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Biodeterioration of cultural monuments in the Republic of Macedonia
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10640
Research on the biodeterioration of the cultural heritage in the Republic of Macedonia was conducted from 2004 to 2006, one month per year. The expertise was focused on the biodeterioration caused by wood-inhabiting fungi and moulds. A total of 38 cultural monuments, including 37 monasteries and churches and one fortress, were inspected in the areas of the towns of Skopje, Ohrid, Demir Hisar, Deba...
I Irbe, M Karadelev, I Andersone, B Andersons


Mechanical strength of wood from the Vasa shipwreck
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20381
Samples from three ancient ship wrecks (Vasa, Elefanten, and Gröne Jägaren) and recent oak samples as reference were examined with regard to mechanical strength using the high-energy multiple impact (HEMI) - test method, which delivers the resistance to impact milling (RIM) of a material. Adoption and optimisation of the test method for the particular sample size of the wooden drilling cores was...
A O Rapp, C Brischke, C R Welzbacher, T Nilsson, C Björdal


Effects of cold treatment on wood destroying fungi important in cultural heritage
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10706
The dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen:Fr.) Schroeter is notorious in building environments for its vitality, destructive potential, and the huge costs associated with remediation of damage caused to wood of cultural heritage. Due to the potentially adverse of effects of chemical treatment methods such as have been attempted in the past, more benign physical methods of treatment, e.g. heat t...
M Lüdicke, W Unger, G Binker


Qualitative - Quantitative Analysis of Wood-Inhabiting Fungi in External Wooden Structures of the Latvian Cultural Heritage
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10728
The frequency and diversity of wood inhabiting fungi in the exterior wood were established in the Araishi lake fortress, the Lielvarde wooden castle, the Latvian Ethnographic Open-Air Museum, Riga, and twelve wooden heritage objects in the Eastern part of Latvia (Latgale). The inspected wooden structures of the external woodwork included windows, stairs, walls, floorings, roofs, fences, and benche...
I Irbe, M Karadelev, B Andersons


Impact of climate change on wood deterioration - Challenges and solutions for cultural heritage
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20441
Deterioration of wood in cultural assets follows the same physiological mechanisms as in modern structures. Therefore rules and data for prediction of service life derived from old wooden structures can be used to model the service life of recent wooden structures and vice versa. The latter is done in this paper: From experimental test set ups in the field spread over Europe, climatic data, wood t...
C Brischke, A O Rapp, M Hasan, R Despot


Ecological methods and products for wood protection used for restoration and conservation of built heritage cultural assets to increase natural durability and duration of exposure in open air museums
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40506
Wood is a perishable material, hygroscopic and fuel, which cause attention to selecting the wood species that is going to be exhibited in relation to humidity and soil. With variable depending on its humidity and moisture from the atmosphere or soil, wood is a good living environment for fungi and insects, but suffer biodegradation processes and dimensional changes. Observations over time on wood ...
M Pruna, D Purice, D Dumitru Copacean


Study on Biological Distribution to Conserve the Tripitaka Koreana woodblocks in Haeinsa Temple
2015 - IRG/WP 15-10844
Tripitaka Koreana is the Wood-carved Buddhist scriptures which were made in 13th century. And Janggyeong Panjeon that is depository for the Tripitaka Koreana was built in 15th century. In recent days, biological damage becomes a serious problem to wooden cultural heritage including historical wooden buildings with global warming. In this study, termite monitoring on whole Haein-sa temple area and ...
Si Hyun Kim, Hyun Ju Lee, Yong Jae Chung


The whitening cause of Korean wooden heritage by flame retardant treatment
2015 - IRG/WP 15-20560
Korean wooden heritage used to treat by flame retardants in order to protect fire. There are 2 types flame retardant using for wooden heritage. These flame retardants treatment are basic measure that apply to wooden heritage along with other fire protection. The flame retardants cause white stains by reacting with Korean traditional wood painting (Dancheong) and increase wood humidity. The Korean ...
Jin Qyu Kim, Gyu-Seong Han, Yong Jae Chung, Hwa Soo Lee, Dong Won Son


Study on the Effects of Flame Retardant in Dancheong for Korea Wooden Cultural Heritage
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40692
This study identifies the effect of the agent depending on environment change and conducted basic study to prepare criteria for stable application. Dancheong sample, which is similar to wooden cultural heritage, was manufactured to study the effect of the agent on dancheong. Regular observation on the samples located in inland and shoreline area in the country detected visible phenomena. Whitening...
Hwa Soo Lee, So Jung Lee, Gyu Seong Han, Yong Jae Chung


Cultural heritage – research into innovative solutions and methods for historic wood conservation
2016 - IRG/WP 16-10874
Nowadays, interdisciplinary knowledge, tools and techniques are increasingly used to protect and conserve monuments representing our cultural heritage. This is of great importance especially in case of conservation and restoration of wooden historic artefacts which, as a result of physical, chemical and biological corrosion, have lost their technical, aesthetic and decorative properties. If those ...
M Broda, B Mazela


Application of diverse hyperspectral imaging systems for evaluation of heritage objects
2020 - IRG/WP 20-10971
Advanced imaging techniques are able to non-invasively characterize, monitor and evaluate the impact of conservation treatments on cultural heritage (CH) objects. In this specific field, hyperspectral imaging (HI) allows non-destructive characterization of materials by identifying and characterizing colouring agents, binders and protective coatings as constituents of an object’s original constru...
J Sandak, A Sandak, L Legan, K Retko, M Kavčič, J Kosel, F Poohphajai, R Herrera Diaz, V Ponnuchamy, N Sajinčič, Č Tavzes, P Ropret


DuraSoft Project: a multidisciplinary approach for softwood protection
2021 - IRG/WP 21-50367
Over the course of millennia, fishing and agro-pastoral activities have produced unique housing types in the Italian lagoons and in the Slovenian highlands where the use of wood is predominant. They are associated with wooden service infrastructures such as piers, moorings, piling and fences. However, the existence of these structures and the associated cultural heritage are subject to constant ...
I Guarneri, V Moschino, N Nesto, T Marceta, M Sigovini, E Borella di Torre, L Dametto, S Pasqual, M Humar, B Lesar, T Cibic, V Natali, E di Poi, F Cerino, D Formasaro, M Kralj, F Relitti, C Balestra, M Celussi, A Franzo, A Volpi Ghirardini, M Picone, G G Distefano, M Russo, D Marchetto, R Rakar, I Trobec, D Marinic, G Rep, N Thaler, T Galvan, R Lazzarini, F Gombac, D Tagliapietra


Introduction to the project ‘Deterioration and decay of wooden cultural heritage in Arctic and Alpine environments’ (ArcticAlpineDecay)
2022 - IRG/WP 22-10997
The Arctic is already affected by climate change, and this is expected to accelerate over the coming decades. Alpine regions in Norway are projected to face similar challenges. Current knowledge on Norwegian wooden cultural heritage in Arctic and Alpine regions is scattered and contains significant knowledge gaps. Historically, - scientists, sectorial governance, tourist trade and commerce have ma...
G Alfredsen, L Ross, A W Hegnes, M S Austigard, J Mattsson, N B Pedersen, A Sinitsyn, V V Martens, A-C Flyen


A new approach on conservation of wooden heritage
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40291
Biodeterioration of wooden art objects has to be treated in a more delicate manner than biodeterioration of wood. Any treatment applied to the art object should not alter the visual, structural or scientific integrity of the object. These requirements therefore restrict the use of biocides and some alternative treatment procedures like high and low temperatures and radiation. Fortunately, an al...
R J Koestler, C Tavzes, F Pohleven


Conservation of wooden cultural property
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30038
A survey of the conservation of wooden archtitectual monuments, art objects and archaeological finds is presented. Each of the three areas has typical conservation problems which reqire the use of selected wood preservatives and consolidation agents. Furthermore specific protection and consolidation methods are necessary. A precise damage diagnosis with non-destructive testing methods is the first...
A Unger, W Unger


Surface Barriers for Protection of Culture and Heritage Wooden Objects from Insect Attack
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40286
Anoxic treatment is an environment friendly procedure for eradication of wood boring insects in wooden objects of cultural and historical heritage. However, after the anoxic treatment, wooden antiques remain susceptible to further insect attacks. Possible protection against insects could be provided by the so-called post-repression protective barriers. Potential coating materials for such barriers...
M Petric, M Pavlic, B Kricej, M Humar, F Pohleven


Surface Barriers for Protection of Culture and Heritage Wooden Objects from Insect Attack
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20286
Anoxic treatment is an environment friendly procedure for eradication of wood boring insects in wooden objects of cultural and historical heritage. However, after the anoxic treatment, wooden antiques remain susceptible to further insect attacks. Possible protection against insects could be provided by the so-called post-repression protective barriers. Potential coating materials for such barriers...
M Petric, M Pavlic, B Kricej, M Humar, F Pohleven


Some observations on the damage to timbers and wooden articles in cultural properties by insects in Italy
1981 - IRG/WP 1135
The damage to cultural properties by insects, especially of wooden material, is a serious problem in Italy. We have carried out a preliminary investigation concerning the most widely distributed and dangerous insects damaging timbers and wooden articles in cultural properties. Up to now the investigation has been carried out in Toscana, Lazio and Emilia Romagna and has concerned some collections o...
A Gambetta


On the effectiveness of fumigants against wood-destroying insects and fungi in wooden cultural property
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10030
Based on a survey of the history of the use of fumigants the actual agents are mentioned in relation to their biogenic effect on wood-destroying insects and fungi as well as their corrosive behavior on cultural property. Furthermore the conditions for the use of reactive fumigants in buildings are discussed. Trials to control wood-destroying insects and fungi by nitrogen and bromomethane are the m...
W Unger, A Unger


The wood-attacking insects in wooden houses of an old open air museum in southern Finland
1989 - IRG/WP 1409
Harmful insects of wood in a open-air museum were investigated in 1985-1988 by order of the National Board of Antiquities and Historical Monuments of Finland in nine old log houses. Many thousands of insects and altogether 1073 anobiids (Coleoptera, Anobidae) were obtained by window and light traps. The most common Anobiidae-species were Hadrobregmus confusus (Kraatz) 60.3%, Hadrobregmus pertinax ...
H Viitanen, M Pulkkinen


Surface Barriers for Protection of Culture and Heritage Wooden Objects from Insect Attack
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40286
Anoxic treatment is an environment friendly procedure for eradication of wood boring insects in wooden objects of cultural and historical heritage. However, after the anoxic treatment, wooden antiques remain susceptible to further insect attacks. Possible protection against insects could be provided by the so-called post-repression protective barriers. Potential coating materials for such barriers...
M Petric, M Pavlic, B Kricej, M Humar, F Pohleven


Laser stain removal of fungus-induced stains on paper-based cultural relics
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40389
Laser techniques has been developed and applied in commercial use for 40 years, but it has not been used successfully to remove stains from paper-based cultural relics . The purpose of this study was to investigate the paper cleaning by using a technique of Nd-YAG laser. Artificial stained papers were inoculated with fungi and then were treated at different laser cleaning parameters, in order to f...
Tsang-Chyi Shiah, Han Chien Lin


The amazing wooden churches from Northern Romania - learning from the past, restoring for the future, preserving the present valuable heritage of forgotten wood building tradition
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10683
The beauty and the uniqueness of the north-western region of Romania called “Maramureş” are well known in Europe. Surrounded by mountains, the region remained to some extend isolated from modern influences, preserving the local village architecture and craftsman traditions learnt and passed on from generation to generation. Local folklore and past heritage sets you back centuries ago when...
R Craciun, R Möller


Drywood termites in the Azores: Problems and tentative solutions
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10698
The detection in 2002 of drywood termites in the islands of Azores has became an urgent issue to be coped with given the fast degradation that structural elements can show after a short period of installation of a colony. A recent study indicates drywood termite presence in about half of the buildings of the historic centre of Angra do Heroísmo (a World Heritage site) in Terceira Island and timbe...
L Nunes, C Amaral, S Duarte, M Gaju


Diagnosis of failures in wood beams from historical house in Banská Štiavnica – Relations between ultrasonic measurements and bending properties
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20437
Various degrees of rot and other damages in ceiling beams with dimensions of 6500-8800 x 160-200 x 240-310 mm (length x height x width) situated in one historical bourgeois house in the UNESCO town Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia were determined visually and by the PUNDIT-plus ultrasonic device. Subsequently, for seventeen of the most bio-damaged fir (Abies alba Mill.) beams chosen for exchange were ...
L Reinprecht, M Pánek


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