration of copper ions by the extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) of two wood rotting basidiomycetes
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10533
The radial growth rate of colonies originating from either whole or ECMM-free inocula of Coriolus versicolor was investigated. The presence of ECMM allowed colonies to maintain higher growth rates than those form ECMM-free inocula up to 2 mM CuSO4 in the medium. The ECMM of C. versicolor and G. trabeum was able to reduce the diffusion of copper ions in solution. The ‘raw’ ECMM of both fungi ha...
D Vesentini, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy
A suggested method to test the toxicity of wood preservatives towards the house longhorn beetle
1977 - IRG/WP 275
This method was developed in the Institute for Wood Technology in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia and is used to get quick information on the toxicity of wood preservatives against house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus). The method can be used for superficially treated or deeply impregnated wood blocks, and by using small or normal size test material it can be used as a laboratory or field test, and also...
Influence of different fixation and ageing procedures on the leaching behaviour of copper from selected wood preservatives in laboratory trials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20264
The paper focuses on the role of different parameters, such as fixation, sample size, wood species, and leaching in internationally standardized ageing procedures for wood preservatives from Europe, Japan and the United States. The leaching protocols used were EN 84, JIS K 1571 and AWPA E11 protocols. The wood species were Scots pine, Sugi and Southern Yellow Pine respectively. Three types of com...
J Habicht, D Häntzschel, J Wittenzellner
Types of decay observed in CCA-treated pine posts in horticultural situations in New Zealand
1984 - IRG/WP 1226
The few reported failures of 11-12-year-old horticultural posts in New Zealand in 1982 were caused by brown-rot. A subsequent survey of CCA-treated posts in all the major horticultural areas has revealed decay of many posts. A microscopic examination of these posts has shown decay by brown-rot, white-rot, soft-rot and bacteria. Several types of bacterial decay have been observed....
J A Drysdale, M E Hedley
Di-sodium fluorophosphate, a new fluorine containing, water-borne wood preservative
1986 - IRG/WP 3373
The physical, chemical properties of Di-sodiumfluorophosphate (Na2PO3F) are compared with those of a trade-mark SF-salt. The opposition of biological activity and toxicological data showed that Di-sodiumfluorophosphate may be a suitable alternative to SF-salts ( based on MgSiF6)....
D Seepe, W Metzner
An investigation of the effects of pre-steaming on the treatment of sawn spruce timber with Celcure A, a copper-chrome-arsenic preservative
1981 - IRG/WP 3150
Difficulties in the treatment of spruce using standard vacuum/pressure techniques with both water-borne and organic solvent preservatives are well known. We have evaluated the influence of steaming on treatability with a waterborne CCA preservative....
C R Coggins
International collaborative laboratory comparison of two wood preservatives against subterranean termites: Third update and first report
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10174
At the 24th annual meeting of IRG in Orlando, USA, in May 1993 an international subterranean termite laboratory bioassay to compare the various preferred termite protocols used by IRG termitologists was initiated. The author was nominated to co-ordinate this comparative laboratory evaluation of two wood preservatives, copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) and copper naphthenate (Cu-Na) against the subterran...
J R J French
Electrodialytic remediation of creosote and CCA treated timber wastes
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50190
There is a growing concern about the environmental issue of impregnated timber waste management, since an increase in the amount of waste of treated wood is expected over the next decades. Presently, no well-documented treatment technique is yet available for this type of waste. Alternative options concerning the disposal of treated wood are becoming more attractive to study, especially the ones ...
E P Mateus, A B Ribeiro, L Ottosen
Fungicidal activity of some organic solvents, copper carboxylates and their complexes with 2-aminoethanol
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30136
We evaluated the activity of eight organic solvents against wood - rotting fungus Trametes versicolor in order to choose the most appropriate one for rapid screening tests of some copper(II) carboxylates and their adducts with 2-aminoethanol. Their activity against the selected fungus was classified in the following order: chloroform > N,N-dimethylformamide > acetonitrile > methanol > ...
M Petric, F Pohleven
Field Testing of Copper Carboxylate Preservatives
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30322
This paper details our ongoing experience with field testing of copper naphthenate and other copper carboxylate preservative systems. Results from field stake tests at an AWPA Hazard Zone 4 test site are presented. In general, copper carboxylates made with ‘synthetics’ yielded results equivalent to or only slightly lower than systems with straight nap acids or nap acids amended with syntheti...
H M Barnes, M G Sanders, T L Amburgey
The leaching of copper, chrome and arsenate from CCA-impregnated poles stored for ten years in running water
1978 - IRG/WP 3122
There is no evidence to indicate that the chromium and copper components are leached from the outermost 5 mm of sapwood in poles impregnated with Boliden K33 and Tanalith C and stored in running water for ten years. The arsenic component, however, seems to be leached out during the first few months to an extent of about 20% of the initial amount. The leaching time is dependent on the preservative ...
F G Evans
Recent soft-rot research in softwoods and hardwoods
1980 - IRG/WP 1108
The purpose of this paper is to describe briefly the current status of our research on soft-rot fungi. The work to be discussed is still in progress and any results described must be regarded as provisional....
J A Butcher
Eco-tax - A new threat for wood preservation? The Belgian experience
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-32
At the end of January 1993, a bill was put for Belgian Parliament related to the introduction called "Eco-taxes" on a series of products, such as packaging for drinks (especially on PVC-bottles), non-returnable articles (shavers, small cameras), batteries, pesticides for non-agricultural use and paper....
G Van Steertegem, F De Jaeger
Termite resistance of pine wood treated with chromated copper arsenates
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30128
Two four-week, no-choice laboratory tests were performed with CCA-treated southern yellow pine and radiata pine against Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus. CCA retentions as low as 0.05 kg/m3 (0.03 pcf) provided protection from all but light termite attack (rating of 9 on a 10-point visual scale). Similar and consistent light attack on wafers containing retentions as high as 6....
J K Grace